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basket weave

One of the most important patterns in weaving. Basket weave is made with two or more filling threads passing over and under an equal number of warp threads on alternate rows.

rib weave

A plain weave that forms ridges in a fabric through the way in which it is woven or by the use of thicker yarns for the filling than those used tot the warp. See weaving, filling, and warp.

sateen weave

Characterized by floats running filling-wise. See float.

satin weave

Characterized by a smooth surface caused by floats running warp-wise.

uneven twill weave

The filling passes under more yarns than ones it passes over.

waffle weave

Identical to honeycomb and thermal weaves. A weave resulting in fabrics with diamonds or rather geometric shapes resembling a waffle. See thermal.

basket weave

Basket weave is made with two or more filling threads passing over and under an equal number of warp threads on alternate rows.

plain weave

Plain weave, the best known and most basic form of weaving, is made by passing the filling thread over and under one warp thread in alternating rows.

satin weave

A weave that produces a very smooth surfaced fabric. It is made by passing the filling threads under several warp threads before passing over one warp thread. Satin weave is used to make sateens in which cotton filling thread goes over several cotton warps, then under one warp.

twill weave

A weave with a diagonal rib (twill line) that runs from the upper left to the lower right, or from upper right to lower left. In a twill weave, each filling thread passes over or under at least two warp threads, with the point where the filling thread goes under moving up and over at least one thread in each row. Herringbone weave is a broken twill weave which forms Vs in the weave pattern.

backed cloth

A double cloth that has two sets of fillings and one set of warps, or two sets of warps and one set of fillings. See double weave.

basket weave

One of the most important patterns in weaving. Basket weave is made with two or more filling threads passing over and under an equal number of warp threads on alternate rows.

batiste

A fabric named for Jean Baptiste, a French linen weaver. (1) In cotton, a sheer, fine muslin, woven of combed yarns and given a mercerized finish. It is used for blouses, summer shirts, dresses, lingerie, infants dresses, bonnets, and handkerchiefs. (2) A rayon, polyester, or cotton-blend fabric with the same characteristics. (3) A smooth, fine wool fabric that is lighter than challis, and similar to fine nuns veiling. It is used for dresses and negligees. (4) A sheer silk fabric either plain or figured, similar to silk mull. It is often called batiste de soie and is made into summer dresses.

blazer cloth

Fabric traditionally used for loosely fitting tailored jackets worn by men and women. The fabric was formerly made of wool with a satin weave.

broadcloth

Although the term broadcloth originally meant any fabric made on a loom of a certain width, it now means a fine, tightly woven fabric with a faint rib. Originally, it was made of mercerized cotton, but today the term is used to describe several dissimilar fabrics made with different fibers, weaves, and finishes. (1) Originally, a silk shirting fabric so named because it was woven in widths exceeding the usual twenty-nine inches. (2) A plainweave, tightly woven, high-count cotton fabric, with fillingwise rib finer than poplin. Best grades are made of combed pima or Egyptian cotton, usually with high thread counts (136x60 or 144x76). The fabrics are usually mercerized, sanforized, and given a soft lustrous finish, and are used for womens blouses, tailored summer dresses, and mens shirts. (3) A closely woven, medium-weight wool cloth with a smooth nap, velvety feel, and lustrous appearance. Wool broadcloth can be made with a two-up-and-two-down twill weave or plain weave. In setting up a loom to make the fabric, the loom is threaded wide to allow for a large amount of shrinkage during the filling process. The fabric takes its name from this wide threading. High-quality wool broadcloth is fine enough for garments that are closely molded to the figure or draped. Its high-luster finish makes it an elegant cloth. Wool broadcloth is ten to sixteen ounces per yard and is now being made in chiffon weights. (4) A fabric made from silk or man-made filament fiber yarns and woven in a plain weave with a fine crosswise rib obtained by using a heavier filling than warp yarn.

brocade

Brocade is used as a drapery or upholstery fabric. It has a Jacquard weave with an allover interwoven design, normally figures or flowers. The name is derived from the French word meaning to ornament. The brocade pattern is accentuated with varying surfaces or colors and often has gold, silver, or other metallic threads running through it. Although true brocades still are produced, nowadays the term is also used for knits with a similar luxurious look. A brocade rug, in carpeting, is one in which different yarns of the same color create a subtle pattern.

brocaded satin

A satin fabric with raised designs in Jacquard weave.

