fabricdictionary.com - Home
All about fabrics and textiles
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
  

Search results for ""

abraded yarn

A two-ply combination yarn. One is an abraded ply, the other is filament viscose rayon.

abrasion

Rubbing, scraping off or scuffing of the surface of a fabric. Some permanent press finishes lessen abrasion resistance. Draperies that are frequently in use should be made of abrasion resistant fabrics.

absorbent finish

Chemical treatment of fabrics to improve their absorption.

acetate

A organic and chemical fiber. Acetate is a blend of cellulose and acetic acid that has been hardened. Solution and spun-dyed acetates are colorfast against sunlight, perspiration, and air pollution. Acetate is often used for luxurious fabrics because its appearance is similar to silk. It is mixed occasionally with other fibers to give additional gloss and lower the cost.

acrylic

The generic name of fibers made from acrylic granulate, which comes from coal, air, water, petroleum, and limestone. The quota of acrylonitrile units has to be at least 85% for a fiber to be called acrylic. Acrylic is light in weight for the warmth it gives and is very popular for blankets or as a substitute for wool.

acrylonitrile

The chemical composition from which acrylic fiber is made. It results from the reaction of ethylene oxide and hydrocyanic acid.

ajour

An openwork design for lace or embroidery with the pattern scattered.

aloe lace

A bobbin or tatted lace made from aloe plant (i.e. agave) fibers.

alpaca

The Alpaca is a domesticated member of the lama family, the so called South American camel. Alpaca fabric is one of the luxury fabrics for its silky, soft and fairly lightweight attributes. Today, the term alpaca is also used for fabrics made from a blend including some wools that have a similar appearance to true alpaca.

angora

"(also Mohair ) On the one hand this term is used for fabrics made of hair of the Angora rabbit. On the other hand it is also used for fabrics made of the wool of the Angora goat. To set the record straight, the Wool Labeling Law requires that a fabric has to be marked as angora rabbit hair rather than angora or angora wool.Fabrics made of the long and soft fur of the Angora goat are called ""mohair""."

antique taffeta

As it was originally a pure silk fabric nowadays normally contains a mixture of polyester and silk (predominantly dupion silk). Often yarn-dyed with two colors to give it an iridescent effect. Connected to: shantung

aramid

A chemical man-made fiber. A class of aromatic polyamide fiber that differs from nylons polyamide fiber.

ardil

Made of the protein in peanuts. Produced in England. A type of azlon.

art linen

A medium-weight linen or blended fabric which is plain-woven. Normally used for embroidery, dresses, uniforms, table linens, and other types of embroidered items.

asbestos

A mineral fiber that is nonmetallic. Its greatest virtue is that it is nonflammable. It is used in combination with other fibers for theater curtains and in industrial clothing where flameproofing is essential. Asbestos is often used to make ironing board covers and potholders..

astrakhan

The term was used to name the wool from karakul lambs. Nowadays, it is also used to describe a fabric woven or knitted to similar to this wool. It is curly and heavy. Connected to: karakul

azlon

This term describes manufactured fibers made from regenerated natural proteins, such as casein, zein, soybean, and peanut. In a mixture with other fibers it gives the fabric a soft feeling.

backed cloth

A double cloth that has two sets of fillings and one set of warps, or two sets of warps and one set of fillings. See double weave.

bagheera

Name for an uncut pile velvet clothing fabric with a rough surface. Extraordinary restistant. Connected to: pile, velvet

baize

Loosely woven fabric, normally made of cotton or wool, which nowadays also can contain other fibers. Originally used for school bags or as covers for the doors leading to servants quarters in England. Baize is used for industrial purposes as well.

barathea

Barathea is mixed fabric which contains silk, rayon, cotton or wool and is closely woven. It has a typical pebbly surface. Barathea is used for dresses, neckties, trimmings, and suits.

Barkcloth

Originally, the term referred to a fabric found throughout the South Pacific and is made from the inner bark of certain trees. The bark is beaten into a paper-like fabric, then dyed or otherwise colored. Tapa cloth is one of the best known types of true barkcloth. Barkcloth is a term that also refers to a fabric, often cotton or rayon, with a somewhat crepe-like feel that is designed to resemble true barkcloth. This fabric is used extensively for draperies, slipcovers, and other home furnishings. See crepe and tapa cloth

Barre

The term "Barre" describes a fabric, either knit or woven, in which stripes run in crosswise directions. Barre also refers to flaws in fabric that appear as unwanted crosswise stripes of texture or color.

basic dye

A way of dyeing without a mordant that colors wool and silk. To use it for cotton a mordant is needed.

basic finishes

Regular processes (mechanical or chemical) applied in some form to a fabric after it has been constructed.

basket weave

One of the most important patterns in weaving. Basket weave is made with two or more filling threads passing over and under an equal number of warp threads on alternate rows.

bast fiber

Bast fiber is the name for a Fiber between the pithy center of the stem and the skin. Examples are flax, jute, hemp, and ramie.

batik

Batik describes a special technique of resist dyeing which was first used in Indonesia. Before dyeing the fabric is pile-spread with wax. The waxed areas remain in the original color while the rest of the fabric adopts the dyeing color. To get the typical veined effect to the design the wax is cracked. Today, it is largely produced in an industrial way. Connected to: resist dyeing

batiste

A fabric named for Jean Baptiste, a French linen weaver. (1) In cotton, a sheer, fine muslin, woven of combed yarns and given a mercerized finish. It is used for blouses, summer shirts, dresses, lingerie, infants dresses, bonnets, and handkerchiefs. (2) A rayon, polyester, or cotton-blend fabric with the same characteristics. (3) A smooth, fine wool fabric that is lighter than challis, and similar to fine nuns veiling. It is used for dresses and negligees. (4) A sheer silk fabric either plain or figured, similar to silk mull. It is often called batiste de soie and is made into summer dresses.

batting

Batting is usually stocked in linens and domestics departments although it is used today primarily for crafts. Batting is a filling material used to stuff pillows, toys, and quilts. At one time, batting was made of cotton

bed linen

Bed linen is a term for any fabric sheeting used on a bed.

Bedford cloth

Bedford cloth is a strong woven fabric with lengthwise ribs. Normally used for upholstery and riding breeches and may be made of any fiber.

Bedford cord

Bedford cord is a durable cloth with lengthwise ribs made of cotton, wool, silk, rayon, or combination fibers. Mainly used for outer garments or Sportswear.

beetling

A finish primarily applied to linen or cotton whereby the cloth is beaten with large wooden blocks in order to produce a hard, flat surface with a sheen. lt gives a linen-like appearance to cotton.

Belgian lace

Belgium lace is a term used for any lace made in Belgium. Originally the term described a bobbin lace worked on a machine-made net. Connected to: bobbin lace

belting

A heavy cotton, rayon, silk, or mixed fabric with large fillingwise ribs. lt may be knit. Any heavyweight, fairly stiff fabric used to support the top of a skirt, a pair of pants, or line a belt to give additional support. Beltings come in various widths.

Benares

Benares is a lightweight fabric from India. Named after the town of Benares it is usually woven with metallic threads.

Bengaline

Bengaline is a ribbed fabric similar to faille, but heavier and with a coarser rib in the filling direction. lt can be made of silk, wool, acetate, or rayon warp, with wool or cotton filling. The fabric was first made in Bengal, India, and is used for dresses, coats, trimmings, and draperies.

bias

Bias is a fabric cut diagonally across the warp and filling yarns. A true bias is cut on a 45 angle from the lower left to the upper right of a cloth.

bib

The part of an pinafore garment or overalls that extends above the waist.

bicomponent fiber

A bicomponent fiber consists of two filaments of the same generic class but different composition which have been extruded simultaneously. This results in a continuous-filament man-made fiber composed of two related components, each having a different degree of shrinkage.

biconstituent fiber

Biconstituent fiber is made by mixing two different man-made generic fiber materials together in their fluid stage. Afterwards they are forced through a spinneret.

billiard doth

Billiard cloth is the cloth used on billiard tables. It is always dyed green. This is traditionally a very fine twilled fabric consisting of quality wool. Nowadays also other fibers are used for billiard cloth.

birds-eye

Fabric with a woven-in dobby design. The pattern has a center dot and resembles the eye of a bird. It is used in cotton diapers, pique, and wool sharkskin. See pique.

blazer cloth

Fabric traditionally used for loosely fitting tailored jackets worn by men and women. The fabric was formerly made of wool with a satin weave.

bleach

A chemical that removes color from an item. Fabrics are often bleached after manufacture and before dyeing to ensure the dyed colors are true. Household bleach is used to disinfect clothing and remove soil from whites and colorfast colors. Chlorine bleaches are the most common household bleaches, but are too strong for some colors and fabrics.

bleaching

A basic finishing process to whiten fabrics. Different chemicals are used for different fabrics. Sun, air, and moisture are good bleaches for some materials, although bleaching by this method is slower.

blended yarn

A strand of fibers produced from two or more constituent fibers that have been thoroughly mixed (blended) before spinning.

block printing

A hand-printing process in which a design is carved on a block of wood or linoleum. Dye is placed on the surface and the block is placed on the fabric, thereby transferring the dye. Every color requires a different block, making this type of printing tedious and expensive. It is now almost entirely limited to the craft field. See printing.

bobbin lace

Bobbin lace is a lace made by using a pillow to hold the pins around which thread is arranged. Other names for bobbin lace are bobbinette lace and pillow lace.

bolster

A long, narrow pillow, either round or rectangular in shape, that is the width of the bed. It is used for decoration and support.

bonded-face fabric

The side of a bonded fabric used as the face (right side) of the cloth in a garment or other end use.

bonding

A process of joining two or more layers of cloth with a layer of adhesive, or pressing fibers into thin webs or mats held together by adhesive, plastic, or self-bonding that melts when heat is applied.Nonwoven fabrics are made in this way. The term occasionally is used as a synonym for laminating, but this is technically incorrect

boucle

Boucle is a fabric woven with boucle yarns with looped appearance on the surface. The fabric has a abrasive surface. Boucle fabrics are woven or knitted by both, hand and machine.

boucle yarn

Boucle yarn is a rough, quite thick and slubby linen yarn that is characterized by tight loops projecting from the body of the yarn with regular intervals. It is a novelty yarn often mixed with yarns of other fibers for textural interest. Boucle yarn is very popular because there are many varieties and weights.

boxing

A term describing the straight strip of fabric that covers the sides of a three-dimensional round or square pillow. The boxing is joined to the rest of the cover with seams and occasionally includes a decorative trimming such as welting.

bright yarns

Bright yarns are high luster yarns made of rayon or acetate fibers.

broadcloth

Although the term broadcloth originally meant any fabric made on a loom of a certain width, it now means a fine, tightly woven fabric with a faint rib. Originally, it was made of mercerized cotton, but today the term is used to describe several dissimilar fabrics made with different fibers, weaves, and finishes. (1) Originally, a silk shirting fabric so named because it was woven in widths exceeding the usual twenty-nine inches. (2) A plainweave, tightly woven, high-count cotton fabric, with fillingwise rib finer than poplin. Best grades are made of combed pima or Egyptian cotton, usually with high thread counts (136x60 or 144x76). The fabrics are usually mercerized, sanforized, and given a soft lustrous finish, and are used for womens blouses, tailored summer dresses, and mens shirts. (3) A closely woven, medium-weight wool cloth with a smooth nap, velvety feel, and lustrous appearance. Wool broadcloth can be made with a two-up-and-two-down twill weave or plain weave. In setting up a loom to make the fabric, the loom is threaded wide to allow for a large amount of shrinkage during the filling process. The fabric takes its name from this wide threading. High-quality wool broadcloth is fine enough for garments that are closely molded to the figure or draped. Its high-luster finish makes it an elegant cloth. Wool broadcloth is ten to sixteen ounces per yard and is now being made in chiffon weights. (4) A fabric made from silk or man-made filament fiber yarns and woven in a plain weave with a fine crosswise rib obtained by using a heavier filling than warp yarn.

brocade

Brocade is used as a drapery or upholstery fabric. It has a Jacquard weave with an allover interwoven design, normally figures or flowers. The name is derived from the French word meaning to ornament. The brocade pattern is accentuated with varying surfaces or colors and often has gold, silver, or other metallic threads running through it. Although true brocades still are produced, nowadays the term is also used for knits with a similar luxurious look. A brocade rug, in carpeting, is one in which different yarns of the same color create a subtle pattern.

brocaded satin

A satin fabric with raised designs in Jacquard weave.

brocatelle

Brocatelle is a fabric similar to brocade but made of a Jacquard loom. It is used as drapery and upholstery fabric and made in double-cloth construction with a silk- or rayon-fibered face.

brushed rayon

Brushed rayon is a rayon fabric that has been heavily napped. Brushed rayon is highly flammable.

