fabricdictionary.com - Home
All about fabrics and textiles
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
  

Search results for "yarn"

abraded yarn

A two-ply combination yarn. One is an abraded ply, the other is filament viscose rayon.

blended yarn

A strand of fibers produced from two or more constituent fibers that have been thoroughly mixed (blended) before spinning.

boucle yarn

Boucle yarn is a rough, quite thick and slubby linen yarn that is characterized by tight loops projecting from the body of the yarn with regular intervals. It is a novelty yarn often mixed with yarns of other fibers for textural interest. Boucle yarn is very popular because there are many varieties and weights.

bright yarns

Bright yarns are high luster yarns made of rayon or acetate fibers.

count of yarn

Size of yarn as distinguished by its weight and fineness. This term is applied to cotton, wool, and spun yarns.

curled yarn

A textured yarn made by a heated blade that curls the filaments.

double yarn and twist yarn

A two-ply yarn made from single yarns of different colors. A mottled effect is produced.

high-bulk yarn

Although the term high-bulk yarn is definitely a technical one, it is used occasionally in advertising. Highbulk yarns are processed so that, through a form of shrinkage in the processing, they are thicker and bulkier than they would be otherwise.

line yarn

Well-hackled, even linen yarn made of long fibers.

loop yarn

The slack-twisted strand is twisted to form loops or curls. This strand is held in place by one or two binder yarns.

modified yarns

See modified fibers.

multifilament yarn

A yarn made of two or more filaments (long threads) of man-made fibers (monofilaments) that are joined together, usually by twistingally by twisting.

seed yarn

A very small nub often made of dyed man-made fibers applied to a dyed or natural-base yarn.

sheath-core yarn

A bulky yarn of synthetic fibers consisting of a core of fine denier fibers with considerable shrinkage and a cover or wrapping of coarse denier relaxed fibers.

single yarn

One strand of fibers or filaments grouped or twisted together. See singles.

splash yarn

An elongated nub yarn that has been tightly twisted around a base yarn.

spun fiber yarn

(1) A yarn twisted by spinning. (2) Yarn made from staple lengths of man-made fibers instead of the long fiIaments in which man-made fibers are formed. To accomplish this, long filament fibers are chopped into staple lengths and spun to imitate natural fiber yarns. See filament arrd staple.

stretch yarn

A textured yarn that has good stretch and recovery. It can also refer to yarns made of fibers that have elastic properties or to those yarns whose elastic properties are obtained by alterations of the basic fiber.

thick and thin yarn

Produced by varying the diameters of man-made fibers.

unbalanced yarns

Yarns in which there is sufficient twist to set up a torque effect, so that the yarn will untwist and retwist in the opposite direction.

warp yarns

Yarns that run parallel to the selvage or long dimension of a fabric.

woolen yarn

Woolen yarn is a type of carded yarn made of relatively short fibers of varying lengths.

yarn

A generic term for a continuous strand spun from a group of natural or synthetic staple fibers (short lengths of fibers), filaments (long lengths), or other materials twisted or laid together for use in weaving, knitting, or some other method of intertwining to form textile fabrics.

yarn dyed

Yarn dyed fabrics are dyed before the finishing of the fabric. Yarn dyed fabrics are considered more colorfast than piece dyed or printed fabrics.

zephyr yarn

A fine, soft yarn with a low twist popular for hand knitting. Originally made from wool, zephyr is usually made of acrylic and often has other fibers such as silk added to it.

abraded yarn

A two-ply combination yarn. One is an abraded ply, the other is filament viscose rayon.

antique taffeta

As it was originally a pure silk fabric nowadays normally contains a mixture of polyester and silk (predominantly dupion silk). Often yarn-dyed with two colors to give it an iridescent effect. Connected to: shantung

batiste

A fabric named for Jean Baptiste, a French linen weaver. (1) In cotton, a sheer, fine muslin, woven of combed yarns and given a mercerized finish. It is used for blouses, summer shirts, dresses, lingerie, infants dresses, bonnets, and handkerchiefs. (2) A rayon, polyester, or cotton-blend fabric with the same characteristics. (3) A smooth, fine wool fabric that is lighter than challis, and similar to fine nuns veiling. It is used for dresses and negligees. (4) A sheer silk fabric either plain or figured, similar to silk mull. It is often called batiste de soie and is made into summer dresses.

bias

Bias is a fabric cut diagonally across the warp and filling yarns. A true bias is cut on a 45 angle from the lower left to the upper right of a cloth.

boucle

Boucle is a fabric woven with boucle yarns with looped appearance on the surface. The fabric has a abrasive surface. Boucle fabrics are woven or knitted by both, hand and machine.

boucle yarn

Boucle yarn is a rough, quite thick and slubby linen yarn that is characterized by tight loops projecting from the body of the yarn with regular intervals. It is a novelty yarn often mixed with yarns of other fibers for textural interest. Boucle yarn is very popular because there are many varieties and weights.