buckram

A stiff, open-weave fabric made from coarse yarns and used primarily for stiffening in interfacings and hat shaping. Originally, buckram was sized with starch that was not permanent, but today most buckrams have a permanent stiff finish.

buckskin

A fairly inexpensive leather from deer and elk skins. Also, a fabric made in a form of satin weave with a napped finish. Originally wool, the term buckskin is now applied to various synthetic fabrics with smooth surfaces, with or without the napped finish. See leather.

butcher rayon

A coarse rayon, or rayon and acetate blend, mediumweight fabric woven in a plain weave and originally intended as a substitute for butcher linen.

butchers linen

Strong, heavy, plain weave fabric, originally of linen (and originally worn by butchers), now made of any fiber.

calico

A smooth-surfaced, plain weave cloth. Today, the term is almost always applied to fabric with bright, sharply contrasting, usually small-print designs. Calico is usually woven, although calico prints may appear on knits. Calico is a traditionally popular fabric for patchwork. It is also used for dresses, sportswear, and aprons.

cambric

A closely woven, plain weave, white fabric that is finished with a slightly glossy surface. The fabric is traditionally made from cotton or linen, but can be made from any fiber. It was formerly used in underwear and handkerchiefs, but today its major uses are to reinforce book bindings and to upholster the underside of chairs and sofas. Very low count, heavily sized glazed cambric is used for costuming.

canvas

A heavy, strong, usually plain weave fabric that historically was made of flax, hemp, or cotton. Today, it is usually made of cotton, but some fabrics made of man-made fibers or blends are also called canvas. Canvas is, roughly speaking, heavier than duck or sailcloth although the three names are often used interchangeably. The unbleached fabric is used for coat fronts, lapels, and linings of mens suits. Hair canvas for interlinings is made of goats hair and wool. See duck and sailcloth.

cavalry twill

A sturdy twill-weave fabric with a pronounced diagonal cord. It is used for sportswear, uniforms, and riding habits.

chalfis

One of the softest fabrics made, it is named for the AngloIndian term shalee, meaning soft. lt is a fine, light-weight, plain-weave fabric, usually made of wool, cotton, or man-made fibers. Challis was traditionally printed with vivid floral patterns on dark grounds or with paisley designs, but now is produced in darker tones of allover prints and solid colors, in the finest quality fabrics. lt is normally used for neckties, dresses, blouses, scarves, bed jackets, and infants sacques.

Cheviot

Cheviot is a roughly textured, woolen fabric with a twill weave. The name is derived from the sheeps of the Cheviot Hills (England) of whichs wool it was originally made of.

chiffon

Chiffon is an extraordinary lightweight and thin crepe fabric. Originally, chiffon was made of silk, but today also wool, rayon, nylon and other fibers are used for the production of chiffon. It is an open weave with slightly twisted yarns and can have both, a soft or stiff finish. Chiffon is often used for dresses and scarves.

China silk

China silk is a lightweight and soft fabric. This plain-weave silk fabric is used for lingerie and soft suits. Nowadays, China silk has been replaced almost completly with lining fabrics of man-made fibers.

chino

A twill-weave cotton originally used for slacks, sport shirts, and summer military uniforms. It is made of two-ply cotton combed yarns, vat-dyed, and is mercerized and Sanforized. Today, the name is given to any medium-weight, sturdy fabric with a slight sheen. Khaki green and military tan are common chino colors, but the fabric is also made in other colors.

chintz

Any closely woven, plain-weave, glazed cotton and blends of polyestercotton fabric, often printed in bright designs, which are most often floral. It is used for draperies, slipcovers, bedspreads, upholstery, and now mens and boys shirts, and ladies and girls dresses.

cretonne

A plain-weave, carded cotton fabric, usually printed with large designs. Cretonne is unglazed, and is used for draperies, slipcovers, and other home furnishings.

damask

A glossy, heavy, firm-textured Jacquard weave fabric, similar to brocade, but lighter, with flat and reversible patterns. It is made of silk, linen, cotton, rayon or a combination of fibers in double or single damask. It is used for tablecloths, napkins, home furnishings, draperies and upholsteries, and occasionally clothing, such as afternoon and evening dresses.

denim

A cotton twill weave fabric made of single hard-twisted yarns. The staple type has colored warp and white or undyed filling thread. When the fabric (and the look) became popular, the name denim was given to many other types of fabric, including cross-dyed fabrics and brushed fabrics, both knit and woven, that resemble true denim. Most jeans are made of denim and the most popular and traditional denim color is blue. Sports denim is softer and lighter in weight. It is now available in many colors, and in plaids and stripes. Woven-in stripes and plaids are popular for draperies, upholstery, and bedspreads.

dobby

A dobby fabric is one with small geometric figures incorporated into the weave, and is made with a dobby attachment on the loom. Less elaborate than a Jacquard attachment, which also produces geometric designs, the dobby is used to produce geometric designs such as those found in pique fabrics.