buckram

A stiff, open-weave fabric made from coarse yarns and used primarily for stiffening in interfacings and hat shaping. Originally, buckram was sized with starch that was not permanent, but today most buckrams have a permanent stiff finish.

buckskin

A fairly inexpensive leather from deer and elk skins. Also, a fabric made in a form of satin weave with a napped finish. Originally wool, the term buckskin is now applied to various synthetic fabrics with smooth surfaces, with or without the napped finish. See leather.

bulking

A yarn finishing process in which the yarn is made thicker or bulkier by heat setting crimp into the filaments or by looping individual fibers with an air jet. Bulking gives yarn and fabrics a less shiny, fluffier appearance. Bulking is often used in making sweater yarns.

bunting

A loosely woven fabric used primarily for flags and draping. Bunting used in public places must be flameproof. Bunting is also a term used to describe a simple rectangular square of material in which a baby is wrapped for warmth.

burn-out printing

Burn-out printing describes a process in which a fabric consisting of two different fibers is treated with chemicals partly take away one fiber to create a structure on the surface of the fabric. For example, sculptured velvet is produced with this method.

butcher rayon

A coarse rayon, or rayon and acetate blend, mediumweight fabric woven in a plain weave and originally intended as a substitute for butcher linen.

butchers linen

Strong, heavy, plain weave fabric, originally of linen (and originally worn by butchers), now made of any fiber.

cable cord

Cable cord is the result of twisting singles together in various directions, e.g. S/Z/S or Z/S/Z. Connected to: S twist, Z twist

cable stitch fabric

Cable stitch fabic is a knit fabric. The pattern looks like a plaited rope running lengthwise down the fabric. It is mainly used for sweaters.

calendering

Calendering is a term for the finishing process for fabrics that produces a shiny and smooth surface. The cloth is passed through recessed and heated cylinder rolls by running it through a friction or glazing calender.

calico

A smooth-surfaced, plain weave cloth. Today, the term is almost always applied to fabric with bright, sharply contrasting, usually small-print designs. Calico is usually woven, although calico prints may appear on knits. Calico is a traditionally popular fabric for patchwork. It is also used for dresses, sportswear, and aprons.

cambric

A closely woven, plain weave, white fabric that is finished with a slightly glossy surface. The fabric is traditionally made from cotton or linen, but can be made from any fiber. It was formerly used in underwear and handkerchiefs, but today its major uses are to reinforce book bindings and to upholster the underside of chairs and sofas. Very low count, heavily sized glazed cambric is used for costuming.

camels hair

Camels hair comes from the soft lustrous underhair of the Bactrian, a two humped, pack-carrying species of camel. The fabric is fawn to brown in color. Because it is a luxury fabric and therefor very expensive, camels hair is nowadays very often blended with other fibers, sometimes sheeps wool, sometime manmade acrylic fibers.

candlewick

Candlewick is a thick and mellow yarn used to form tufts by pulling it through a base fabric and then cutting it. The term ""candlewick"" is also used for the fabric made by this method.

Canton crepe

Canton crepe is heavier than crepe de Chine with a slightly ribbed crepe filling. It was originally made of silk in Canton, China. Today it is as well made of rayon or acetate.

Canton flannel

Canton flanell is a heavy and warm cotton material. While it has a twilled surface there is a long soft nap on the back. It is named for Canton because thats where it was first made. Canton flanell is strong and absorbent.

canvas

A heavy, strong, usually plain weave fabric that historically was made of flax, hemp, or cotton. Today, it is usually made of cotton, but some fabrics made of man-made fibers or blends are also called canvas. Canvas is, roughly speaking, heavier than duck or sailcloth although the three names are often used interchangeably. The unbleached fabric is used for coat fronts, lapels, and linings of mens suits. Hair canvas for interlinings is made of goats hair and wool. See duck and sailcloth.

cashmere

Cashmere is the fine and soft undercoat hair of the cashmere goat which exists in Iran, India, Tibet, Mongolia, China and Iraq. Cashmere is one of the luxury fibers and today is usually blended with normal sheeps wool or man-made fibers to reduce the cost. Another reason for the widespread blending is the fact that it makes the finished fabric more durable for original cashmere fabrics are quite sensible. It is mainly used for clothing.

cavalry twill

A sturdy twill-weave fabric with a pronounced diagonal cord. It is used for sportswear, uniforms, and riding habits.

cellulose

The naturally occurring polymer (giant molecule) that forms the solid framework of plants. Cellulose from wood pulp is the base for rayon and acetate, both of which are man-made fibers. Cotton is more than ninety percent cellulose before it is cleaned (scoured). See cotton, rayon, and acetate.

cellulosic fibers

Cellulosic fibers are fibers consisting of cellulose.

chalfis

One of the softest fabrics made, it is named for the AngloIndian term shalee, meaning soft. lt is a fine, light-weight, plain-weave fabric, usually made of wool, cotton, or man-made fibers. Challis was traditionally printed with vivid floral patterns on dark grounds or with paisley designs, but now is produced in darker tones of allover prints and solid colors, in the finest quality fabrics. lt is normally used for neckties, dresses, blouses, scarves, bed jackets, and infants sacques.

chambray

(1) A plain-woven fabric with an almost square count (80x76), a colored warp, and a white filling, that gives a mottled, colored surface. The fabric is named for Cambrai, France, where it was first made for sunbonnets. Although chambray is traditionally woven, the look itself is so popular it is imitated in knitting. It is similar in appearance to denim but much lighter in weight. It is used for womens and childrens summer dresses and mens shirts. (2) A cotton print cloth made of yarn-dyed yarns that can also be woven in patterns and woven in stripes. (3) A similar but carded-yarn fabric used for work clothes and childrens play clothes. See denim.

chamois

Soft, pliable leather from the skin of the chamois goat, although other animal skins may be substituted. It is used for gloves and as a cloth for washing autos. Chamois cloth is woven to imitate the leather, usually has a slightly napped surface, and is usually yellow, as is the goat skin. It is also used in clothing.

changeable fabric

Fabric woven with yarns of one color in the warp and another color in the filling so that the fabric seems to change color as the light strikes it. Other names for this type of fabric are iridescent and shot.

check

A check is any small, regular pattern of squares woven or knitted into, or printed on, a fabric. See types of checks following.

broken check

A check pattern in which the checks are irregular instead of perfect squares.

district check

The name given to several quite different woven check patterns that originated in Scotland. The term applies to designs ranging from glen checks to shepherd checks

gingham check

Regular check in which the design is woven so that, in a red and white checked gingham, for example, there are squares of solid red, squares of solid white, and squares of white warp and red filling, as well as squares with red warp and white filling. Gingham checks are also printed on woven and knitted fabrics, and are knitted into some fabrics by means of a Jacquard attachment.

glen check

Glen check patterns usually consist of checks in varying colors with overlines or overchecks of other colors. Glen checks and glen plaids are the same.

overcheck

A design in which one check is woven or printed over another of a different size. Glen checks are overchecks.

chemical finishing processes

Treatments with alkalies, acids, bleaches, starch, resins, and the like.

chenille

Chenille is a fabric consisting of wool, cotton, silk or artifical fibers. It is woven from blurry yarns or tufts. Usually it is a mix from chenille and normal textile yarns. While chenille is the filling, the other yarn is the warp. Chenille is a pile yarn originally made by weaving a pile fabric and subsequently cutting it into strips. Its main use is for draperies and bedspreads.

Cheviot

Cheviot is a roughly textured, woolen fabric with a twill weave. The name is derived from the sheeps of the Cheviot Hills (England) of whichs wool it was originally made of.

chevron

Chevron is a design that forms horizontal rows of joined Vs. Another name for chevron is flame stitch.

chiffon

Chiffon is an extraordinary lightweight and thin crepe fabric. Originally, chiffon was made of silk, but today also wool, rayon, nylon and other fibers are used for the production of chiffon. It is an open weave with slightly twisted yarns and can have both, a soft or stiff finish. Chiffon is often used for dresses and scarves.

chiffon velvet

A lightweight, soft, usually silk fabric with a dense pile.

China silk

China silk is a lightweight and soft fabric. This plain-weave silk fabric is used for lingerie and soft suits. Nowadays, China silk has been replaced almost completly with lining fabrics of man-made fibers.

chine

This French word, meaning speckled, is used for fabrics in which the warp threads are printed before weaving whereas the filling threads are left plain, giving a shadowy effect to the finished fabric.

chino

A twill-weave cotton originally used for slacks, sport shirts, and summer military uniforms. It is made of two-ply cotton combed yarns, vat-dyed, and is mercerized and Sanforized. Today, the name is given to any medium-weight, sturdy fabric with a slight sheen. Khaki green and military tan are common chino colors, but the fabric is also made in other colors.

chintz

Any closely woven, plain-weave, glazed cotton and blends of polyestercotton fabric, often printed in bright designs, which are most often floral. It is used for draperies, slipcovers, bedspreads, upholstery, and now mens and boys shirts, and ladies and girls dresses.

chlorinated wool

Woolens chemically treated to decrease shrinkage and to increase affinity for dyes.

cire

An extremely shiny, glossy surface given to fabrics as part of the finishing process. Cire fabrics have a much higher shine than glazed fabrics and are usually somewhat slippery.

cloque

Term used to describe a fabric with a raised effect Jacquard, usually knitted from two colors, and often used interchangeably with matelasse and blister. Cotton cloque is frequently popular for summer dress and jacket or coat costumes.

Coating

A term used to describe a fabric suitable for outerwear, such as coats, as in coating fabric. Also, something applied to a finished fiber or fabric, such as a rubber coating to make a fabric impervious to water. Coating suggests a thicker layer of the substance than does the word finish. A rubber-coated fabric is probably more resistant to water than one that has been treated with a water-resistant finish.

conditioning

A finishing process of sizing a fabric after dyeing to give it a hand.

copolymer

A polymer composed of two or more different monomers.

corded fabric

The term corded fabric (often shortened to cord) refers to fabrics with a lengthwise rib, often woven in stripes. Any fabric with a lengthwise rib.

cordovan

A common name in leather for the hide of an animal with the fur removed.

corduroy

A ribbed, high-luster, cut-pile fabric with extra filling threads that form lengthwise ribs or wales. The rib has been sheared or woven to produce a smooth, velvet-like nap. The thread count varies from 46 x 116 to 70 x 250. Traditionally made of cotton, corduroy can be made of many different fibers, such as rayon and polyester blends. lt is used for dresses, coats, sports jackets, sports shirts, bathrobes, slacks, and draperies.

cortex

Cortical cells in the wool fiber consisting of bundles of fibrils.

cotton

A white or yellowish white vegetable fiber from a plant related to the hollyhock, and grown in the United States, Russia, China, India, and other countries. Cotton is the name of the fiber and also the fabric made from the fiber. Different types of cotton plants produce cotton of higher or lower quality, usually associated with staple length and fineness of the fiber. Certain names for these plants are occasionally seen in advertising-Sea Island, Egyptian, and Pima-to indicate quality of the fiber.

cotton knits

Cotton knits are made by the same methods as other knits, although they often are of finer gauge than wool and man-made fiber knits. They are the traditional underwear fabric, but recently have become popular for shirts, dresses, and sportswear. Many cotton knits today include some man-made fiber to reduce shrinkage and give the knit greater stability.

cotton linters

Cotton fibers that are too short for yarn or fabric manufacturing.

count of yarn

Size of yarn as distinguished by its weight and fineness. This term is applied to cotton, wool, and spun yarns.

crepe

A lightweight fabric of silk, rayon, cotton, wool, man-made, or blended fibers, and characterized by a crinkled surface. This surface is obtained through the use of crepe yarns (yarns that have such a high twist that the yarn kinks), and by chemical treatment with caustic soda, embossing, or weaving (usually with thicker warp yarns and thinner filling yarns). Although crepe is traditionally woven, crepe yarns are now used to produce knit crepes.

crepe-backed satin

A two-faced fabric that can be used on either side. One is satin whereas the reverse, made of twisted yarns, is crepe.

crepe de Chine

Traditionally, a very sheer, pebbly, washable silk with the fabric degummed to produce crinkle. Today, it is a sheer, flat crepe in silk or man-made fibers. It is used for lingerie, dresses, and blouses.

crepe georgette

A sheer fabric, similar to chiffon, made with a crepe yarn that gives the fabric a crepe appearance. See chiffon and crepe

cretonne

A plain-weave, carded cotton fabric, usually printed with large designs. Cretonne is unglazed, and is used for draperies, slipcovers, and other home furnishings.

crinkle crepe

A fabric with an taneven surface, created by use of caustic soda that causes it to shrink unevenly. Plisse is an example of a crinkle crepe fabric. Crinkle crepe and plisse usually have a larger pattern to surface irregularities than crepe.