bright yarns

Bright yarns are high luster yarns made of rayon or acetate fibers.

broadcloth

Although the term broadcloth originally meant any fabric made on a loom of a certain width, it now means a fine, tightly woven fabric with a faint rib. Originally, it was made of mercerized cotton, but today the term is used to describe several dissimilar fabrics made with different fibers, weaves, and finishes. (1) Originally, a silk shirting fabric so named because it was woven in widths exceeding the usual twenty-nine inches. (2) A plainweave, tightly woven, high-count cotton fabric, with fillingwise rib finer than poplin. Best grades are made of combed pima or Egyptian cotton, usually with high thread counts (136x60 or 144x76). The fabrics are usually mercerized, sanforized, and given a soft lustrous finish, and are used for womens blouses, tailored summer dresses, and mens shirts. (3) A closely woven, medium-weight wool cloth with a smooth nap, velvety feel, and lustrous appearance. Wool broadcloth can be made with a two-up-and-two-down twill weave or plain weave. In setting up a loom to make the fabric, the loom is threaded wide to allow for a large amount of shrinkage during the filling process. The fabric takes its name from this wide threading. High-quality wool broadcloth is fine enough for garments that are closely molded to the figure or draped. Its high-luster finish makes it an elegant cloth. Wool broadcloth is ten to sixteen ounces per yard and is now being made in chiffon weights. (4) A fabric made from silk or man-made filament fiber yarns and woven in a plain weave with a fine crosswise rib obtained by using a heavier filling than warp yarn.

brocade

Brocade is used as a drapery or upholstery fabric. It has a Jacquard weave with an allover interwoven design, normally figures or flowers. The name is derived from the French word meaning to ornament. The brocade pattern is accentuated with varying surfaces or colors and often has gold, silver, or other metallic threads running through it. Although true brocades still are produced, nowadays the term is also used for knits with a similar luxurious look. A brocade rug, in carpeting, is one in which different yarns of the same color create a subtle pattern.

buckram

A stiff, open-weave fabric made from coarse yarns and used primarily for stiffening in interfacings and hat shaping. Originally, buckram was sized with starch that was not permanent, but today most buckrams have a permanent stiff finish.

bulking

A yarn finishing process in which the yarn is made thicker or bulkier by heat setting crimp into the filaments or by looping individual fibers with an air jet. Bulking gives yarn and fabrics a less shiny, fluffier appearance. Bulking is often used in making sweater yarns.

candlewick

Candlewick is a thick and mellow yarn used to form tufts by pulling it through a base fabric and then cutting it. The term ""candlewick"" is also used for the fabric made by this method.

chambray

(1) A plain-woven fabric with an almost square count (80x76), a colored warp, and a white filling, that gives a mottled, colored surface. The fabric is named for Cambrai, France, where it was first made for sunbonnets. Although chambray is traditionally woven, the look itself is so popular it is imitated in knitting. It is similar in appearance to denim but much lighter in weight. It is used for womens and childrens summer dresses and mens shirts. (2) A cotton print cloth made of yarn-dyed yarns that can also be woven in patterns and woven in stripes. (3) A similar but carded-yarn fabric used for work clothes and childrens play clothes. See denim.

changeable fabric

Fabric woven with yarns of one color in the warp and another color in the filling so that the fabric seems to change color as the light strikes it. Other names for this type of fabric are iridescent and shot.

chenille

Chenille is a fabric consisting of wool, cotton, silk or artifical fibers. It is woven from blurry yarns or tufts. Usually it is a mix from chenille and normal textile yarns. While chenille is the filling, the other yarn is the warp. Chenille is a pile yarn originally made by weaving a pile fabric and subsequently cutting it into strips. Its main use is for draperies and bedspreads.

chiffon

Chiffon is an extraordinary lightweight and thin crepe fabric. Originally, chiffon was made of silk, but today also wool, rayon, nylon and other fibers are used for the production of chiffon. It is an open weave with slightly twisted yarns and can have both, a soft or stiff finish. Chiffon is often used for dresses and scarves.

chino

A twill-weave cotton originally used for slacks, sport shirts, and summer military uniforms. It is made of two-ply cotton combed yarns, vat-dyed, and is mercerized and Sanforized. Today, the name is given to any medium-weight, sturdy fabric with a slight sheen. Khaki green and military tan are common chino colors, but the fabric is also made in other colors.

cotton linters

Cotton fibers that are too short for yarn or fabric manufacturing.

count of yarn

Size of yarn as distinguished by its weight and fineness. This term is applied to cotton, wool, and spun yarns.

crepe

A lightweight fabric of silk, rayon, cotton, wool, man-made, or blended fibers, and characterized by a crinkled surface. This surface is obtained through the use of crepe yarns (yarns that have such a high twist that the yarn kinks), and by chemical treatment with caustic soda, embossing, or weaving (usually with thicker warp yarns and thinner filling yarns). Although crepe is traditionally woven, crepe yarns are now used to produce knit crepes.

