brushed rayon

Brushed rayon is a rayon fabric that has been heavily napped. Brushed rayon is highly flammable.

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loom finished

A term referring to certain fabrics soid without most of the steps mentioned in the entry under finishing. Loom finished fabrics are relatively rare because the consumer has grown accustomed to finished fabrics. See finishing.

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shed

The opening between warp yarns through which filling yarns are passed.

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shedding

The raising and lowering of the warp ends by means of the harness and heddles to form the shed (passage) for the filling yarn to pass through from one side of the loom to the other.

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unfinished worsted

A suiting fabric: in twill weave, finished with a nap longer than those of other worsteds.

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brushed rayon

Brushed rayon is a rayon fabric that has been heavily napped. Brushed rayon is highly flammable.

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cambric

A closely woven, plain weave, white fabric that is finished with a slightly glossy surface. The fabric is traditionally made from cotton or linen, but can be made from any fiber. It was formerly used in underwear and handkerchiefs, but today its major uses are to reinforce book bindings and to upholster the underside of chairs and sofas. Very low count, heavily sized glazed cambric is used for costuming.

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cashmere

Cashmere is the fine and soft undercoat hair of the cashmere goat which exists in Iran, India, Tibet, Mongolia, China and Iraq. Cashmere is one of the luxury fibers and today is usually blended with normal sheep’s wool or man-made fibers to reduce the cost. Another reason for the widespread blending is the fact that it makes the finished fabric more durable for original cashmere fabrics are quite sensible. It is mainly used for clothing.

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chine

This French word, meaning speckled, is used for fabrics in which the warp threads are printed before weaving whereas the filling threads are left plain, giving a shadowy effect to the finished fabric.

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Coating

A term used to describe a fabric suitable for outerwear, such as coats, as in coating fabric. Also, something applied to a finished fiber or fabric, such as a rubber coating to make a fabric impervious to water. Coating suggests a thicker layer of the substance than does the word finish. A rubber-coated fabric is probably more resistant to water than one that has been treated with a water-resistant finish.

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count of yarn

Size of yarn as distinguished by its weight and fineness. This term is applied to cotton, wool, and spun yarns.

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denim

A cotton twill weave fabric made of single hard-twisted yarns. The staple type has colored warp and white or undyed filling thread. When the fabric (and the look) became popular, the name denim was given to many other types of fabric, including cross-dyed fabrics and brushed fabrics, both knit and woven, that resemble true denim. Most jeans are made of denim and the most popular and traditional denim color is blue. Sports denim is softer and lighter in weight. It is now available in many colors, and in plaids and stripes. Woven-in stripes and plaids are popular for draperies, upholstery, and bedspreads.

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easy care

An extremely loose term implying that a limited amount of ironing will be necessary after the item is washed. Easy care fabrics seem to be most successful when they are made of at least 65’% polyester, or have had a special finish applied to them. Durable press is a more reliable indication that garments or other items require little or no ironing.

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gabardine

"A strong, hard-finished, clear-surfaced, medium­to heavy-weight, tightly woven steep-twilled fabric with rounded wales and a flat back. The diagonal wales are fine, close, and steep, and are more pronounced than in serge. The wales cannot be seen on the wrong side of the fabric. Gabardine goes in and out of fash­ion
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greige

The state of a fabric as it comes from the loom (after it has been constructed) but before it has been colored or finished.

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interlock

A fine gauge, compound knit fabric with a smooth surface on both front and back, composed of two separate 1 x 1 rib fabrics interknitted to form one cloth, made on an inter­lock machine. The fabric was traditionally used for underwear, but today is being used for apparel. Despite the name of the fabric, poorly made interlock develops runs at the edges and all interlock knits should be reinforced or finished in some way at these edges.

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leather converter

A business that buys hides and skins, has them pro­cessed in contract tanneries, and then sells the finished product.

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loom-figured fabrics

Fabrics that have the design or pattern woven or knitted in as opposed to those which, for instance, have patterns printed on finished cloth.

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loom finished

A term referring to certain fabrics soid without most of the steps mentioned in the entry under finishing. Loom finished fabrics are relatively rare because the consumer has grown accustomed to finished fabrics. See finishing.

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luster rugs

Rugs that are chemically washed to give them sheen. They may be Wilton, Axminster machine-made rugs with oriental designs or velvet construction, and are frequently referred to as sheen-type rugs.

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matelasse

A soft double or compound fabric with a quilted appearance. One of the fabrics that, like cloque, has a blistered or quilted look to the design. Officially, the word matelasse implies the use of two different yarns that, when finished, react differently to the finishing resulting in a puckered effect in the fabric. In practice, the term matelasse is usually applied to luxury fabrics for evening wear, while a word such as cloque is used for a similar fabric made from cotton. The heavier type is used in draperies and upholstery, whereas crepe matelasse is popular in dresses, semiformal and formal suits and wraps, and trimmings.