crochet

A method of making fabric in which one yarn and one needle are used to form loops into which other loops are inserted. True crochet is a handcraft. Machine-made crochets are usually knitted on raschel machines.

cross-dyeing

A method of coloring fabrics made from more than one kind of fiber, for example, a wool and cotton blend. Each fiber in a fabric designed for cross-dyeing takes a specific dye in a different color or in variations of a color. A fabric that is crossdyed is more than one color. Cross-dyeing is often used to create heather effects (soft, misty colorings), but strongly patterned fabrics can also be achieved, depending on the fibers used in the fabric.

cultivated silk

Fibers from a silkworm that have had scientific care.

curled yarn

A textured yarn made by a heated blade that curls the filaments.

damask

A glossy, heavy, firm-textured Jacquard weave fabric, similar to brocade, but lighter, with flat and reversible patterns. It is made of silk, linen, cotton, rayon or a combination of fibers in double or single damask. It is used for tablecloths, napkins, home furnishings, draperies and upholsteries, and occasionally clothing, such as afternoon and evening dresses.

decating

A process for setting the luster on wool, silk, spun silk, and rayons.

decorative fabrics

A term used to describe fabrics for upholstery, slipcovers, curtains, and draperies. These fabrics are usually of heavier weights than the fashion fabrics used in clothing. Also called decorator fabrics and home furnishing fabrics.

degumming

A process for removing natural gum from silk by boiling it in a soap solution.

denier

A technical term referring to a unit of yarn number equal to the weight in grams of 9000 meters of the yarn. It is used for silk and man-made yarns in hosiery as a description of sheerness.The lower the denier number, the more sheer the stocking, panty hose, or garment. For instance, 40 denier hose are much finer and more sheer than 60 denier hose.

denim

A cotton twill weave fabric made of single hard-twisted yarns. The staple type has colored warp and white or undyed filling thread. When the fabric (and the look) became popular, the name denim was given to many other types of fabric, including cross-dyed fabrics and brushed fabrics, both knit and woven, that resemble true denim. Most jeans are made of denim and the most popular and traditional denim color is blue. Sports denim is softer and lighter in weight. It is now available in many colors, and in plaids and stripes. Woven-in stripes and plaids are popular for draperies, upholstery, and bedspreads.

dimity

Literally, double thread

discharge printing

A method of obtaining light designs on a very dark ground. The fabric is piece dyed first, then the color is discharged or bleached in spots, leaving white designs in a pattern. An additional step is often the roller printing of these design areas with patterns and colors. See dyeing.

dobby

A dobby fabric is one with small geometric figures incorporated into the weave, and is made with a dobby attachment on the loom. Less elaborate than a Jacquard attachment, which also produces geometric designs, the dobby is used to produce geometric designs such as those found in pique fabrics.

Donegal tweed

Originally a thick woolen homespun fabric woven by hand by Irish peasants in County Donegal, Ireland. Today, the term is used to refer to any tweed in plain weave characterized by thick, colorful slubs woven into the fabric. See tweed.

double damask

A rich traditional tablecloth, made in a heavier weight than ordinary damask.

double face

A double cloth which can be used on either side. Also used to describe any fabric with two right sides.

double yarn and twist yarn

A two-ply yarn made from single yarns of different colors. A mottled effect is produced.

doupion

Silk that comes from the fiber formed by two silk worms who spun their cocoons together in an interlocking manner. The yarn is uneven, irregular, and larger than regular filaments. It is used to make shantung and doupioni. Also called douppioni, dupion, and dupioni.

drill

A heavy, strong, durable twilled fabric of cotton or man-made fibers, similar to denim, that has a diagonal 2x1 weave running up to the left selvage. When strength of fabric is essential, drill is suitable for slacks, uniforms, overalls, and work shirts. See twill

dry cleaning

A method of removing soil from certain fabrics done with organic solvents instead of water.

dry decating

A process of setting the luster of a wool fabric

dry spinning

A derivative to be spun is dissolved in a solvent that can be evaporated, leaving the desired filament to be hardened by drying in warm air.

duchesse satin

One of the heaviest and richest looking satins. It is important for such formal clothing as wedding gowns.

duck

Originally, a fabric lighter in weight than canvas. Today, the terms are synonymous. A durable plain-weave, closely woven cotton, generally made of ply yarns, in a variety of weights and thread counts. It is used for uniforms, belts, awnings, tents, and sails. See canvas.

duffel cloth

A thick, heavy, napped coating fabric, usually used for duffel coats, hooded coats with wooden buttons that fasten through rope or leather thongs. Duffel cloth is traditionally tan or green, but can be any color.

duplex printing

A method of printing the same design on both sides of the fabric to give the design additional definition and clarity of color. Also called register printing.

durable finish

A rather loose term for a finish added to fabric as one of the final steps to improve the wearability of the fabric.

easy care

An extremely loose term implying that a limited amount of ironing will be necessary after the item is washed. Easy care fabrics seem to be most successful when they are made of at least 65% polyester, or have had a special finish applied to them. Durable press is a more reliable indication that garments or other items require little or no ironing.

Egyptian cotton

A fine, long, staple cotton generally grown in Egypt along the Nile Delta. Egyptian cotton fibers average more than 1112 inches in length and produce a strong, lustrous yarn. See cotton.

embroidery

The term for a group of decorative, usually ornamental and nonfunctional needlework done with thread or yarn on fabric. Most machine embroidery is done by the Schiffli ma chine which can imitate many different hand embroidery stitches. Although embroidery is usually thaught of as being done in several colors, white work (white embroidery on white fabric) and black work (black embroidery on white fabric) are fairly common. Embroidery terms are tremendously variable, with different words being given to the same stitches in different countries, and even different sections of the same countries. Some of the most common embroidery stitches are beading, buttonhole stitch, chain stitch, chevron stitch, satin stitch, stem stitch, back stitch, and straight stitch.

eyelash

Term used to describe clipped yarns that lie on the surface of a fabric, giving the effect of eyelashes.

fabric softeners

Chemical solutions added to the final rinse to improve the hand of terry cloths and infants fabrics.

faille

A soft, slightly glossy silk, rayon, acetate, cotton, wool, or a mixture of these, in a rib weave, that has a light, flat, narrow crosswise rib or cord. It is made by using heavier yarns in the filling than in the warp, and has more ribs to the inch than bengaline. Ottoman is similar to faille but has a wider rib. Faille is considered a dressy fabric, and is used for evening clathes, tailored dresses, coats, suits, ties, handbags, shoes, and draperies. See ottoman.

faille crepe

A silk, rayon, acetate, or other man-made fiber dress fabric with a decided wavy (crepe) cord fillingwise. It is used for negligees, blouses, daytime and evening dresses, handbags, and trims.

fake fur

A slang term for pile fabrics and garments that imitate animal pelts. The most popular fake furs are probably those made from modacrylic fiber. See modacrylic and pile.

fast dyes

Those dyes that are fast for the purpose for which the fabric is intended.

felt

A nonwoven fabric or interlocked fiber made from wool, fur, and hair fibers that mesh together when heat, moisture, and mechanical action are applied. Processes of spinning, weaving, or knitting are not employed. The fibers develop a tight bond and will not ravel. Some percentage of wool is necessary in the manufacture of true felt to achieve the felted effect. It is used for coats, hats, and many industrial purposes.

fiber

The basic unit used in the fabrication of textile yarns and fabrics. Fibers are much longer than they are wide. The term at one time was limited to materials that could be spun into yarn, but now is used to include filaments that do not require spinning, such as silk and man-made fibers.

filament

Extremely long continuous fibers that can be measured in meters or yards, or in the case of man-made fibers, in kilometers or miles. Filaments do not require spinning to form yarn. Examples are rayon, nylon, acrylic, polyester, and other man-made fibers. Silk is the only natural filament

finishing

"An overall term that usually refers to all processes, with the exception of coloring, to make fabric more acceptable (some experts also include coloring). Much of the look, feel, and behavior of a fab ric is determined by the finishing steps taken. Finishing can be mechanical (as in calendering) or chemical, or both. Special treatments are applied to fabrics during finishing to make them perform better, shrink less, resist flarnes, and repel water. Calendering refers to a process in which the fabric is passed through heated cylinders. This gives the fabric a lustrous surface and can also emboss it. Another important step in finishing, and usually the final process, is tentering

fire resistant

Fire resistant refers to a fabric or fiber that has been treatedto discourage the spreading of flames. See lame-retardant-fabric/180/flame-retardant-fabric.html" title="flame retardant fabric" class="normal">flame retardant fabric.

fireproof

Fireproof means that a fabric literally will not burn. To be labeled fireproof, the Federal Trade Commission requires that a fabric must be 100% fireproof. If the fiber or fabric has been treated to prevent flames from spreading, it must be labeled as fire resistant. See fire resistant and lame-retardant-fabric/180/flame-retardant-fabric.html" title="flame retardant fabric" class="normal">flame retardant fabric.

flame retardant fabric

A fabric that resists or retards the spreading of flames. A flame retardant fabric can be made by using fibers that are themselves flame retardant, or by using special finishes on fabrics. Selow is a list of some flame retardant fabrics. Many companies produce similar items but have not given them names referring specifically to their flame retardant nature.

flat crepe

A firm, medium-weight silk crepe with a soft, almost imperceptible crinkle. It has creped fillings alternating with two S and two Z twists. The surface is fairly flat. Flat crepe may also be made of man-made fibers. It is used for dresses, negligees, and blouses. See crepe de chine,

flax

Fibers of the flax plant that are spun into linen yarns and woven into linen cloth. The word linen is derived from linum, part of the scientific name for the flax plant. See linen.

fleece

from animals, usually a sheep. Fleece is also used to describe certain coating fabrics that have a deep, thick pile that imitats this wool.

floss silk

Tangled silk waste. Floss is also a twisted silk yarn used in art needlework.

fluorescent fabric

A fabric that glows with a more vivid color than usual under daylight, headIights, and ultra-violet light. Fluorescent fabrics are important, especially in colors such as orange, where high visibility is essential for safety in hunting clothes, clothes for crossing guards, and outfits for school children. Occasionally, fluorescent fabrics become fashionable for other items of clothing.

foulard

A lightweight, soft, plain- or twill-weave fabric made of silk, mercerized cotton, rayon, acetate, or thin worsted wool. Foulard has a high luster on the face and dull on the reverse side. It is often printed, and the patterns range from simple polka dots to small, allover elaborate designs on light or dark grounds. It is also made in plain and solid colors. Foulard has a characteristic hand that can be described as light, firm, and supple. It is used for spring and summer dresses, scarves, robes, and neckties, and frequently sold as surah.

frieze

A heavy pile fabric used primarily for upholstery, slipcovers, and draperies. Frieze is looped, and the loops are often sheared to varying heights to form the pattern. Originally made of cotton (and still often referred to as cotton frieze), the fabric is now usually made of mohair, wool, cotton, and blends of cotton and man-made fibers. Also called frise.

frise

Lace made by using a pil

functional finish

A special finish added to a fabric as une of the final steps in its manufacture that alters the performance and contributes a specific attribute to the fabric in some way. A water repellent finish, for example, is a functional finish because it prevents water from penetrating the fabric, thereby changing the function of the fabric. Other examples of special finishes are soil release and crease resistant.

gabardine

"A strong, hard-finished, clear-surfaced, mediumto heavy-weight, tightly woven steep-twilled fabric with rounded wales and a flat back. The diagonal wales are fine, close, and steep, and are more pronounced than in serge. The wales cannot be seen on the wrong side of the fabric. Gabardine goes in and out of fashion

garnetting

Shredding wool fabrics into a fibraus state, prior to remanufacture into woolen yarn.

gas fading

The loss of colar some fabrics suffer because of nitrogen in the atmosphere rather than exposure to sunlight. Certain dyes (blues and greens, for example) are often more susceptible to gas fading than others, as are certain fibers (acetate). Special dyes can be used on these fabrics and colors to reduce or eliminate this problem. Also ealled atmospherie and pollution fading.

gauze

A thin, sheer, open, loosely woven, plain-weave cotton fabric with widely spaced yarns, used for diapers and surgical dressings. It can also be made of wool, silk, rayon, or other man-made fibers. Some weights are stiffened for curtains, trimmings of dresses, and other decorative or apparel purposes.

georgette

A soft, sheer dull-textured silk fabric, similar to chiffon, made with a crepe yarn to give the fabric a crepe appearance. The crepy surface is obtained by alternating right-hand and left hand twist yarns in warp and filling. It is used for summer and evening dresses. See chiffon and crepe.