crepe-backed satin

A two-faced fabric that can be used on either side. One is satin whereas the reverse, made of twisted yarns, is crepe.

crepe georgette

A sheer fabric, similar to chiffon, made with a crepe yarn that gives the fabric a crepe appearance. See chiffon and crepe

crochet

A method of making fabric in which one yarn and one needle are used to form loops into which other loops are inserted. True crochet is a handcraft. Machine-made crochets are usually knitted on raschel machines.

curled yarn

A textured yarn made by a heated blade that curls the filaments.

denier

A technical term referring to a unit of yarn number equal to the weight in grams of 9000 meters of the yarn. It is used for silk and man-made yarns in hosiery as a description of sheerness.The lower the denier number, the more sheer the stocking, panty hose, or garment. For instance, 40 denier hose are much finer and more sheer than 60 denier hose.

denim

A cotton twill weave fabric made of single hard-twisted yarns. The staple type has colored warp and white or undyed filling thread. When the fabric (and the look) became popular, the name denim was given to many other types of fabric, including cross-dyed fabrics and brushed fabrics, both knit and woven, that resemble true denim. Most jeans are made of denim and the most popular and traditional denim color is blue. Sports denim is softer and lighter in weight. It is now available in many colors, and in plaids and stripes. Woven-in stripes and plaids are popular for draperies, upholstery, and bedspreads.

double yarn and twist yarn

A two-ply yarn made from single yarns of different colors. A mottled effect is produced.

doupion

Silk that comes from the fiber formed by two silk worms who spun their cocoons together in an interlocking manner. The yarn is uneven, irregular, and larger than regular filaments. It is used to make shantung and doupioni. Also called douppioni, dupion, and dupioni.

duck

Originally, a fabric lighter in weight than canvas. Today, the terms are synonymous. A durable plain-weave, closely woven cotton, generally made of ply yarns, in a variety of weights and thread counts. It is used for uniforms, belts, awnings, tents, and sails. See canvas.

Egyptian cotton

A fine, long, staple cotton generally grown in Egypt along the Nile Delta. Egyptian cotton fibers average more than 1112 inches in length and produce a strong, lustrous yarn. See cotton.

embroidery

The term for a group of decorative, usually ornamental and nonfunctional needlework done with thread or yarn on fabric. Most machine embroidery is done by the Schiffli ma chine which can imitate many different hand embroidery stitches. Although embroidery is usually thaught of as being done in several colors, white work (white embroidery on white fabric) and black work (black embroidery on white fabric) are fairly common. Embroidery terms are tremendously variable, with different words being given to the same stitches in different countries, and even different sections of the same countries. Some of the most common embroidery stitches are beading, buttonhole stitch, chain stitch, chevron stitch, satin stitch, stem stitch, back stitch, and straight stitch.

eyelash

Term used to describe clipped yarns that lie on the surface of a fabric, giving the effect of eyelashes.

faille

A soft, slightly glossy silk, rayon, acetate, cotton, wool, or a mixture of these, in a rib weave, that has a light, flat, narrow crosswise rib or cord. It is made by using heavier yarns in the filling than in the warp, and has more ribs to the inch than bengaline. Ottoman is similar to faille but has a wider rib. Faille is considered a dressy fabric, and is used for evening clathes, tailored dresses, coats, suits, ties, handbags, shoes, and draperies. See ottoman.

fiber

The basic unit used in the fabrication of textile yarns and fabrics. Fibers are much longer than they are wide. The term at one time was limited to materials that could be spun into yarn, but now is used to include filaments that do not require spinning, such as silk and man-made fibers.

filament

Extremely long continuous fibers that can be measured in meters or yards, or in the case of man-made fibers, in kilometers or miles. Filaments do not require spinning to form yarn. Examples are rayon, nylon, acrylic, polyester, and other man-made fibers. Silk is the only natural filament

flax

Fibers of the flax plant that are spun into linen yarns and woven into linen cloth. The word linen is derived from linum, part of the scientific name for the flax plant. See linen.

floss silk

Tangled silk waste. Floss is also a twisted silk yarn used in art needlework.

garnetting

Shredding wool fabrics into a fibraus state, prior to remanufacture into woolen yarn.

gauze

A thin, sheer, open, loosely woven, plain-weave cotton fabric with widely spaced yarns, used for diapers and surgical dressings. It can also be made of wool, silk, rayon, or other man-made fibers. Some weights are stiffened for curtains, trimmings of dresses, and other decorative or apparel purposes.

georgette

A soft, sheer dull-textured silk fabric, similar to chiffon, made with a crepe yarn to give the fabric a crepe appearance. The crepy surface is obtained by alternating right-hand and left hand twist yarns in warp and filling. It is used for summer and evening dresses. See chiffon and crepe.