Donegal tweed

Originally a thick woolen homespun fabric woven by hand by Irish peasants in County Donegal, Ireland. Today, the term is used to refer to any tweed in plain weave characterized by thick, colorful slubs woven into the fabric. See tweed.

drill

A heavy, strong, durable twilled fabric of cotton or man-made fibers, similar to denim, that has a diagonal 2x1 weave running up to the left selvage. When strength of fabric is essential, drill is suitable for slacks, uniforms, overalls, and work shirts. See twill

duck

Originally, a fabric lighter in weight than canvas. Today, the terms are synonymous. A durable plain-weave, closely woven cotton, generally made of ply yarns, in a variety of weights and thread counts. It is used for uniforms, belts, awnings, tents, and sails. See canvas.

faille

A soft, slightly glossy silk, rayon, acetate, cotton, wool, or a mixture of these, in a rib weave, that has a light, flat, narrow crosswise rib or cord. It is made by using heavier yarns in the filling than in the warp, and has more ribs to the inch than bengaline. Ottoman is similar to faille but has a wider rib. Faille is considered a dressy fabric, and is used for evening clathes, tailored dresses, coats, suits, ties, handbags, shoes, and draperies. See ottoman.

foulard

A lightweight, soft, plain- or twill-weave fabric made of silk, mercerized cotton, rayon, acetate, or thin worsted wool. Foulard has a high luster on the face and dull on the reverse side. It is often printed, and the patterns range from simple polka dots to small, allover elaborate designs on light or dark grounds. It is also made in plain and solid colors. Foulard has a characteristic hand that can be described as light, firm, and supple. It is used for spring and summer dresses, scarves, robes, and neckties, and frequently sold as surah.

gauze

A thin, sheer, open, loosely woven, plain-weave cotton fabric with widely spaced yarns, used for diapers and surgical dressings. It can also be made of wool, silk, rayon, or other man-made fibers. Some weights are stiffened for curtains, trimmings of dresses, and other decorative or apparel purposes.

grass cloth

A plain-weave, loosely woven fabric made from such fibers as hemp, ramie, and even nettle. Today, true grass cloth is relatively rare, but the appearance of grass cloth is copied in wallpaper and fabrics of man-made fibers.

herringbone

A fabric in which the pattern of weave resembles the skeletal structure of the herring. lt is a twill weave in which the wale runs in one direction for a few rows and then re verses, forming a V pattern. lt is made with a broken twill weave that produces a balanced, zigzag effect and is used for sportswear, suits, and coats.

holland

A plain-weave fabric used in the home primarily for window shades.

homespun

Originally, fabrics made from yarns spun by hand. Today, homespun is used for fabrics that imitate this look. It is a very coarse, rough, plain-weave fabric, loosely woven with irregular, tightly twisted, and nubby, unevenly spun yarns. It is made from linen, wool, cotton, or man-made fiber, or blends in varied colors and is used for coats, suits, sportswear, draperies, upholstery, and slipcovers.

Honan

A heavy silk, pongee-type, but a finer weave, originally the product of wild silkworms of Honan, China. A fabric of the best grade of Chinese silk, it is sometimes woven with blue edges. It is now made to resemble a heavy pongee, with slub yarns in both warp and filling. Honan is manufactured from silk or from man-made fibers. It is used for womens dresses. See silk, pongee, and wild silk.

honeycomb

A weave that results in fabrics that have diamonds or other geometric shapes resembling a honeycomb. Waffle weaves are identical to honeycomb weaves, and many weaves called thermal are honeycomb weaves.

huck

A type of toweling fabric with a honeycombed surface made by using heavy filling yarns in a dobby weave. It has excellent absorbent qualities. It is woven with a pattern, most often with a dobby attachment on the loom and may have Jacquard borders. Huck is traditionally made of cotton, linen, or rayon, or a mixture of these, although today, other fibers may be used. In a mixture it is called a union fabric. Face or hand towels are made in white or colors and are used for drying dishes, glasses, and kitchen utensils. Huck is also called huckaback. Embroidery enthusiasts often use huck as a ground for their work. See dobby.