glass fiber

Very fine flexible fiber made from glass. It. is used extensively for curtains and draperies. Glass fiber fabrics are very strong and wash well, but care should be taken to avoid getting small splinters of the glass yarns in the hands. Glass fiber is stiff and has poor resistance to wear and abrasion. It is also fireproof. See fireproof.

glazing

A finishing process consisting of treating the fabric with glue, starch, paraffin, shellac, or resin, then moving it through hot friction rollers.

glitter

The name, sometimes used in place of lame, for any fabric woven or knitted with all metallic yarns or with a combination of metallic and other fiber yarns. Today, most glitter is made from one of the nontarnishable metallic fibers, a great improvement over lame of the past that tended to darken with age.

gossamer

Any sheer, fine fabric may be given the name gossamer, although the term was traditionally used to describe silk fabrics.

grading

Determining, by touch, the fineness of the diameters of individual fibers. Wool tops are graded in this fashion. Efforts are now being made to grade wool in the grease by this method.

grain

The direction in which the yarns run in weaving. The straight grain is the direction of the warp yarns.

grass cloth

A plain-weave, loosely woven fabric made from such fibers as hemp, ramie, and even nettle. Today, true grass cloth is relatively rare, but the appearance of grass cloth is copied in wallpaper and fabrics of man-made fibers.

greige

The state of a fabric as it comes from the loom (after it has been constructed) but before it has been colored or finished.

grenadine

A tightly twisted ply yarn composed of two or three singles.

grosgrain

A fairly heavy, closely woven, firm, corded or ribbed fabric, made in silk or rayon warp with cotton cords. The cords are round and firm, heavier than in poplin, rounder than in faille. Grosgrain is often made in narrow widths for use as trimming. The most common use of grosgrain is for ribbons in which the ribs are usually narrow, but it can be made with larger ribs for academic gowns. It is really a bengaline in narrow goods and is used for ribbons, neckties, and lapel facings.

guanaco

A wooly, reddish-brown wild animal of the llama family.

habutai

Soft, lightweight silk dress fabric originally woven in the gum on hand looms in Japan. It is sometimes confused with China silk, which is technically lighter in weight.

hackling

A combing process that prepares the flax fibers for spinning by removing short lengths of fiber, leaving only longer ones and laying them parallel. It may be done by hand or by machine.

haircloth

A stiff, wiry fabric made from a combination of natural or man-made fibers with animal hair filling, usually mohair (goat) or horsehair. It is used in upholstery and as interfacing and stiffening because of its strength.

hand-blocked print

Fabrics printed by hand with blocks made of wood or linoleum.

haute couture

The business of designing, making, and selling high fashion, custom-made clothing.

heat setting

Although practices similar to heat setting are used in the finishing of almost all fabrics, the term heat setting, strictly speaking, refers only to thermoplastic man-made fibers. Because of the thermoplastic nature of most man-made fibers (they change their shape when heat is applied), certain features, such as pleats, can be made permanent by treating them under very high heat. Heat setting usually gives a smooth appearance to a fabric and sets its final measurements. Boarding, a process in the rnanufacture of stockings, is a type of heat setting.

heat transfer

A form of printing in which elaborate colors and designs are printed onto a special type of paper. The paper is placed over the fabric and the designs and colors are transferred to the fabric through the application of heat.

hemp

A plant grown in the Philippines, Mexico, Central America, the West Indies, and India. Outer fibers are used for cordage, inner fibers for cables and canvas.

herringbone

A fabric in which the pattern of weave resembles the skeletal structure of the herring. lt is a twill weave in which the wale runs in one direction for a few rows and then re verses, forming a V pattern. lt is made with a broken twill weave that produces a balanced, zigzag effect and is used for sportswear, suits, and coats.

high tenacity

High strength of modified rayon and acetate fibers as a result of chemical treatment while the fibers are in the plastic state.

high-bulk yarn

Although the term high-bulk yarn is definitely a technical one, it is used occasionally in advertising. Highbulk yarns are processed so that, through a form of shrinkage in the processing, they are thicker and bulkier than they would be otherwise.

holland

A plain-weave fabric used in the home primarily for window shades.

homespun

Originally, fabrics made from yarns spun by hand. Today, homespun is used for fabrics that imitate this look. It is a very coarse, rough, plain-weave fabric, loosely woven with irregular, tightly twisted, and nubby, unevenly spun yarns. It is made from linen, wool, cotton, or man-made fiber, or blends in varied colors and is used for coats, suits, sportswear, draperies, upholstery, and slipcovers.

homopolymer

A polymer composed of one substance or one type of molecule.

Honan

A heavy silk, pongee-type, but a finer weave, originally the product of wild silkworms of Honan, China. A fabric of the best grade of Chinese silk, it is sometimes woven with blue edges. It is now made to resemble a heavy pongee, with slub yarns in both warp and filling. Honan is manufactured from silk or from man-made fibers. It is used for womens dresses. See silk, pongee, and wild silk.

honeycomb

A weave that results in fabrics that have diamonds or other geometric shapes resembling a honeycomb. Waffle weaves are identical to honeycomb weaves, and many weaves called thermal are honeycomb weaves.

horsehair

Fibers that are hair from the mane and tail, for the most part, of Canadian and Argentine horses. It is occasionally used for upholstery, but is more commonly used in interfacings for stiffening and strength. It is always combined with other fibers. True horsehair is rare and fabrics loosely called horsehair are often made from other hairs (such as goat) or man-made fibers.

huck

A type of toweling fabric with a honeycombed surface made by using heavy filling yarns in a dobby weave. It has excellent absorbent qualities. It is woven with a pattern, most often with a dobby attachment on the loom and may have Jacquard borders. Huck is traditionally made of cotton, linen, or rayon, or a mixture of these, although today, other fibers may be used. In a mixture it is called a union fabric. Face or hand towels are made in white or colors and are used for drying dishes, glasses, and kitchen utensils. Huck is also called huckaback. Embroidery enthusiasts often use huck as a ground for their work. See dobby.

illusion

Very fine net or mesh fabrics such as those used in bridal veils. Illusion usually is made of either silk or nylon.

Indian muslin

Muslin is the name for a very large group of plain-weave fabrics originally made of cotton. Most muslin used for purposes other than sheets is unbleached, which means that bits of trash, usually appearing as brown flecks, add color to the fabric. Occasionally, unbleached muslin becomes popular in fashion, even for wedding gowns. Indian muslin is a very fine muslin from India, often printed with gold and silver and is an expensive luxury fabric. See muslin, trash, and flecks

indigo

A type of dyestuff, originally obtained from the indigo plant, now produced synthetically. Blues are brilliant. It Is colorfast to washing and light.

ingrain

A knitted or woven fabric made of yarns dyed before knitting or weaving.

intarsia

A pattern knitted into a fabric. The term usually refers to a design on only one part of the fabric.

interfacing

A stiffening fabric made of horsehair (often goat hair, wool, man-made fibers, or combinations of these fibers). Interfacing is used to give additional body and strength to certain parts of garments. Areas that usually require interfacing include the front opening edges, collars, pocket flaps, and any piece where stretching or a loss of crispness would be a disadvantage.

interlining

A tayer of fabric placed between the outer fabric and the lining of the garment to add warmth. lt is most commonly found in coats and jackets. Interlinings are offen made of reprocessed wool, but other materials such as polyester fiberfill may be used. See fiberfill, reprocessed wool.

interlock

A fine gauge, compound knit fabric with a smooth surface on both front and back, composed of two separate 1 x 1 rib fabrics interknitted to form one cloth, made on an interlock machine. The fabric was traditionally used for underwear, but today is being used for apparel. Despite the name of the fabric, poorly made interlock develops runs at the edges and all interlock knits should be reinforced or finished in some way at these edges.

iridescent

Fabric woven with yarns of one color in the warp and another color in the filling so that the fabric seems to change color as the light strikes it. Other names for this type of fabric are changeable and shot.

jacquard

A term used to describe fabrics with a woven or knitted pattern, whether or not they are made with a Jacquard attachment on the loom. The Jacquard attachment for weaving and knitting machines makes possible the manufacture of complicated, repeated geometrical designs in knits and wovens. See dobby.

jacquard patterns

Fancy patterns knitted in articles made by a special attachment on the knitting machine. Jacquard weave A construction characterized by very intricate woven-in designs. A special Jacquard loom makes these designs by controlling each warp yarn.

jean

In theory, a sturdy, solid-colored or striped twill-weave cotton fabric, softer and finer than denim and drill. In practice, the term denim is almost always used for the fabric, whereas the term jeans is used for pants made of denim. Jean is used for sport blouses, work shirts, womens and girls pants and shorts, and childrens overalls and playclothes.

jersey

A single knit fabric with plain stitches on the right side and purl stitches on the back. A weft-knitted rayon, acetate, or two-bar tricot-knitted rayon or acetate used for slips, gowns, and blouses. Jersey is also made of wool, cotton, silk, nylon, or blends of the newer synthetics. As an elastic knitted wool fabric, usually in stockinette stitch, jersey was first made on the Island of Jersey off the English coast and used for fishermans clothing. [t is also used for blouses, dresses, and basque shirts. The word jersey is also occasionally used as a synonym for any knit. See knitting, single knit, and purl knit.

you will find a wide selection of jersey fabrics at jerseyfabrics.net.

jute

One of the natural fibers still used extensively for fabrics. It is a bast fiber that comes from jute plants grown primarily in India, 1akistan, and Bangladesh. Jute is used for many purposes, including the manufacture of burlap, gunny sacks, bags, cordage (twine and rope), trimmings, binding threads, and backings for rugs and carpets.

kapok

A fluffy fiber that comes from the seed pods of the kapok tree found in the tropics. Kapok at one tirne was extremely popular for stuffing pillows and was also used in life preservers as it is naturally buoyant. Today, rnan-made fibers have replaced kapok in many cases.

kashmir

Another spelling for cashmere. Kashmir is also an alternate spelling for the name of the goat from which cashmere wool comes. See cashmere.

kersey

A thick, heavy, pure wool and cotton twill-weave fabric similar tonrelton. It is well fulled, with a fine nap and a closesheared surface. Kersey is used for uniforms and overcoats.

khaki

A term used for both an earth color or olive green color (yellow-brown color with a greenish tint) and for fabrics made in these colors, whether of wool, cotton, linen, or man-made fibers. Khaki is a classic uniform color and material. It is also used for sportswear and leisure clothes.

kilim

Near Eastern oriental fabric woven with a shuttle or needle, with no pile. Kilims are used by the Orientals as portieres, couch covers, and table covers.

knit terry cloth

Terry cloth is a soft, absorbent fabric with loops on one or both sides. When this fabric is knit rather than woven, it is called knit terry. Knit terry is especially popular for bathrobes and beach wear because of its absorbency. Stretch knit terry (usually made stretchable by the addition of a synthetic elastic fiber) is popular for baby clothes because of its absorbency and comfort.

knitting

The process of constructing an elastic, porous fabric by interlocking a series of loops of one or more yarns with needles. It may be done by hand or by machine. These yarns form a series of connecting loops that support one another like a chain. Almost any textile item can be and has been knitted, including rugs. A warp knit is made on a machine in which parallel yarns run lengthwise and are locked into the series of loops. Warp knits have a good deal of crosswise stretch. Wett knits are made on a machine that forms loops in a circular direction and have one continuous thread running across the fabric. The following entries are common knit terms.

double knit

A wett knit fabric produced in two layers which cannot be separated. Its appearance is the same on either side with a characteristic fine vertical wale.

jacquard knit

A knit with a design knit into the fabric in a regular allover pattern. Most Jacquard patterns are closely knitted, but it is possible to make some pattern knits with a Jacquard machine.

rib knit

A knit that consists of groups of alternate plain and purl stitches (the reverse of a plain knit with loops showing). Rib knit fabrics are stretchier and have a snugger fit than plain knits. Rib knit is frequently used at wrists, waists, and necklines of plain or patterned knit garments where it is called ribbing.

single knit

Single knit, made on a weft knitting machine, is another term for plain knit

knitwear

Knitted apparel, including hosiery, underwear, outerwear, and sportswear.

lace

A decorated openwork fabric created by looping, interlacing, braiding, or twisting threads. [t is made (either on a background fabric of net or without a background fabric) with a design formed by a net work of threads made by hand or on special lace machines, with bobbins, needles, or hooks. The pattern in lace is usually open and most often floral in design. Machine-made lace is most commonly seen today and many patterns formerly only made by hand, are imitated by machine. hace is the traditional bridal fabric, but it is also used for other nonformal clothing such as sports clothes. The following entries are some of the major types of lace.

ajour lace

An open lace design with the pattern scattered on the ground.

allover lace

Lace in which the pattern covers the entire fabric, rather than being isolated on one section of background net.

antique lace

A heavy lace made on a square knotted net with designs darned onto the net. Machine-made antique lace is often used for curtains. See embroidery and darn.

crocheted lace

Lace made with a single yarn. A crochet hook is used to form loops joined to other loops to form the design.

hairpin lace

A delicate, narrow lace worked over a hairpin or a special hairpin-shaped, loom-like tool.