glass fiber

Very fine flexible fiber made from glass. It. is used extensively for curtains and draperies. Glass fiber fabrics are very strong and wash well, but care should be taken to avoid getting small splinters of the glass yarns in the hands. Glass fiber is stiff and has poor resistance to wear and abrasion. It is also fireproof. See fireproof.

glitter

The name, sometimes used in place of lame, for any fabric woven or knitted with all metallic yarns or with a combination of metallic and other fiber yarns. Today, most glitter is made from one of the nontarnishable metallic fibers, a great improvement over lame of the past that tended to darken with age.

grain

The direction in which the yarns run in weaving. The straight grain is the direction of the warp yarns.

grenadine

A tightly twisted ply yarn composed of two or three singles.

high-bulk yarn

Although the term high-bulk yarn is definitely a technical one, it is used occasionally in advertising. Highbulk yarns are processed so that, through a form of shrinkage in the processing, they are thicker and bulkier than they would be otherwise.

homespun

Originally, fabrics made from yarns spun by hand. Today, homespun is used for fabrics that imitate this look. It is a very coarse, rough, plain-weave fabric, loosely woven with irregular, tightly twisted, and nubby, unevenly spun yarns. It is made from linen, wool, cotton, or man-made fiber, or blends in varied colors and is used for coats, suits, sportswear, draperies, upholstery, and slipcovers.

Honan

A heavy silk, pongee-type, but a finer weave, originally the product of wild silkworms of Honan, China. A fabric of the best grade of Chinese silk, it is sometimes woven with blue edges. It is now made to resemble a heavy pongee, with slub yarns in both warp and filling. Honan is manufactured from silk or from man-made fibers. It is used for womens dresses. See silk, pongee, and wild silk.

huck

A type of toweling fabric with a honeycombed surface made by using heavy filling yarns in a dobby weave. It has excellent absorbent qualities. It is woven with a pattern, most often with a dobby attachment on the loom and may have Jacquard borders. Huck is traditionally made of cotton, linen, or rayon, or a mixture of these, although today, other fibers may be used. In a mixture it is called a union fabric. Face or hand towels are made in white or colors and are used for drying dishes, glasses, and kitchen utensils. Huck is also called huckaback. Embroidery enthusiasts often use huck as a ground for their work. See dobby.

ingrain

A knitted or woven fabric made of yarns dyed before knitting or weaving.

iridescent

Fabric woven with yarns of one color in the warp and another color in the filling so that the fabric seems to change color as the light strikes it. Other names for this type of fabric are changeable and shot.

jacquard patterns

Fancy patterns knitted in articles made by a special attachment on the knitting machine. Jacquard weave A construction characterized by very intricate woven-in designs. A special Jacquard loom makes these designs by controlling each warp yarn.

knitting

The process of constructing an elastic, porous fabric by interlocking a series of loops of one or more yarns with needles. It may be done by hand or by machine. These yarns form a series of connecting loops that support one another like a chain. Almost any textile item can be and has been knitted, including rugs. A warp knit is made on a machine in which parallel yarns run lengthwise and are locked into the series of loops. Warp knits have a good deal of crosswise stretch. Wett knits are made on a machine that forms loops in a circular direction and have one continuous thread running across the fabric. The following entries are common knit terms.

crocheted lace

Lace made with a single yarn. A crochet hook is used to form loops joined to other loops to form the design.

Breton lace

Lace made on open net, usually embroidered with very heavy, often brightly colored, yarns, Breton is the area in France where the lace is said to have originated.

lame

Brocade, damask, or brocatelle fabrics in which flat metallic yarns (or with a combination of metallic and other fiber yarns) are woven or knitted in warp and filling for a luxurious effect. Today, most lame is made from one of the nontarnishable metallic fibers, a great improvement over lame of the past that tended to darken with age. Lame is also a trademark terrn for a nontarnishable metallic yarn. Glitter is sometimes used to describe this type of fabric and is used for evening dresses, blouses, and trimmings.

latex

The name for the liquid form of natural or man-made rubber. It can be formed into thread for use as an elastic yarn. Latex is also used extensively as part of the backing in the manufacture of rugs and at one time, was used extensively in corsets and brassieres. Now, however, although some latex foundation garments are still made, it has been largely replaced by spandex. Solid latex is sometimes referred to as rubber. See spandex.

leno

An open, lacy woven fabric made with a special loom attachment. In a leno weave a pair of filling yarns twist around the warp yarns in various patterns to achieve the lacy effect. A leno weave is also made by twisting adjacent warps around each other like a figure eight. The filling passes through the twisted warps. l.eno fabrics are popular for curtains and summer dresses.

letting off

Releasing warp yarns from the warp beam as the weaving operation proceeds.

line

Longest flax fibers used for fine, even linen yarns. Shortest flax fibers are called tow.

line yarn

Well-hackled, even linen yarn made of long fibers.