Indian muslin

Muslin is the name for a very large group of plain-weave fabrics originally made of cotton. Most muslin used for purposes other than sheets is unbleached, which means that bits of trash, usually appearing as brown flecks, add color to the fabric. Occasionally, unbleached muslin becomes popular in fashion, even for wedding gowns. Indian muslin is a very fine muslin from India, often printed with gold and silver and is an expensive luxury fabric. See muslin, trash, and flecks

jacquard patterns

Fancy patterns knitted in articles made by a special attachment on the knitting machine. Jacquard weave A construction characterized by very intricate woven-in designs. A special Jacquard loom makes these designs by controlling each warp yarn.

jean

In theory, a sturdy, solid-colored or striped twill-weave cotton fabric, softer and finer than denim and drill. In practice, the term denim is almost always used for the fabric, whereas the term jeans is used for pants made of denim. Jean is used for sport blouses, work shirts, womens and girls pants and shorts, and childrens overalls and playclothes.

kersey

A thick, heavy, pure wool and cotton twill-weave fabric similar tonrelton. It is well fulled, with a fine nap and a closesheared surface. Kersey is used for uniforms and overcoats.

lawn

A light, well-hackled linen fabric first made in haon, France. Now, it is a lightweight, fairly sheer, fine, plain-weave cotton or linen muslin fabric generally more sheer and with a higher count than nainsook. It can be given a soft or crisp finish and is sized and calendered to produce a soft, lustrous appearance. Linen lawn is synonymous with handkerchief linen. Cotton lawn is a similar type of fabric. Lawn is slightly stiffer than batiste, but can be used for similar purposes. [t is white, solid colored, or printed and is used tot dresses, blouses, curtains, lingerie, and as a base for embroidered items. See batiste, nainsook, and handkerchief linen.

leno

An open, lacy woven fabric made with a special loom attachment. In a leno weave a pair of filling yarns twist around the warp yarns in various patterns to achieve the lacy effect. A leno weave is also made by twisting adjacent warps around each other like a figure eight. The filling passes through the twisted warps. l.eno fabrics are popular for curtains and summer dresses.

marquisette

A light, strong, sheer, open-textured curtain fabric in leno weave, often with dots woven into the surface. The thread count varies from 48 x 22 to 60 x 40. Marquisette, extremely popular for curtains and mosquito netting, is made of cotton, rayon, acetate, nylon, polyester, acrylic, glass, silk, or mixtures.

melton

Melton, usually called melton cloth, is a thick, heavily felted or fulled wool fabric in a twill or satin weave, with clipped surface nap, felt-like in feeling, and lustrous, similar to a dull broad cloth. The close weave means that the fabric appears to be completely smooth. Melton was originally made of all wool or cotton and wool, but today is made of other fibers. It is used extensively for coats and also for uniforms. See nap.

middy twill

The term middy twill is used for many fabrics that are sturdy and have a twill weave. Traditionally made of cotton, middy twill today is likely to include at least some man-made fibers in its construction. When middy blouses are in fashion (a loasefitting, hip-length overblouse with a sailor collar) the most popular color for this twill is navy blue. It is used also for school uniforms.

momie cloth

A fabric made with a weave that produces a pebbled effect, similar to crepe.

moss crepe

Officially, moss crepe is made in a plain or dobby weave with rayon yarns that produce the moss-like effect. In practice, however, the term refers to any crepe, including polyester, considered to have a moss-like surface. See weaving.

mousseline de soie

Literally, muslin of silk. The words de soie mean of silk which may explain why the fabric, similar to this made from man-made fibers is usually called mousseline. Mousseline de soie (silk organdy) is a lightweight, sheer, plainweave silk fabric similar to chiffon in its appearance and uses, but a little crisper.

muslin

The name for a large group of plain-weave fabrics, originally made of cotton.

rib weave

A plain weave that forms ridges in a fabric through the way in which it is woven or by the use of thicker yarns for the filling than those used tot the warp. See weaving, filling, and warp.