Irish lace

The term Irish lace can be used to refer to any lace made in Ireland, but crocheted laces are those most often given the name. Embroidered nets are another type of Irish lace. See crocheted lace.

needlepoint lace

Lace made with a sewing or embroidery needle to form buttonhole stitches as the basis of the design.

Nottingham lace

One of the first of the machinemade laces. It originated in Nottingham, England. Today, the term Nottingham lace is often used for any lace made by any machine.

pillow face

Lace made by using a pillow to hold pins around which thread is arranged. See bobbin lace.br />

Renaissance lace

A lace made of woven strips of fabric joined by flat stitches. See Battenberg lace.

tatting

A method of lace-making worked with the fingers and a shuttle that holds the thread. Tatting forms a narrow, knotted lace, often used for edging.

Val lace

See Valenciennes lace.[1][1]See Venise lace. The name for the liquid form of natural or man-made rubber. It

Valenciennes lace

A flat babbin lace worked with one hand forming both the background and the design for the lace.

Venetian lace

See Venise lace

Venice lace

See Venise lace

Venise lace

A needlepoint lace usually in a floral pattern connected by picot edgings. It is also called Venice lace and Venetian lace. See picot.

lacing

String, cord, or ribbon strung through eyelets or over hooks in order to bring together and fasten parts of an item such as a blouse, belt, or shoe.

Battenberg lace

A lace similar to Renaissance lace with a pattern formed by tape or braid joined by bars. See Renaissance lace.

beading

A type of lace made by the bobbin lace method. Also, an openwork lace or embroidery containing holes designed for the insertion of decorative ribbon. See bobbin lace.

Binche lace

A lace in which hand-made lace motifs are appliqued to a machine-made net ground. The name comes from Binche, a town in Belgium, where the lace is said to have originated.

bobbinet lace

See bobbin lace and pillow lace.

Breton lace

Lace made on open net, usually embroidered with very heavy, often brightly colored, yarns, Breton is the area in France where the lace is said to have originated.

Brussels lace

Brussels lace may be either a bobbin lace or a needlepointlace.It is usually worked on a machine-made ground and sometimes the designs are appliqued onto the ground. Because of the importance of Brussels, Belgium, in the history of lace-making (many patterns developed there), several different laces are called Brussels lace. See bobbin lace and needlepoint lace.

Chantilly

One of the most popular of bridal laces often used for the trimming on bridal veils. It is made by the bobbin method and has designs outlined by thick cords. See bobbin lace.

Cluny lace

A heavy lace, often made of thick cotton or man-made fibers using the bobbin method. It is the traditional lace for doilies and place mats, but is also used in apparel. See bobbin lace.

lambrequin

A structure at the top and sides of a window that frames it and is usually part of the window decoration. I,ambrequins are often covered with fabric and trimmed. They are usually made of wood and may be simply painted.

lambs wool

Soft, resilient wool clipped from sheep less than eight months old. It is used in fine-grade woolen fabrics.

lambskin

A common narne in leather for the hide of an animal with the fur removed.

lame

Brocade, damask, or brocatelle fabrics in which flat metallic yarns (or with a combination of metallic and other fiber yarns) are woven or knitted in warp and filling for a luxurious effect. Today, most lame is made from one of the nontarnishable metallic fibers, a great improvement over lame of the past that tended to darken with age. Lame is also a trademark terrn for a nontarnishable metallic yarn. Glitter is sometimes used to describe this type of fabric and is used for evening dresses, blouses, and trimmings.

laminating

The sticking of a fabric to a plastic foam or sheet of plastic. A method of joining one fabric to another by rneans of an adhesive. Polyurethane is often laminated to the back of an outerwear coating fabric for warmth. The term laminating is occasionally used as a synonym for bonding, but this is incorrect. See bonding.

lansdowne

A lightweight twill fabric made from natural or man-made fibers and usually used for dresses.

lapel

The front part of a garment that is folded back on the chest and forms a continuation of the collar. A notched lapel joins the collar at a seam and its outer point slants downward.

lappet

An ornamental embroidery effect woven into a cloth by a series of needles. The design, often in zigzag effect, is not clipped.

lariat

A woven belt that looks like a cowboys rope.

lastrile

Generic name for a made-made elastic fiber. There is not now, and has never been, any commercial production of this fiber in the United States. See generic name.

latex

The name for the liquid form of natural or man-made rubber. It can be formed into thread for use as an elastic yarn. Latex is also used extensively as part of the backing in the manufacture of rugs and at one time, was used extensively in corsets and brassieres. Now, however, although some latex foundation garments are still made, it has been largely replaced by spandex. Solid latex is sometimes referred to as rubber. See spandex.

launder-ometer

A standard laboratory devise for testing a fabrics fastness to washing.

lawn

A light, well-hackled linen fabric first made in haon, France. Now, it is a lightweight, fairly sheer, fine, plain-weave cotton or linen muslin fabric generally more sheer and with a higher count than nainsook. It can be given a soft or crisp finish and is sized and calendered to produce a soft, lustrous appearance. Linen lawn is synonymous with handkerchief linen. Cotton lawn is a similar type of fabric. Lawn is slightly stiffer than batiste, but can be used for similar purposes. [t is white, solid colored, or printed and is used tot dresses, blouses, curtains, lingerie, and as a base for embroidered items. See batiste, nainsook, and handkerchief linen.

leather

The hide of an animal with the fur removed_ lt has been used throughout history for clothing and other purposes. Today, manmade fabrics that imitate leather are widely available. Common leather names include alligator, buckskin, calfskin, chamois, cordovan, cowhide, crocodile, doeskin, grain leather, kid, lambskin, morocco, nappa, patent, peccary, pigskin, pin seal, reptile, reversed leather, Russian, shearling, skiver, snakeskin, and suede.

leather converter

A business that buys hides and skins, has them processed in contract tanneries, and then sells the finished product.

leatherette

A term used for imitation leathers. More correctly, these should be described by their actual construction, such as vinyl-coated fabric.

Leavers lace

Machine-made lace named for the inventor of the machine on which it is made. Many hand-made lace patterns can be copied on this machine. The term is sometimes used in preference to machine-made lace to imply quality.

leg warmers

Bulky knit, footless socks that extend from ankle to midthigh. They can be worn over stockings, boots, and pants, and also with skirts.

leghorn straw

A braided straw popular for hats and is made from wheat grown in Italy. See straw.

leno

An open, lacy woven fabric made with a special loom attachment. In a leno weave a pair of filling yarns twist around the warp yarns in various patterns to achieve the lacy effect. A leno weave is also made by twisting adjacent warps around each other like a figure eight. The filling passes through the twisted warps. l.eno fabrics are popular for curtains and summer dresses.

letting off

Releasing warp yarns from the warp beam as the weaving operation proceeds.

limp fabric

A fabric that is too soft because of inadequate amounts or improper application of finishing materials.

line

Longest flax fibers used for fine, even linen yarns. Shortest flax fibers are called tow.

line yarn

Well-hackled, even linen yarn made of long fibers.

linear polymer

A polymer formed by end-to-end linking of molecular units. The resulting polymer is very long and narrow. It is typical of fibrous forms.

linen

A vegetable fiber obtained from the inside of the woody stalk of the flax plant. It is one of the oldest fabrics known. It is strong, and todays man-made fibers are often blended with it to improve its wrinkle resistance and give the fabric other desirable qualities. Linen is woven in various weights for different purposes and is occasionally used in knit blends. The following entries are common linen names.

Belgian linen

Any linen produced in Belgium.

embroidery linen

Another name for art linen. See art linen.

handkerchief linen

A fine, sheer linen used for handkerchiefs, dresses or blouses, or whenever a lightweight cloth is desired.

irish linen

Irish linen refers to linen items from Northern Ireland and Eire.

Iinen straw

A type of straw made to resemble woven linen. See straw

linen tester

A magnifying glass for counting cloth, also called pick glass or pick counter.

linens and domestics

The term used in stores to describe various household items which, at one time, were made of linen. Today, most linens and domestics are made of cot ton and man-made fibers. The following entries are some of the items found in the linens and domestics sections of stores. See blankets, towels, and bedding.

antimacassar

A piece of cloth originally pinned to the back of a chair to protect the upholstery from hair oil (macassar). Today, although antimacassars are still available, changes in hair grooming and the development of fairly easy-to-clean upholstery fabrics have made their purpose primarily decorative.

napkin

A rectangular piece of fabric or paper used to wipe the mouth and hands in the course of eating. Napkins are often matched to the tablecloth or placernats.

pillow cover

A fabric cover which is placed over the bed pillow before the pillowcase. Pillow covers are designed to give more protection to pillows than is provided by pillowcases alone. See pillowcase.

pillowcase

Pillowcases are washable covers for bed pillows that usually match the sheets and protect the pillow from soil. Most American pillowcases are made in a rectangular form with one open, hemmed edge. They occasionally are decorated on one of the narrower ends.

placemat

A piece of cloth or other material (often foam-backed plastic) placed on a table between the table and the place setting to protect the table and to decorate it during meals. Placemats are available in a variety of sizes, shapes, and colors.

runner

A rectangular piece of fabric used with placemats to decorate and protect the dining table. It is placed in the center of the table under condiments (salt, pepper, mustard) and any decorations such as flowers or candles. Runners frequently match the placemats and are also used on chests of drawers to protect the top from spills.

silence cloth

A cloth put on a dining table to protect it and (as the name suggests) to prevent the clatter of dishes against the table. A silence cloth is usually a napped, fairly heavy fabric. Silence cloths are placed beneath tablecloths and are also called silencers.

silencer

Another name for silence cloth. See silence cloth and table pad.

tablecloth

Thetraditional table covering for protection and decoration. Tablecloths range from informal ones made, for example, of checked fabrics, to formal, such as double damask. Napkins are usually rnatched to the tablecloth. See double damask and napkin.

lingerie

Another term for womens underwear and nightwear, including panties, slips, petticoats, camisoles, pajamas, and nightgowns. Lingerie implies delicate fabric, often lace-trimmed. The term lingerie fabrics is occasionally used for very delicate fabrics. Formerly, the finest lingerie was made of muslin, lawn, or silk.

lingerie crepe

Pormerly called French crepe because it was originally made in France. The creped surface was made by embossing (pressing cloth over a fleece blanket). Because it is no longer pressed, it is not a crepe and it is used for lingerie and spring and summer dresses.

lining

Fabric made in the same shape as the outer fabric, a lining supports and protects the outer fabric and hides seams as well. Linings are found not only in apparel, but also in draperies and oc casionally curtains and bedspreads. Items that are lined tend to wear better and last longer than unlined items and the appearance of a lined item is usually better than that of an unlined one. Special lining fabrics include those sold under the trademarks Si Bonne and Earl-Glo. Linings should be of the same construction as the outer fabric.

linsey-woolsey

When linen and wool were woven together in the 18th century, the resulting coarse, loosely woven, and rather scratchy fabric, was called linsey-woolsey. Although linen and wool blends are occasionally made today, the use of finer finishing techniques makes them extremely comfortable and the name linsey-woolsey is limited to historical references.

linters

Very short fibers that cover the cotton seeds after the I long fibers have been removed by ginning. These short, fuzzy fibers, after removal from the cotton seeds, are a source of cellulose for rayon and acetate.

Linton tweed

The trademark of Linton, Ltd., Carlisle, England. These tweeds are noted for their softness and subtle or vivid calorings.

lisle

A hard, usually long-staple cottan ar wool yarn of defined length im two or more ply and with a minimum twist far a given count specified by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) rules for hosiery.

loafer

A slip-on shoe with a separate sole and heel.

loden cloth

A thick, heavy, napped fleecy coating fabric woven of coarse grade wool in Austria and the German Tyrol. It is similar to duffel cloth if made of wool or the occasional man-made fibers. Since the wool has some grease, it is naturally water-repellent. lt is usually a light forest green color, called loden, from which it (gets its name. Loden cloth moves in and out of fashion everywhere except in those parts of Germany and Austria where loden jackets, suits, and coats are considered basic dress. Loden cloth is sometimes gray in color. See duffel cloth.

loft

The springiness or fluffiness of a fiber.

longdoth

A fine, soft, cotton cloth woven of softly twisted yarns. It is similar to nainsook but slightly heavier, with a duller surface. Longcloth is so called because it was one of the first fabrics to be woven in Iong rolls. lt is also a synonym for muslin sheeting af gaod quality. The fabric is used for underwear and linings. See nainsook and muslin sheeting.

loom

A machine for weaving cloth. It is aperated either by hand or by machine.

loom-figured fabrics

Fabrics that have the design or pattern woven or knitted in as opposed to those which, for instance, have patterns printed on finished cloth.

loom finished

A term referring to certain fabrics soid without most of the steps mentioned in the entry under finishing. Loom finished fabrics are relatively rare because the consumer has grown accustomed to finished fabrics. See finishing.

loop

Any material (braid, fabric, and so forth) that is shaped into an oval and topstitched to a garment or encased into a seam and used as a buttonhole.

loop yarn

The slack-twisted strand is twisted to form loops or curls. This strand is held in place by one or two binder yarns.

loose cover

Another term for slipcover. See slipcover.[1]The gloss, sheen, or shine of a fiber, yarn, or fabric.

lounge wear

Intimate apparel that includes robes, housecoats, and bed jackets.

lumen

The open structure or canal from which the protoplasm has disappeared.

luster

The gloss, sheen, or shine of a fiber, yarn, or fabric.

luster rugs

Rugs that are chemically washed to give them sheen. They may be Wilton, Axminster machine-made rugs with oriental designs or velvet construction, and are frequently referred to as sheen-type rugs.