lisle

A hard, usually long-staple cottan ar wool yarn of defined length im two or more ply and with a minimum twist far a given count specified by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) rules for hosiery.

longdoth

A fine, soft, cotton cloth woven of softly twisted yarns. It is similar to nainsook but slightly heavier, with a duller surface. Longcloth is so called because it was one of the first fabrics to be woven in Iong rolls. lt is also a synonym for muslin sheeting af gaod quality. The fabric is used for underwear and linings. See nainsook and muslin sheeting.

loop yarn

The slack-twisted strand is twisted to form loops or curls. This strand is held in place by one or two binder yarns.

loose cover

Another term for slipcover. See slipcover.[1]The gloss, sheen, or shine of a fiber, yarn, or fabric.

luster

The gloss, sheen, or shine of a fiber, yarn, or fabric.

Macclesfield silk

Hand-woven silk or rayon fabric with small overall Jacquard patterns. Macclesfield, England, is the town of origin. Today, the name applies to small, yarn dyed, dobby designs used in mens neckties. See Spitalfields.

macrame

An ancient method of forming open fabrics by knotting string, yarn, or other threads. Macrame can be used to make anything from delicate trimmings to sturdy items such as hammocks. Recently, wall hangings of macrame have also become popular.

marl

A technical term that refers to a yarn made of different colored fibers. The word is used descriptively for fabrics to indicate randomly or uniformly colored slubs that appear on the surface giving added textural and design interest to the fabric.

matelasse

A soft double or compound fabric with a quilted appearance. One of the fabrics that, like cloque, has a blistered or quilted look to the design. Officially, the word matelasse implies the use of two different yarns that, when finished, react differently to the finishing resulting in a puckered effect in the fabric. In practice, the term matelasse is usually applied to luxury fabrics for evening wear, while a word such as cloque is used for a similar fabric made from cotton. The heavier type is used in draperies and upholstery, whereas crepe matelasse is popular in dresses, semiformal and formal suits and wraps, and trimmings.

matte

A dull surface on a fabric. Since one of the characteristics of fabrics made from man-made fibers is a shiny surface, mattefinished fabrics have become popular and matte looks for man-made fabrics are achieved in yarn processing or finishing. See finishing.

mercerization

A finish applied to cotton yarn or fabric or to a blend of cotton and other fibers to make it stronger, more absorbent, and to give the fabric additional luster and increased ability to take dye. Mercerization can be done at the yarn stage or the fabric stage. In common with several other textile processes, mercerization involves the use of caustic soda (sodium hydroxide or lye).

mesh

A term for a large class of open fabrics made by almost all methods except felting. It can be made of any fiber, mixture, or blend. Mesh fabrics are used for bags, summer sport shirts, under wear, foundation garments, and hosiery. Mesh hosiery is knitted in such a pattern that, when one yarn is snagged, the stocking will not develop a long, vertical run, but a hole instead. Mesh stockings and panty hose are believed to wear better than other constructions.

milanese

A kind of warp knitting with several sets of yarns. Characteristie is its diagonal argyle-type pattern.

mock crepe

A term for fabrics that have the appearance of crepe, but are not made from crepe yarns. See crepe.

moss crepe

Officially, moss crepe is made in a plain or dobby weave with rayon yarns that produce the moss-like effect. In practice, however, the term refers to any crepe, including polyester, considered to have a moss-like surface. See weaving.

multifilament yarn

A yarn made of two or more filaments (long threads) of man-made fibers (monofilaments) that are joined together, usually by twistingally by twisting.

rag rug

A floor covering woven with strips of twisted rags made of cotton, wool, r synthetic fabrics braided, crocheted, or bound and used as the filling on a cotton or synthetic yarn warp. Rag rugs are made by hand or machine, and with the exception of some handmade antique rags, usually are the most inexpensive rugs.

raschel

A knit made on a raschel machine, a warp knitting machine that can use bulky yarns to form designs imitating crochet or net.

raw-stock dyeing

dyeing of fibers before spinning into yarn. It is synonymous with fiber-dyed. See fiber-dyed.

reprocessed fibers

Fibers obtained from scraps and clips of woven and felted fabrics made of previously urmsed woot that have been shredded back into fiber form and then remade into new yarns. Reprocessed fibers are usually wool fibers and must be relabeled as reprocessed wool according to Federal Trade Commission standards. Reprocessed fibers are less desirable than new or virgin fibers. See virgin Fiber.

rib weave

A plain weave that forms ridges in a fabric through the way in which it is woven or by the use of thicker yarns for the filling than those used tot the warp. See weaving, filling, and warp.

romain crepe

A semisheer fabric of abraded yarns in warp and filling. It is made of rayon and acetate ar wool and is used tot street and dressy dresses.

rows to the inch

Rows of yarn tufts to the inch lengthwise.