sailcloth

Originally, a firmly woven cotton canvas used for making sails. Today, sailcloth is a very heavy, strong, plain-weave fabric made of cotton, linen, jute, nylon, or palyester. It comes in many qualities and weights. In common usage, the terms duck, sailcloth, and canvas often are used interchangeably. Sailcloth can be used for sportswear, slipcovers and upholstery, and curtains and draperies. See canvas and duck.

sateen

A strong, lustrous, mercerized, satin-weave fabric made of cotton, blends of cotton with polyester, or spun-yarn fabrie characterized by floats running in the filling direction. Sateen Is also used to distinguish between cotton satin-weave fabrics and satin-weave fabrics made of sk or man-made fibers. It is used for linings, draperies, and comforters. See weaving and satin weave.

satin

One of the basic weaves. A shiny, smooth silk, acetate, rayon, or other man-made fiber combination woven in satin weave made with a cotton filling. It has a smooth, lustrous surface because the warp floats. It is used for linings of coats, jackets, facings, and ties. It is also used for draperies, upholstery, bedspreads, and sheets. Satin weave has proved so popular that various types of satin-weave fabrics have developed. Following i.s a listing of many of the types of satin fabrics. See weaving and sateen.

antique satin

Antique Satin is a satin-weave fabric which is normally used for draperies. Both sides may be used. The face is a classic lustrous satin.

scrim

An open, plain-weave, mesh fabric used for curtains, bunting, and as a supporting fabric for some laminated fabrics. Scrim was traditionally made of cotton, but today usually is made of nylon or other man-made fibers. See bunting.

sharkskin

(1) A heavy weight, fairly lustrous cotton, linen, silk, or man-made fiber fabric with a sleek, hard-finished, crisp, and pebbly surface and a chalky luster. Today, it is almost always made of acetate or triacetate. Filament yarns, when used, are twisted and woven tightly in a plain-weave or basket-weave construction, depending on the effect desired. Staple fiber yarns are handled in the same manner, except for wool. Sharkskin is best known in its stark white color especially popular for tennis outfits and for permanently pleated white skirts when they are in fashion. (2) A wool fabric in twill weave, originally made of yarns of two colors.

sheer

The opposite of opaque. Sheer fabrics are usually made in an open weave to create fabrics with varying degrees of transparency. Batiste, organdy, and voile are examples of sheer fabrics. See batiste, organdy, and voile.

pongee

A plain-weave, fairly lightweight silk fabric with a slight slub to the yarns. Today, the terms Honan and pongee are used interchangeably for fabrics with this texture, but made from man-made fabrics.

surah

A silk recognized by its sheen and its fine twill weave. Surah is popular for dresses and neckties and is also imitated in man-made fibers.

silk broadcloth

A soft spun-silk fabric in plain weave, used for shirts, blouses, and sports dresses.

Spitalfields

An English town and the home of Huguenot weavers, it is now a lace-making center. In this town, the hand-woven Jacquard silk Spitalfields tie originated.

taffeta

A fine, yarn-dyed, closely woven, plain-weave, smooth on both sides, stiffened fabric with a crisp feel and a sheen on its surface. Taffeta was originally made of silk, but is also made of rayon, cotton, acetate, or other man-made fibers. lt is named for the Persian fabric "taftan". The rustle of silk taffeta is called scroop, and it may be a solid color, printed or woven so that the colors appear iridescent. A list of the most common types of taffeta follows. lt is used for dresses, blouses, ribbons, draperies, bedspreads, and curtains. See scroop.

tapestry

A Jaquard woven fabric in cotton, wool, or man-made fibers. Traditionally, a decorative wall hanging woven to depict a scene. The filling threads are changed in color to fit the design. On the back, shaded stripes identify this fabric. It is used extensively for wall hangings, table covers, draperies, and upholstery. Some rugs are made in tapestry weaves. The word is also used for needlepoint, but this use is generally considered incorrect. Machine-made fabrics, also called tapestry, have regular designs on the surface and a slightly looped pile. They are used for such things as coats and handbags.

ticking

A broad term for extremely strong woven fabrics which are used as a covering for pillows, mattresses, and box springs, home-furnishings, and for work clothes and sports clothes. lt is a heavy, tightly woven carded cotton fabric usually in a pattern of alternately woven stripes in the warp, Jacquard or dobby designs, or printed patterns. lt is usually twill but may be sateen weave. When ticking is used in clothing, striped ticking with narrow woven stripes is usually most popular. Red and white, black and white, and navy and white are the most popular ticking color combinations.