Macclesfield silk

Hand-woven silk or rayon fabric with small overall Jacquard patterns. Macclesfield, England, is the town of origin. Today, the name applies to small, yarn dyed, dobby designs used in mens neckties. See Spitalfields.

Mackinaw

A thick, heavy, usually coarse fabric with a certain degree of natural water repellency. It was originally made of wool, but other fibers such as acrylics are being used today. It was named for the blankets made by the Mackinaw Indians in Michigan. Mackinaw and similar fabrics are extremely popular for hunting jaekets and are usually plaid or checked. Mackinaw is also spelled Mackinac.

macrame

An ancient method of forming open fabrics by knotting string, yarn, or other threads. Macrame can be used to make anything from delicate trimmings to sturdy items such as hammocks. Recently, wall hangings of macrame have also become popular.

macromolecule

A large molecule formed by hooking together many small molecule units. The term is used synonymously with polymolecule or polymer. See polymer.

madder

A root from which a vegetable dye called Alizarin was obtained originally. It is now produced synthetically. See Alizarin dye.

Madras

1) Called Indian Madras. A fine, hand-loomed cotton imported from Madras, India. The Federal Trade Commission has ruled that it is deceptive to apply this term to a fabric that does not meet this description. In addition, the FTC definition requires that any dyes.used on this fabric must be vegetable dyes that will bleed (the col:ors run into each other). The fact that the FTC felt called upon to make such a definition is some indication of the popularity of Madras and imitation Madras fabrics in recent years. The authentic Madras and its imitations usually have checked or plaid designs

maillot

A one-piece, typically strapless, womans bathing suit.

maline

A gauze-like veiling of net used to trim hats. See net.

Mandarin collar

A small (two- to three-inch deep) collar standing on a high, close neckline.

man-made fibers

An overall term referring to all fibers not found naturally. This includes rayon and acetate made from cellulose, a natural product. The term synthetic fibers also ap plies only to man-made fibers made entirely in the laboratory from such things as petroleum (polyester).

mantilla

A lace scarf worn over the head.

marabou

Short, fluffy feathers now taken from domesticated fowl, usually dyed to match the garments on which they are used as trimming. They were originally taken from the stork.

marl

A technical term that refers to a yarn made of different colored fibers. The word is used descriptively for fabrics to indicate randomly or uniformly colored slubs that appear on the surface giving added textural and design interest to the fabric.

marquisette

A light, strong, sheer, open-textured curtain fabric in leno weave, often with dots woven into the surface. The thread count varies from 48 x 22 to 60 x 40. Marquisette, extremely popular for curtains and mosquito netting, is made of cotton, rayon, acetate, nylon, polyester, acrylic, glass, silk, or mixtures.

Marseilles

A firmly woven reversible fabric with raised geometric designs. Marseilles was originally made of cotton, but is now usually made from man-made fibers or blends.

Mary Jane

A low-heeled girls or womans pump with a strap across the instep and a rounded toe.

mat

Another spelling for matte. See matte.

matelasse

A soft double or compound fabric with a quilted appearance. One of the fabrics that, like cloque, has a blistered or quilted look to the design. Officially, the word matelasse implies the use of two different yarns that, when finished, react differently to the finishing resulting in a puckered effect in the fabric. In practice, the term matelasse is usually applied to luxury fabrics for evening wear, while a word such as cloque is used for a similar fabric made from cotton. The heavier type is used in draperies and upholstery, whereas crepe matelasse is popular in dresses, semiformal and formal suits and wraps, and trimmings.

material

Another word for fabric. See fabric.Fibers 1 to 11 long

matte

A dull surface on a fabric. Since one of the characteristics of fabrics made from man-made fibers is a shiny surface, mattefinished fabrics have become popular and matte looks for man-made fabrics are achieved in yarn processing or finishing. See finishing.

mechanical finishes

Those finishing processes done by copper plates, roller brushes, perforated cylinders, tenter frames, or any type of mechanical equipment.

mechanical picker

A device with vertical drums equipped with spindles that remove the cotton from the boll.

medulta

Honeycombed cellular section found in medium and coarse wools.

melamine resins

Finishes used to give wrinkle resistance and other desirable qualities (including a degree of shrinkage resistance) to fabrics, primarily those made from natural fibers. Melamine resins are chlorine retentive which means that if fabrics with these finishes are bleached with a chlorine bleach, they will keep both the color and the odor of the chlorine.

melton

Melton, usually called melton cloth, is a thick, heavily felted or fulled wool fabric in a twill or satin weave, with clipped surface nap, felt-like in feeling, and lustrous, similar to a dull broad cloth. The close weave means that the fabric appears to be completely smooth. Melton was originally made of all wool or cotton and wool, but today is made of other fibers. It is used extensively for coats and also for uniforms. See nap.

mercerization

A finish applied to cotton yarn or fabric or to a blend of cotton and other fibers to make it stronger, more absorbent, and to give the fabric additional luster and increased ability to take dye. Mercerization can be done at the yarn stage or the fabric stage. In common with several other textile processes, mercerization involves the use of caustic soda (sodium hydroxide or lye).

merchandise beam

It is synonymous with cloth beam.

merino

Wool from the merino sheep that produces a short staple fiber of extremely high quality. Merino sheep are raised in the United States, Australia, South Africa, and South America. Occasionally, the term merino is used as a synonym for Botany. See Botany.

mesh

A term for a large class of open fabrics made by almost all methods except felting. It can be made of any fiber, mixture, or blend. Mesh fabrics are used for bags, summer sport shirts, under wear, foundation garments, and hosiery. Mesh hosiery is knitted in such a pattern that, when one yarn is snagged, the stocking will not develop a long, vertical run, but a hole instead. Mesh stockings and panty hose are believed to wear better than other constructions.

metal complex dyes

A class of dyestuffs that is ionic and premetallized (chemically coupled with nickel, copper, and cobalt salts to make the dye on the fiber).

metallic

A generic name for a manufactured fiber that may be metal, metal coated with a synthetic, or a man-made fiber core covered with metal. When the metal is coated with a man-made film, the metal does not tarnish.

metallic doth

Any fabric, such as lame, woven with gold, silver, tinsel, or other metal threads.

micronaire fineness

The weight in micrograms of one inch of fiber.

middy twill

The term middy twill is used for many fabrics that are sturdy and have a twill weave. Traditionally made of cotton, middy twill today is likely to include at least some man-made fibers in its construction. When middy blouses are in fashion (a loasefitting, hip-length overblouse with a sailor collar) the most popular color for this twill is navy blue. It is used also for school uniforms.

Milan straw

A type of straw.

milanese

A kind of warp knitting with several sets of yarns. Characteristie is its diagonal argyle-type pattern.

mildew resistant

Among the many properties that can be given to fabrics in the finishing is resistance to traditional enemies. Waterproofed fabrics and fabrics treated with metallic com pounds and certain organic compounds will resist mildew. Fabrics such as canvas, that are exposed to the damp conditions that encourage the growth of mildew fungus, can be treated with finishes to resist this fungus, making them mildew resistant. See finishing.

minaudiere

A small evening bag made from precious metals and offen studded with precious or semiprecious gems.

mineral fibers

Textile raw material obtained from minerals in the earth, such as asbestos, silver, gold, copper, and the like.

mixture

Although the word mixture is often ignored in favor of the word blend, it should be used to describe fabrics made from a combination of two or more fibers in which one of the fibers is used for the filling thread. See blend and biconstituent fiber.

mock crepe

A term for fabrics that have the appearance of crepe, but are not made from crepe yarns. See crepe.

modacrylic

A generic name for modified acrylic fibers derived from thirty-five to eighty-five percent of acrylonitrile units. It differs from acrylic in its chemical structure. Modacrylic is used Most commonly to make fake furs and wigs. Modacrylic fibers are naturally flame-retardant (slow-burning). See acrylic.

modified acetate fibers

Fibers that are stretched and then treated with alkali.

modified cellulose fibers

Cotton fibers treated with caustic soda to give strength, increased luster, and improved affinity for dye. Modification of a fiber changes its physical and chemical properties within the limits of a generic family.

modified fibers

Fibers that are treated to eliminate charactetistics considered undesirable and to add characteristics considered desirable. Some treatments improve a fibers ability to take dye, whereas others give a fiber stretch it does not naturally have.

modified rayon fibers

Chemical treatment while fibers are in the plastic state to give them high tenacity (high strength). Changes in the molecular structure of the fiber have been made.

modified yarns

See modified fibers.

mogadore

A corded silk or rayon fabric with wide ridges and often with wide stripes used for ties.

Mohair

The long, lustrous hair of the Angora goat. It is used, mixed with other fibers, to make mohair fabrics.

mohair rug

Floor covering with mohair pile and jute back.

moire

A wavy, rippling pattern similar to a watermark produced in the finishing of certain fabrics by calendering, usually on a ribbed tex tile fabric. On acetate, moire made this way is permanent.

moireing

A finishing process by engraved rollers that produces a waved or watered effect on a textile fabric. Design is permanent when heat-set.

moisture regain

The moisture in a material determined under prescribed conditions and expressed as a percentage of the weight of the moisture-free specimen.

molding

The thermoplastic nature of most of the man-made fibers means that they change their shape under heat, thereby enabling the molding of items instead of knitting them or cutting and sewing them to the desired shape. Although this method of manufacture has great promise, so far it has been successful primarily in brassieres (most seamless brassieres have molded cups) and in upholstery applications.

molecular orientation

The degree to which fiber molecules are parallel to each other and to the longitudinal axis of the fiber.

moleskin finish

A cotton fleece lined with close, soft, thick nap that is used in underwear for cold climates.

momie cloth

A fabric made with a weave that produces a pebbled effect, similar to crepe.

momme

A Japanese unit of weight used for weighing silk. A momme is slightly less than 4 grams (about .034 ounces).

monochromatic scheme

The use of a combination of different shades of one color.

monofilament

A single, fine thread of continuous man-made fiber (as in nylon hosiery). See multifilament, staple, and tow.

monogram

Initials of a name combined in a single design and used on clothing, ornaments, stationery, and the like.

monomer

A single unit or molecule from which polymers are formed.

mordant

A substance that acts as a binder for the dye. A mordant has an affinity for both the dyestuff and the fabric.

mosquito netting

A coarsely meshed, net fabric used to make mosquito nets to place over windows and beds to keep mosquitoes out. See net.

moss crepe

Officially, moss crepe is made in a plain or dobby weave with rayon yarns that produce the moss-like effect. In practice, however, the term refers to any crepe, including polyester, considered to have a moss-like surface. See weaving.

moth repellency

An example of the desirable quaIities that can be given to fabrics in the finishing process. Some fabrics are treated with colorless chemicals, similar to dyestuffs, added to the dye bath. Another method atomizes the fabric with mothproofing chemicals. Fabrics that attract moths, such as woolens, can be treated for repellency. The treatment also repels other insects, such as carpet beetles. Wool rugs are almost always treated for moth repellency today.

motif

A design or color used alone or repeated on a fabric.

Mousquetaire

A long glove, eight to sixteen buttons in lenght. It has a vertical opening with buttons near the wrist, so that the wearer can remove the finger section and tuck it into the arm section without having to remove the entire glove.

mousseline

The name for a broad category of fabrics, usually fairly sheer and lightweight and made in a variety of fibers, including man-mades, silk, cotton, and wool. Mousseline usually has a crisp hand. The word mousseline is offen used today for a fabric resembling de soie. See mousseline de soie and hand.

mousseline de soie

Literally, muslin of silk. The words de soie mean of silk which may explain why the fabric, similar to this made from man-made fibers is usually called mousseline. Mousseline de soie (silk organdy) is a lightweight, sheer, plainweave silk fabric similar to chiffon in its appearance and uses, but a little crisper.