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matte

A dull surface on a fabric. Since one of the characteristics of fabrics made from man-made fibers is a shiny surface, mattefinished fabrics have become popular and matte looks for man-made fabrics are achieved in yarn processing or finishing. See finishing.

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mosquito netting

A coarsely meshed, net fabric used to make mosquito nets to place over windows and beds to keep mosquitoes out. See net.

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rabbit hair

"Angora rabbit´s fur. The hair of rabbits often is mixed with ""normal"" fibers to give softness or an more illustrious texture to the finished fabric."

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selvage

The long, outer, finished edge of both sides of a woven fabric that does not ravel because the filling yarns wrap around the warp yarns. It may also be called self-edge or selvedge.

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sharkskin

(1) A heavy weight, fairly lustrous cotton, linen, silk, or man-made fiber fabric with a sleek, hard-finished, crisp, and pebbly surface and a chalky luster. Today, it is almost always made of acetate or triacetate. Filament yarns, when used, are twisted and woven tightly in a plain-weave or basket-weave construction, depending on the effect desired. Staple fiber yarns are handled in the same manner, except for wool. Sharkskin is best known in its stark white color especially popular for tennis outfits and for permanently pleated white skirts when they are in fashion. (2) A wool fabric in twill weave, originally made of yarns of two colors.
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shedding

The raising and lowering of the warp ends by means of the harness and heddles to form the shed (passage) for the filling yarn to pass through from one side of the loom to the other.

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shuttleless loom

A machine that carries the filling yarns through the shed by the use of air or water jets and grippers.

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studs

Small, decorative objects added to fabric. They are usually round and metallic and are occasionally jewelled. Studs have teeth on the bottom that are pushed through the fabric by hand or with a tool called a stud setter. The teeth are then bent against the fabric to hold the stud in place.

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suede fabric

A woven or knitted fabric of cotton, man-made fibers, wool, or blends, finished to resemble suede leather. It is used in sport coats, gloves, linings, and cleaning cloths.

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textiles converter

A business that buys unfinished fabrics, has them bleached, printed, and finished by another business specializing in particular types of finishes, then sells the end product.

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texture

One of the elements that determines the way in which a finished fabric looks. lt is the surface effect of a fabric.
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triacetate

A thermoplastic fiber classified under the generic name of acetate, although it is a modification of acetate. Triacetate fabrics resist shrinkage, wrinkles, and fading. They do not dissolve in acetone, can be washed at higher temperatures than those made of acetate, and can be ironed with the heat set for linen. See acetate.

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bias tape

A strip of fabric cut on the diagonal between the lengthwise and crosswise grain of the fabric. Because bias tape has considerable stretch, it is used to bind edges where a certain de­gree of stretch is necessary for a smooth finish. Curved areas are often finished with bias tape. Bias tape can also be used for purely decorative trimming. lt is available precut and packaged in a wide range of colors.

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galloon

A closely woven, flat braid used for accenting draperies and furniture. Also called braid. The term galloon is also used for any narrow fabric with decorative edges, such as scallops finished the same on each side. Lace made in this way is called galloon lace.

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ribbon

A narrow, woven fabric with two finished edges. Both natural and man-made fibers are used in making ribbon. lt is available in many patterns and colors and in such fabric constructions as velvet, satin, and grosgrain. See velvet, satin, and grosgrain.

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Irish tweed

Tweed made in Ireland, Northern Ireland, or Eire. These tweeds generally can be distinguished by a white warp and colored filling threads.

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unfinished worsted

A suiting fabric: in twill weave, finished with a nap longer than those of other worsteds.

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unravel

The term unravel means the same as ravel. lt is the tendency of fabric to come unwoven or unknitted at unfinished edges. Loosely woven fabrics tend to unravel more than those made of tight weaves. Occasionally, the tendency to unravel is desirable in order to create a fringed edge.

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unwashable fabric

A fabric that should not be washed by hand or by machine. Such fabrics are usually labeled "dry clean only".

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wash and wear

A term used to describe fabrics and garments that can be washed and then worn with little or no ironing. Originally, the fabrics were chemically treated and cured (baked). There are no standards governing its use. See easy care and durable press.

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washable fabric

A fabric that can be washed. The method of washing (by hand or machine) may not be designated.

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zibeline

A heavily napped coating fabric with the long sleek nap brushed, steamed, and pressed in one direction, thus hiding the underlying satin weave. Zibeline is usually made of a combi nation of such fibers as camel hair or mohair with wool, cotton, or a man-made fiber as the largest percentage,

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