twill tape

A narrow, twill-weave ribbon, fairly heavy in weight. lt is stitched into garment areas such as collar lapels, shoulders, and facing edges for strength and to prevent stretching. lt is also used in the seams of slip covers and other home furnishing items for added strength. Twill tape is usually available only in white and black. See weaving and twill.

tufted fabric

"A fabric ornamented with soft, fluffy, slackly twisted ply yarns (usually cotton). Most tufts are inserted by needles into a woven fabric, such as unbleached muslin, textured cotton, and rayon plain-weave cloth. When tufts are spaced (as coin dots), a bedspread is called candlewick

twill

(1) A weave with a diagonal rib (twill line) that runs from the upper left to the lower right, or from upper right to lower left. In a twill weave, each filling thread passes over or under at least two warp threads, to a point where the filling thread goes under moving up and over by at least one thread in each row. Herringbone weave is a broken twill weave and forms ""V""s in the weave pattern. (2) A narrow ribbon, fairly heavy in weight. It is stitched into garment areas such as collar lapels, shoulders, and facing edges for strength and to prevent stretching. It is also used in the seams of slipcovers and other home furnishings items for added strength. Twill tape usually is available only in white or black.

unbleached muslin

A cotton plain-weave printcloth fabric in grey goods and lightweight sheetings, used for ironing board covers, dust covers, and dust cloths.

unfinished worsted

A suiting fabric: in twill weave, finished with a nap longer than those of other worsteds.

unravel

The term unravel means the same as ravel. lt is the tendency of fabric to come unwoven or unknitted at unfinished edges. Loosely woven fabrics tend to unravel more than those made of tight weaves. Occasionally, the tendency to unravel is desirable in order to create a fringed edge.

cisele velvet

Cisele velvet is a satin weave fabric. A velvet pattern is woven in.

voile

A sheer, transparent, low-count, crisp or soft, lightweight, plain-weave muslin with a thready feel, made of highly twisted yarns. lt can be comprised of wool, cotton, silk, rayon, polyester, or other man-made fibers. Voile is especially popular when made of cotton or blends for summer wear and is often printed to match heavier fabrics. Voile is used for clothing, especially for blouses and summer dresses, and for curtains and similar items.

waffle cloth

A fabric with a characteristic honeycomb weave. When made in cotton it is called waffle pique. It is used for coatings, draperies, dresses, and toweling.

waffle weave

Identical to honeycomb and thermal weaves. A weave resulting in fabrics with diamonds or rather geometric shapes resembling a waffle. See thermal.

warp

The group of yarns placed first on a loom in weaving. Warp runs parallel to the selvage, forming the length of the fabric. The filling threads are interlaced over and under the warp threads in a pattern or weave. See weaving and selvage.

basket weave

Basket weave is made with two or more filling threads passing over and under an equal number of warp threads on alternate rows.

plain weave

Plain weave, the best known and most basic form of weaving, is made by passing the filling thread over and under one warp thread in alternating rows.

satin weave

A weave that produces a very smooth surfaced fabric. It is made by passing the filling threads under several warp threads before passing over one warp thread. Satin weave is used to make sateens in which cotton filling thread goes over several cotton warps, then under one warp.

twill weave

A weave with a diagonal rib (twill line) that runs from the upper left to the lower right, or from upper right to lower left. In a twill weave, each filling thread passes over or under at least two warp threads, with the point where the filling thread goes under moving up and over at least one thread in each row. Herringbone weave is a broken twill weave which forms Vs in the weave pattern.

whipcord

An extremely strong, twill-weave worsted fabric made in fairly heavy weights of cotton, wool worsted, and fabrics of man-made fibers and blends. It is similar to gabardine, but heavier and with a more pronounced diagonal rib on the right side. lt is so named because it simulates tlre lash of a whip. Cotton whipcotds are often four-harness warp-twill weaves. lt is used for draperies and upholstery, uniforms, riding clothes, and other wearing apparel where a strong fabric is required. See twill under entry for weaving.

zibeline

A heavily napped coating fabric with the long sleek nap brushed, steamed, and pressed in one direction, thus hiding the underlying satin weave. Zibeline is usually made of a combi nation of such fibers as camel hair or mohair with wool, cotton, or a man-made fiber as the largest percentage,