Moygashel

A trade name representing excellent quality in imported Irish linen.

muff

A tube of fur, wool, or velvet covering used to warm the hands outdoors. It is occasionally supplied as a matching accessory with an outerwear costume.

muffler

A long woven or knitted scarf worn around the neck for warmth.

multicomponent fabric

A fabric in which at least two layers of material are sealed together by an adhesive.

multifilament yarn

A yarn made of two or more filaments (long threads) of man-made fibers (monofilaments) that are joined together, usually by twistingally by twisting.

multilobal

A fiber with a modified cross section exhibiting several lobes.

muslin

The name for a large group of plain-weave fabrics, originally made of cotton.

muslin sheeting

A carded muslin for bed sheets in white or colors made in types 140 (A grade), 128 (B grade), and 112 (C grade).

quilt

A fabric construction, usually thinner and less resilient than a comforter, most often used as a bed covering for added warmth. It consists of a layer of printed cotton muslin fabric, known as the quitt top, and backing fabric, also made of printed or solid cotton muslin fabric, with a layer of cotton, wool, or synthetic batting between. All three layers are sewn together with fine quilting (running) stitches that usually create a design of its own. Quilted bed coverings filled with down feathers are called eiderdowns or comforters. A patchwork quitt has a patchwork quitt top. See quilting, patchwark, and batting.

quilting

Stitching through two or more layers of fabric to form a design or pattern. The most common quilting design today is a diamand pattern, but quilting stitches (usually a short running stitch) may also be dane in abstract, pictorial, geometric, floral, or random patterns. Quilting stitches often are used to outline patchwork or applique designs on a quitt. See applique, quitt, and patchwork.

rabbit

An inexpensive fur often dyed to resemble other furs or for fashion impact. It is also calted coney and lapin.

rabbit hair

"Angora rabbits fur. The hair of rabbits often is mixed with ""normal"" fibers to give softness or an more illustrious texture to the finished fabric."

raffia straw

See straw.

rag rug

A floor covering woven with strips of twisted rags made of cotton, wool, r synthetic fabrics braided, crocheted, or bound and used as the filling on a cotton or synthetic yarn warp. Rag rugs are made by hand or machine, and with the exception of some handmade antique rags, usually are the most inexpensive rugs.

raglan sleeve

A sleeve whose shoulder seam extends, slanted, from the neckline to the underarm.

rainwear

Water-resistant or waterproof apparel, such as a raincoat car rain boots.

ramie

A strong, lustrous, natural bast fiber from a nettle-Iike East Indian shrub, also produced in China, Egypt, and the United States. it is used for shirts, suitings, automobile seat covers, and in blends with wool for carpets,

ramie straw

A type of straw. See straw.

random-tip shears

Carpets and rugs with a high pile sheared at random.

raschel

A knit made on a raschel machine, a warp knitting machine that can use bulky yarns to form designs imitating crochet or net.

rattail fringe

A decorative edging made of rattail in which the rattail forms loops across the edging. See rattail.

raw-stock dyeing

dyeing of fibers before spinning into yarn. It is synonymous with fiber-dyed. See fiber-dyed.

rayon

The first successful man-rnade fiber, rayon was originally called artificial silk. It is made from ceilulose and is weak when wet. Rayon is soft and comfortable and dyes well, but is weakened by exposure to sunlight. ecause of its low wet strength, rayon may shrink or stretch unless treated. fwo main processes are used in this country to produce rryon: viscose process and cuprammonium process. Several different rnodificatiorrs of these types of rayon are being made and consist of the following. See cellulose.

euprammonium rayon

Rayon niade by a process that allows very fine filament fibers to be fornred. The fineness of its filaments is its best known characteristic.

high wet modulus rayon

Rayon made by a modified viscose process. The resulting rayon is rnuch stronger when wet than ordinary rayon. Zantrel and Avril are examples of high wet modulus rayon. See viscose rayon.

poeynosie rayon

Rayon less likely to shrink or stretch when wet because of the way in which it is made. Regular rayon shrinks and stretches when wet and is said to have poor wet strength.

saponified rayon

A type of rayon made from cellulose acetate filaments, sirnilar to the kind used in making acetate. These fibers are treated in a special way to prodtrce a rayorr that is very strong. Fortisan is an examplc of saponified rayon.

ready-to-wear

A term used in the fashion industry. It was developed to distinguish between manufactured items of clothing and those made from fabrics sold by the yard to the consumer. The term is sometimes shortened to r-t-w. See pret porter.

real lace

Hand-made lace. See lace.

redaimed textile fibers

Fibers made into fabric (whether sold comrnercially or not) and then converted back into fiber. Most reclaimed textile fibers are wool and other natural fibers because it is extremely difficult to reclaim man-made fibers. See reprocessed fibers and reused fibers.

recovery

The ability of a fabric to return to its original shape after being stretched. This term is used most often in reference to stretch fabrics. A quality stretch fabric will recover promptly. Recovery may also be used in reference to knit fabrics because they have varying amounts of stretchability.

recycled fiber

See reclaimed textile fibers, reprocessed fiber, and reused fiber.

reed

This frame, located directly in front of the harnesses, swings forward to batten the last filling inserted against previous fillings. See battening.

reeling

The process of winding silk filaments onto a wheel directly from cocoons.

reembroidered lace

Lace with designs outlined in embroidery stitching. See embroidery.

regirnentai stripe

See stripe.

register printing

A method of printing the same design on both sides of the fabric to give it additional definition and clarity of color. Also called duplex printing.

rep or repp

Heavy filling-wise corded fabric, heavier than poplin. It may be silk, rayon, man-made fibers, cotton, wool, or a mixture. The fabric may be solid or striped. It is used for ties, robes, draperies, and upholstery, and in lighter weights for blouses and trimmings.

reprocessed fibers

Fibers obtained from scraps and clips of woven and felted fabrics made of previously urmsed woot that have been shredded back into fiber form and then remade into new yarns. Reprocessed fibers are usually wool fibers and must be relabeled as reprocessed wool according to Federal Trade Commission standards. Reprocessed fibers are less desirable than new or virgin fibers. See virgin Fiber.

residual srinkage

The amount of shrinkage remaining in a fabric or gannent after all manufacturing processes are completed. More than residual shrinkage is undesirable, but common because in many fabrics the removal of residual shrinkage is not always included as patt of the finish.ing process. Because fabrics often have residual shrinkage, it is important to preshrink before cutting fabrics used in hon3e sewing. See preshrunk.

resiliency

The ability of a fabric to return to its original shape after compressing, bending, or other deformation

resin finish

A finish made of synthetic awsins applied to fabrics to irnpart certain characteristics such as wrinkle and crease resistance. See finishing.

resist printing

Printing similar to resist dyeing. In resist printing, the fabric is coated with a paste that protects it from colors in certain areas.

retting

The removal, usually by soaking, of the outer woody portion of the flax plant to gain access to the fibers. This may be done by several methods: pool, dew, tank, and chemical.

reused wool

Old wool that has been made into a wool product and used by consumers, then cleanecl, garnetted, and remade into merchandise. It must be labeled reused wool. See reused fibers.

reversible fabric

A fabric that can be used on either side. Generally, the term reversible is applied to two quite different fabrics joined together by such methods as laminating or double cloth construction. Reversible fahrics frequentiy are used for coats, less frequently for other garments. See laminating and double cloth.

rhinestone

A faceted pie of glass (the glass is cut with faces that reflect light). Rhinestones are used in costume jewelry or as decoration on clothing or trimming. Rhinestones are also ealled diamante,

rib

A straight, ridged, or corded effect that usually moves vertically or horizontally on a fabric.

rib stitch

A weft knit identified by vertical ribs on both sides of the fabric. A very resilient stitch. Combined with the tuck stitch, it is called rib-and-tuck stitch.

rib weave

A plain weave that forms ridges in a fabric through the way in which it is woven or by the use of thicker yarns for the filling than those used tot the warp. See weaving, filling, and warp.

ribbed cuff

A close-fitted knit finish in ribbed pattern tot the open end of a sleeve.

ribbing

Rib knit that is used at wrists, waists, and necklines of plain or patterned knit garments. See rib-knit/250/rib-knit.html" title="rib knit" class="normal">rib knit.

rick-rack

A flat braid woven in a zig-zag, serpentine shape. It is available in several widths and is an extremely popular and inexpensive trimming.

rippling

Threshing of flax to strip the seeds or bolls from the plant. This process may be done by hand or by machine.

roll collar

A collar that rises from the neckline then folds over (or rolls) so that the edge of the collar touches the garment.

roller blinds

Shades wound around a toller or dowel when the window is exposed. Originally made only in neutral colors, today these shades often are made in colors or matched and coordinated with the draperies in a room.

roller printing

Roller printing may be the most important method of printing today. The design is etched onto a toller through which the fabric is passed. For each color in the design a different toller is used. High speed can be obtained in toller printing.

toller shades

Another name for toller blinds.

romain crepe

A semisheer fabric of abraded yarns in warp and filling. It is made of rayon and acetate ar wool and is used tot street and dressy dresses.

rough crepe

A heavy fabric of rayon, acetate, or mixtures made with alternately twisted fillings, two right and two left (2x2).

roving frame

A machine that puts a loose twist in the drawn-out sliver.

rows to the inch

Rows of yarn tufts to the inch lengthwise.

rubber

The generic name of man-made fibers in which the fiber-forming substance is natural or synthetic rubber.

ruff

A wheel-shaped collar made of several layers of fabric (usually lace) in S-shaped folds.

drugget

A coarse, felted floor covering made from mixtures of such fibers as cotton, jute, and wool. Drugget is usually napped on one side and is a traditionally inexpensive floor covering used by institutions.

hand-knotted rug

Hand-knotted rugs, including Oriental and Persian rugs, are among the most expensive made. Intricate designs are possible. The higher the number of knots to the inch, the finer the rug.

hooked rug

A rug made by hand or machine using a hook to pull loops of yarn or fabric through a coarse backing or canvas to form a pile.

rag rug

A rug woven with strips of cotton, wool, or synthetic fabrics used as the filling on a cotton or synthetic yarn warp. Rag rugs are made by hand and machine and, with the exception of some hand-made antique rag rugs, are usually the most inexpensive rugs.

random-sheared rug

A pile rug in which some sections of the pile are cut and other sections are not. See pile and shearing.

rya rug

A Scandinavian shag rug. Rya rugs are popular in the United States as area rugs because of their dramatic color combinations. The highest quality rya rugs, also quite expensive, are hand-knotted.

runless

A type of seamless nylon hosiery in a lock-stitch mesh.

run-resistant

Knitted fabric constructed to make runs difficult. See interlock knitting.

Russian leather

A common name in leather for the hide of an animal with the fur removed.

rustle

Another word for scroop, the rustle that certain fabrics such as silk taffeta have. Scroop is considered a desirable characteristic in luxury fabrics.

saddlebag

A pouch-like purse with a flap that folds over the top opening.

safari bag

A soft leather purse with a curved rectangular shape, a buckled center strap, two outside pockets with buckled flaps, and two strap handles.

sailcloth

Originally, a firmly woven cotton canvas used for making sails. Today, sailcloth is a very heavy, strong, plain-weave fabric made of cotton, linen, jute, nylon, or palyester. It comes in many qualities and weights. In common usage, the terms duck, sailcloth, and canvas often are used interchangeably. Sailcloth can be used for sportswear, slipcovers and upholstery, and curtains and draperies. See canvas and duck.

sailor collar

A collar that is V-shaped in front with a deep square or rectangle in back.

salt and pepper

A fabric made of a combination of white and black yarns. The term usually is used to describe tweed fabrics. See tweed.

sanforize

A process of preshrinking fabric to leave a residual shrinkage of less than 1%, a desirable characteristic. See residual shrinkage.

saran

The generic name for a man-made fiber derived from vinylidene chloride. Saran is strong, resists common chemicals, sunlight, and weather. It is used primarily in the fabric field for upholstery on public transportation vehicles and for garden furniture.

sari

A piece of fabric twelve to sixteen feet long used by Hindu women to drape and cover the body. The fabric is often silk with silver or gold threads forming a border design.

sash

Soft fabric or a ribbon tied at the waist as a heil.

satchel

A large rectangular purse with a buckled, snapped, or clasped flap and a wide shoulder strap.

sateen

A strong, lustrous, mercerized, satin-weave fabric made of cotton, blends of cotton with polyester, or spun-yarn fabrie characterized by floats running in the filling direction. Sateen Is also used to distinguish between cotton satin-weave fabrics and satin-weave fabrics made of sk or man-made fibers. It is used for linings, draperies, and comforters. See weaving and satin weave.

sateen weave

Characterized by floats running filling-wise. See float.

satin

One of the basic weaves. A shiny, smooth silk, acetate, rayon, or other man-made fiber combination woven in satin weave made with a cotton filling. It has a smooth, lustrous surface because the warp floats. It is used for linings of coats, jackets, facings, and ties. It is also used for draperies, upholstery, bedspreads, and sheets. Satin weave has proved so popular that various types of satin-weave fabrics have developed. Following i.s a listing of many of the types of satin fabrics. See weaving and sateen.

antique satin

Antique Satin is a satin-weave fabric which is normally used for draperies. Both sides may be used. The face is a classic lustrous satin.

crepe-backed satin

Creped-backed satin can be used on either side. While the surface is satin, the back is crepe. It is mainly used for the production of clothing. Connected to: crepe and satin crepe.

double-faced satin

A satin fabric with a satin appearance on both sides unlike ordinary satin, which has a definite right and wrong side.

duchesse satin

One of the heaviest and richest looking satins. It is important for such formal clothing as wedding gowns.

slipper satin

Slipper satin is a tightly woven satin fabric, usually lighter in weight than duchesse satin, and used for many purposes including evening shoes or slippers.

satin brocade

A satin with a raised woven-n design. It resembles a fine embroidered pattern.

satin crepe

A heavy reversible fabric with satin on one side and crepe on the other. It is used in fall and winter dresses and linings.

satin weave

Characterized by a smooth surface caused by floats running warp-wise.

saturation regain

The moisture in a material at 95% or % relative humidity.

savonnierie

A French rug made to imitate Oriental knotted rugs with rococo patterns.