hooked rug

A rug made by hand or machine using a hook to pull loops of yarn or fabric through a coarse backing or canvas to form a pile.

rag rug

A rug woven with strips of cotton, wool, or synthetic fabrics used as the filling on a cotton or synthetic yarn warp. Rag rugs are made by hand and machine and, with the exception of some hand-made antique rag rugs, are usually the most inexpensive rugs.

salt and pepper

A fabric made of a combination of white and black yarns. The term usually is used to describe tweed fabrics. See tweed.

sateen

A strong, lustrous, mercerized, satin-weave fabric made of cotton, blends of cotton with polyester, or spun-yarn fabrie characterized by floats running in the filling direction. Sateen Is also used to distinguish between cotton satin-weave fabrics and satin-weave fabrics made of sk or man-made fibers. It is used for linings, draperies, and comforters. See weaving and satin weave.

seed yarn

A very small nub often made of dyed man-made fibers applied to a dyed or natural-base yarn.

selvage

The long, outer, finished edge of both sides of a woven fabric that does not ravel because the filling yarns wrap around the warp yarns. It may also be called self-edge or selvedge.

shadow printing

A printing method in which only the warp yarns are printed with a design before the fabric is woven. ""fhe resulting fabric has a wavy, shadowy effect. It is also called warp printing.

shadow stripes

Faint impressions of stripes achieved by using yarns of the same color but different twists in weaving a fabric. The shadow effect comes from the way in which the light strikes the yarns of varying twists. See twist.

sharkskin

(1) A heavy weight, fairly lustrous cotton, linen, silk, or man-made fiber fabric with a sleek, hard-finished, crisp, and pebbly surface and a chalky luster. Today, it is almost always made of acetate or triacetate. Filament yarns, when used, are twisted and woven tightly in a plain-weave or basket-weave construction, depending on the effect desired. Staple fiber yarns are handled in the same manner, except for wool. Sharkskin is best known in its stark white color especially popular for tennis outfits and for permanently pleated white skirts when they are in fashion. (2) A wool fabric in twill weave, originally made of yarns of two colors.

sheath-core yarn

A bulky yarn of synthetic fibers consisting of a core of fine denier fibers with considerable shrinkage and a cover or wrapping of coarse denier relaxed fibers.

shed

The opening between warp yarns through which filling yarns are passed.

shedding

The raising and lowering of the warp ends by means of the harness and heddles to form the shed (passage) for the filling yarn to pass through from one side of the loom to the other.

shot

Another name for iridescent and changeable fabric. Fabric woven with yarns of one color in the warp and another color in the filling so that the fabric seems to change color as the light strikes it.

shuttle

The part of the weaving machine (loom) that carries the filling yarn over and under the warp yarns.

shuttleless loom

A machine that carries the filling yarns through the shed by the use of air or water jets and grippers.

pongee

A plain-weave, fairly lightweight silk fabric with a slight slub to the yarns. Today, the terms Honan and pongee are used interchangeably for fabrics with this texture, but made from man-made fabrics.

shantung

A silk similar to pongee in that it, too, is made with slubbed yarns, but in shantung the unevenness of the yarns is even greater. Shantung is one of the fabrics that originated in silk and has been imitated extensively in the man-made fibers.

silk noil

Short ends of silk fibers used in making rough, textured, spun yarns or in blends with cotton or wool.

sizing

Starch, gelatin, glue, wax, casein, or clay added to fabrics in the finishing stages to give fabric additional body, a smoother appearance, and more weight. Cotton fabrics are those most commonly treated in this manner. At one time, sizing had to be replaced after each cleaning. Today, with more advanced finishing techniques, sizing is rarely used and fabrics usually retain their initial appearance through cleaning. A few fabrics such as needlepoint canvas are still sized so that they can be handled more easily. This in no way affects their final performance. Sizing also refers to the starch that is applied to the warp yarns to help prevent abrasion during the weaving process. This sizing is usually removed from the fabric in one of the finishing steps.

skein

A coil of yarn, which, unlike a spool of thread, has no center supporting object. The term skein and hank are sometimes considered synonyms. See hank.

space dyeing

A method of dyeing yarn by dipping in dye or spotting in various places along the yarn. This causes different sections of the yarn to appear in different colors. The resulting fabric often has unusual, rainbow-like effects.

spinning

A method of drawing out and twisting together fibers to make a continuous thread or yarn. Spinning also refers to the manufacture of man-rnade fibers as they are formed by fcucing the material from which they are rnade through a spinneret. In conventional spinning, the tighter the twist, the stronger the yarn, but too tight a twist can weaken the final yarn. Crepe yarns have such an extremely high twist that the yarn actually turns back on itself (kinks), producing the characteristic crepe or corksc_rew look. Pabrics can be given shadow effects by the Lise of two yarns which have been twisted in opposite directions during spinning. This will strike each of these yarns in a different way producing this effect. See spinneret.

spinning quality

"The ease with which fibers lend themselves to yarn-manufacturing processes

splash yarn

An elongated nub yarn that has been tightly twisted around a base yarn.

spun fiber yarn

(1) A yarn twisted by spinning. (2) Yarn made from staple lengths of man-made fibers instead of the long fiIaments in which man-made fibers are formed. To accomplish this, long filament fibers are chopped into staple lengths and spun to imitate natural fiber yarns. See filament arrd staple.

spun polyester

See spun fiber yarn.

spun rayon

See spun fiber yarn.

spun silk

Yarn or fabric made from short fibers of pierced cocoons or from short ends at the outside and inside edges of the cocoons that cannot be reeled.

staple

Short lengths of fiber, measured in inches or fractions of inches, like those naturally found in cotton and wool. These short lengths must be spun to obtain a length sufficient for weaving or knitting. Silk is the only natural fiber that does not come in staple lengths, but instead in filament lengths. Man-made fibers often are cut into staple lengths for spinning to imitate natural fibers. See spinning, filament, and spun fiber yarn.

stitchery

The contemporary approach to traditional embroidery in which the same basic stitches are used, but in a freer, less restricted manner to create their own form and shapes. The yarns used in stitchery go beyond traditional wool and silk embroidery floss. Anything can be used to make the stitches from ribbon and cord to narrow strips of fabric or even fishline. Stitchery may be used to decorate clothing, home furnishings items, and for wall hangings. Sec embroidery.

stretch fibers

Rubber or man-made plastik fibers (such as spandex and anidex) that are naturally elastic or man-rnade fibers, highly twisted, heat-set, and untwisted to leave a strong crimp. Polyester has a certain degree ol natural streich and more can iue given to the yarn in the processing or in the finishing of the fabric. Occasionally, polyester woven fabrics are described as stretch fabrics. Usually, stretch implies a degree of visible give in a fiber or fabric that stretches and then returns quickly to its original shape. Stretch fabrics are sometirnes described as elastic. Sec elastic, crimp, and recovery. See also spandex and anidex.

stretch yarn

A textured yarn that has good stretch and recovery. It can also refer to yarns made of fibers that have elastic properties or to those yarns whose elastic properties are obtained by alterations of the basic fiber.

taffeta

A fine, yarn-dyed, closely woven, plain-weave, smooth on both sides, stiffened fabric with a crisp feel and a sheen on its surface. Taffeta was originally made of silk, but is also made of rayon, cotton, acetate, or other man-made fibers. lt is named for the Persian fabric "taftan". The rustle of silk taffeta is called scroop, and it may be a solid color, printed or woven so that the colors appear iridescent. A list of the most common types of taffeta follows. lt is used for dresses, blouses, ribbons, draperies, bedspreads, and curtains. See scroop.

tassel

Several strands of yarn loops joined together below the top and cut at the end. Tassels are used in rows as home furnishings trimmings and singly for such uses as zipper pulls or on the corners of pillows.

tex

A system of yarn numbering that measures the weight in grams of one kilometer of yarn.

texturalized

A method of adding texture to otherwise smooth yarns. See textured yarn.

textured

A surface woven with a nubby yarn construction. lt may be made in any liber.

thermal woven

A porous cloth so constructed that air warmed by the body is trapped between the yarns. First used in underwear, it is now used for blankets and the reverse sides of comforters.

thread

A special type of a thin, continuous length of tightly twisted ply yarn used primarily for sewing. Thread occasionally is used instead of yarn, as in the terms warp thread and filling thread.

throwing

The combining and twisting of strands of reeled silk into tightly twisted yarn.

tow

Short flax fibers, separated by hackling (combing) from the longer fibers. Also, the poorly hackled, uneven linen yarn made from these short fibers. lt may also refer to a continuous loose rope of man made filaments drawn together without twist to be cut in lengths for spun yarn.

tow linen

Fabric made of uneven, irregular yarns composed of the every short fibers.

tram silk

A low-twist, ply silk yarn formed by combining two or three single strands.

trapunto

A form of quilting in which fabric is quilted only in certain areas. The design to be quilted, a monogram for example, is first worked through two layers of fabric. Then, the back ing fabric is slit so that the yuilted areas can be padded with yarn, cord, or a filling such as fiberfill. See fiberfill.

tricot

A term originating from the French tricoter, meaning to knit. lt is a fabric made by a warp-knitting (tricot) machine, a machine in which parallel yarns run lengthwise and are locked into a series of loops. Warp knits have a good deal of crosswise stretch. See two-bar tricot.

chainette fringe

A yarn fringe designed to resemble chain. lt is used as a trimming or window shades.

cord

A heavy, round string consisting of several strands of thread or yarn twisted or braided together. See cording.

fringe

A trimming made of hanging yarns, cords, or tassels. lt may be made in loop form or with the loops cut.

moss fringe

A short and thick fringe made of fluffy of woolen or acrylic yarns.

pompon

A fluffy ball, usually made from yarn and used as a decorative accent.

tuft

A bunch of yarns or threads forced through a quilt, mattress, or upholstery to secure the stuffing. See quilt.

tufted carpet

Made by needling pile yarns into a previously woven backing of jute or cotton.

tufted fabric

"A fabric ornamented with soft, fluffy, slackly twisted ply yarns (usually cotton). Most tufts are inserted by needles into a woven fabric, such as unbleached muslin, textured cotton, and rayon plain-weave cloth. When tufts are spaced (as coin dots), a bedspread is called candlewick

tufting

A brush-like button of clipped cotton yarn that appears at regular intervals on mattresses. Also, the most common method for making rugs. Groups of yarns are forced through a backing fabric. The yarns are held in place permanently when the underside of the rug is coated, often with liquid latex.

Harris tweed

Tweed hand-woven from yarns spun by hand or machine on the islands of the Outer Hebrides off the coast of Scotland. Harris is one of these islands.

Scottish tweed

Scottish tweed is a term often used for tweed originally made in Scotland and woven with very nubby yarns, often with white warp and colored filling. Similar to Irish tweed.

twist

A technical term referring to the way in which yam is turned during the course of its manufacture. It is the number of times (turns) one inch of yarn is twisted. In carpeting, twist is a corkserew-like, uncut pile. Yarns of different colors may be twisted together to form pile loops causing a pebbly appearance. It resists footmarks and is good for high traffic areas.

two-bar (double-bar) tricot

A warp knit in which two sets of yarns are required, one knitted in one direction and the othcr in the opposite direction. A ribbed surface results. It is synonymous with doublewarp tricot knit.

unbalanced yarns

Yarns in which there is sufficient twist to set up a torque effect, so that the yarn will untwist and retwist in the opposite direction.

uneven twill weave

The filling passes under more yarns than ones it passes over.

velvet

Velvet is a fabric with a short and closely woven nap. The production of velvet varies between two methods. One uses a double-cloth construction in which two shifts of fabric are woven with long threads joining them together. After the double fabric is woven, the center threads are cut, producing two pieces of velvet. The second method of producing velvet uses wires. During the weaving the yarn is lifted over the wires to form the pile. After removing the wires the yarn is cut to form the velvet surface. While velvet was originally made of silk, today many other fibers are used to manufacure velvet (e.g. rayon or nylon).

virgin wool

A term applicable to fabrics or products that do not use wastes from preliminary processing of new wool. lt is new wool made into yarns and fabrics for the first time.

voile

A sheer, transparent, low-count, crisp or soft, lightweight, plain-weave muslin with a thready feel, made of highly twisted yarns. lt can be comprised of wool, cotton, silk, rayon, polyester, or other man-made fibers. Voile is especially popular when made of cotton or blends for summer wear and is often printed to match heavier fabrics. Voile is used for clothing, especially for blouses and summer dresses, and for curtains and similar items.

warp

The group of yarns placed first on a loom in weaving. Warp runs parallel to the selvage, forming the length of the fabric. The filling threads are interlaced over and under the warp threads in a pattern or weave. See weaving and selvage.

warp beam

A cylindrical spool at the back of the loom on which warp yarns are wound.

warp knit

A warp knit is made on a machine in which parallel yarns run lengthwise and are locked into the series of loops. It is a process that makes a more dimensionally stable fabric than weft knitting. Warp knits have a good deal of crosswise stretch. It is frequently run-resistant. Examples are tricot and Raschel.

warp printing

A printing method in which only the warp yarns are printed with a design before the fabric is woven. A hazy, grayed effect is produced. The resulting fabric has a wavy, shadowy effect. lt is also called shadow printing.

warp yarns

Yarns that run parallel to the selvage or long dimension of a fabric.

waste silk

Another name for silk noil. Short ends of silk fibers used in making rough, textured, spun yarns or in blends with cotton or wool.

wool crepe

Wool crepe is made of woolen or worsted yarns. The crepe texture is achieved by keeping the warp yarns loose.

wool rug

A wool rug is a wool floor covering made of carded yarn.

woolen

Woolen is a wool fabric made of short-staple carded yarns. Woolens normally have a blurry surface and are not shiny.

woolen yarn

Woolen yarn is a type of carded yarn made of relatively short fibers of varying lengths.

woven seersucker

Woven seersucker is a crinkly and stripy cotton fabric made by weaving some of the yarns in tighter tension than others.

yarn dyed

Yarn dyed fabrics are dyed before the finishing of the fabric. Yarn dyed fabrics are considered more colorfast than piece dyed or printed fabrics.

zephyr yarn

A fine, soft yarn with a low twist popular for hand knitting. Originally made from wool, zephyr is usually made of acrylic and often has other fibers such as silk added to it.

z-twist

Z-twist is a right-hand twisted yarn.