Saxony

Saxony is a heavyweight, napped coating fabric, traditionally made from merino wool. Saxony originated in Saxony, Germany. See merino.

scales

Protective covering of the wool fiber.

scallops

Decorative semicircular curves usually used as edge trimming. They are popular clothing accents and offen are used on cafe curtains. See curtains and draperies and cafe curtains.

scoop neck

A neckline in the shape of the letter U

scouring

A finishing process for removing oil, sizing, dirt, grease, and swint from wool and other fabrics.

screen printing

In screen printing, a sheer fabric, such as silk or nylon gauze, is stretched over a wood or metal frame to form a screen. The entire screen, except for the design area to be printed, is coated with a substance that closes the pores of the fabric screen. The dye is poured onto the screen and forced through the uncoated design areas onto the fabric below. A different screen must be used for each cotor in the print.

scrim

An open, plain-weave, mesh fabric used for curtains, bunting, and as a supporting fabric for some laminated fabrics. Scrim was traditionally made of cotton, but today usually is made of nylon or other man-made fibers. See bunting.

scroop

A characteristic rustling or crunching sound acquired by silk that has been immersed in solutions of acetic or tartaric acid and dried without rinsing. It is probably caused by acid microcrys tals in the ribers rubbing against each other. It is also the rustle that certain fabrics such as silk taffeta have. Scroop is considered a desirable characteristic in luxury fabrics.

scrubbed

See scrubbing.

scrubbing

Another name for the brushing method of raising a nap. Scrubbed denim, for example, means napped denim. See napping.

sculptured rug

A floor covering in which the pile is cut in different lengths to form a Jacquard design made with different heights.

scutching

The separation of the outer covering of the flax stalk from the usable fibers.

seal

A common name in leather for the hide of an animal with the fur removed.

seamless

A self-explanatory term. A seamless garment has no seams or fewer seams than the ordinary cut-and-sewn garment of its type. The word seamless is used primarily for garments that are given their final shape by heat-setting (called boarding in the case of hosiery) or molding. See cut-and-sewn, heat-setting, boarding, and molding.

seam-line pockets

Pockets set into a seam and hidden behind the garment fabric.

seed yarn

A very small nub often made of dyed man-made fibers applied to a dyed or natural-base yarn.

self-belt

A belt made of the same fabric as the clothing with which it is worn. It may simply be a sash or a stiff belt with a buckle.

selvage

The long, outer, finished edge of both sides of a woven fabric that does not ravel because the filling yarns wrap around the warp yarns. It may also be called self-edge or selvedge.

semi-fashioned

A hosiery term for seamless hosiery that has had a fake seam added so it will resemble full-fashioned hosiery. See full-fashioned.

senna knot

Type of knot used to make pile in Persian hand-tied rugs.

sequin

A shiny, usually metallic, decoration or spangle. Sequins are sewn to clothing, especially evening dresses because they shimmer and sparkle in the light. Sequins usually have a sin gle, central hole for fastening to the garment or fabric. Sequins are also known as paillettes. Fabric covered with sequins is available by the yard.

sericulture

The raising of silkworms and production of silk.

set-in pockets

(or slash-)pockets made by cutting an opening in the garment and stitching the pocket to the inside of the garment so only the opening is visible.

sewing-knitting machine

The latest machine for making fabrics. In the best known of these, the malimo machine, the warp thread is placed on top of the filling thread and the two are stitched together with a third thread.

shade cloth

The narne for any fabric used to make window shades.

shades

A window covering that plays a double role. Shades provide: both light control and privacy and can also lend a decorative accent. Shades range from the traditional roller blinds, available in versions that exclude light completely to those that permit some light to come in, to some with a more decorative purpose such as Austrian shades. Following is a listing of some of the popular types of shades. The term blind is a synonym for shade.

accordion shades

Shades made of accordion pleats sharply creased at regular intervals horizontally across their width. Accordion shades take up relatively little room when drawn up to uncover the window. See pleats and accordion pleats.

Austrian shades

Shades made of fabric shirred across the width of the shade. When drawn up, Austrian shades hang in graceful loops of fabric. See shirring.

Koller blinds

Koller blinds are shades wound around a roller or dowel when the window is exposed. Originally made only in neutral colors, today these shades often are made in colors or matched and coordinated with the draperies in a room.

Roman shades

Shades similar to Austrian shades. When the window is exposed, the fabric of Roman shades hangs in graceful folds at the top of the window. Austrian shades are shirred throughout when they cover the window, but Roman shades hang straight and only form folds when drawn up to uncover the window.

sky line shades

Another name for Roman shades.

Venetian blinds

One of the most popular window coverings to control light and privacy. Venetian blinds are made of strips of fabric, metal, or plastic. These strips can be tipped to shut out light completely or opened to varying degrees to filter light to the desired intensity. They can also be raised to the top of the window to bare it completely. Conventional Venetians hang with the slats or strips horizontal to the windowsill, but vertical Venetians are also available and often are used as room dividers as well as window coverings. Venetians are available in various colors and widths.

shading

Crushing of the pile of a rug so that it seems to have light and dark spots in it.

shadow printing

A printing method in which only the warp yarns are printed with a design before the fabric is woven. ""fhe resulting fabric has a wavy, shadowy effect. It is also called warp printing.

shadow stripes

Faint impressions of stripes achieved by using yarns of the same color but different twists in weaving a fabric. The shadow effect comes from the way in which the light strikes the yarns of varying twists. See twist.

shag

A floor covering with relatively long, loose wool or man-made fibered plie.

sharkskin

(1) A heavy weight, fairly lustrous cotton, linen, silk, or man-made fiber fabric with a sleek, hard-finished, crisp, and pebbly surface and a chalky luster. Today, it is almost always made of acetate or triacetate. Filament yarns, when used, are twisted and woven tightly in a plain-weave or basket-weave construction, depending on the effect desired. Staple fiber yarns are handled in the same manner, except for wool. Sharkskin is best known in its stark white color especially popular for tennis outfits and for permanently pleated white skirts when they are in fashion. (2) A wool fabric in twill weave, originally made of yarns of two colors.

shawl

A triangular or oblong piece of cloth worn around the shoulders.

shawl collar

A collar formed by cutting the lapel and collar in one continuous piece.

shearing

A method of removing the hair from an animal (the wool from sheep, for example) without injuring the animal. Shearing also refers to trimming the pile on a fabric to a desired height.

sheath-core yarn

A bulky yarn of synthetic fibers consisting of a core of fine denier fibers with considerable shrinkage and a cover or wrapping of coarse denier relaxed fibers.

shed

The opening between warp yarns through which filling yarns are passed.

shedding

The raising and lowering of the warp ends by means of the harness and heddles to form the shed (passage) for the filling yarn to pass through from one side of the loom to the other.

sheer

The opposite of opaque. Sheer fabrics are usually made in an open weave to create fabrics with varying degrees of transparency. Batiste, organdy, and voile are examples of sheer fabrics. See batiste, organdy, and voile.

sheer curtains

Thin fabrics of polyester, cotton, and blends that hang next to the window glass.

sheet

A rectangular piece of fabric used to cover and protect the top and sides of a mattress. This is usually referred to as a bottom sheet. A top sheet is placed on top of a bottom sheet to protect the skin from a sometimes scratchy blanket and to protect the blanket from soil. Traditionally, sheets were made of linen or cotton.

shiki

Heavy rayon, acetate, and cotton, or other mixtures identified by wavy filling-wise cords. It is used for draperies.

shirring

A method of gathering fabric to create decorative fullness. Shirring consists of three or more parallel rows of stitching, placed about 1/4'' to 1'' apart, and drawn up (gathered) together to form bands of controlled gathers. Shirring is used in clothing and in items of home furnishings.

shirting

Any lightweight fabric appropriate for shirts or blouses. The term top-weight (its opposite is bottom-weight) is often om-weight) is often used for this type of fabric instead of the word shirting. Some crepes and satins, as well as voile and Oxford cloth, are examples of shirting fabrics although there are many others.

shoddy

Originally, a fabric made from reprocessed wool. Today, the word is used for a fabric - or anything else, for that matter - that is poorly made or made of inferior materials. See reprocessed fibers and reused wool.

shoot

Another term for filling, weft, woof, and shute. The crosswise thread that interlaces with the warp threads on a woven fabric.

shortie glove

A wrist-length glove with a side or center palm opening that can be snapped or buttoned.

shot

Another name for iridescent and changeable fabric. Fabric woven with yarns of one color in the warp and another color in the filling so that the fabric seems to change color as the light strikes it.

shoulder bag

Any type of purse with shoulder straps.

shoulder pad

A support placed in the shoulder area of a garment to give a wider look to the shoulder when this look is in style. A thinner version known as a shoulder shape is used in coats and suits to maintain shape and give support in the shoulder area. Shoulder pads and shoulder shapes are available in notions departments and in fabric stores. See findings.

shower curtain

A shower curtain is a length of fabric hung around a bathroorn shower or shower-tub combination to keep water from splashing out onto the floor. Shower curtains should be waterproof. When decorative, nonwaterproof shower curtains are used, a waterproof liner, usually made of plastic, should be placed inside.

showerproof

One of the many terms used to describe varying degrees of imperviousness to water. A showerproof fabric will repel water to a limited extent, but is not waterproof. See waterproof.

shrinkage-controlled fabric

Fabric treated in some way to prevent it from shrinking more than a specified amount. Unfortunately, the term shrinkage-controlled is an arbitrary standard and varies from rnanufacturer to manufacturer and gives the consumer no true measure of quality. Shrinkage-control is usually achieved by shrinking the fabric in the finishing steps or by the addition of finishing agents to the fabric.

shute

Another term for weft, woof, shoot, and filling. The crosswise thread that interlaces with the warp threads on a woven fabric.

shuttle

The part of the weaving machine (loom) that carries the filling yarn over and under the warp yarns.

shuttleless loom

A machine that carries the filling yarns through the shed by the use of air or water jets and grippers.

silhouette

Literally, shadow or outline. Silhouette refers to the shape of a garment. When the silhouette is soft, soft drapeable fabrics are popular.

silicone

Generic name for certain compounds obtained, from silicon, a component of sand. Silicones are used in fabric finishing to impart stain and wrinkle resistance. See finishing.

silk

The product of the silk worm and the only natural filament fiber (it is produced in a long thread). Silk was the leading luxury fiber for thousands of years. There were many types of silk and many ways of making it into cloth. foday, man-made fibers have to a very large extent replaced silk, but the traditional names for certain silk fabrics are still used and include the following:

Honan silk

Silk similar to pongee. See pongee.

pongee

A plain-weave, fairly lightweight silk fabric with a slight slub to the yarns. Today, the terms Honan and pongee are used interchangeably for fabrics with this texture, but made from man-made fabrics.

raw silk

A term used incorrectly for wild silk. Raw silk is the silk fiber before it has been processed in any way. Kaw silk is coated with a glue-like substance called sericin. The sericin is removed in later processing and is not silk.

shantung

A silk similar to pongee in that it, too, is made with slubbed yarns, but in shantung the unevenness of the yarns is even greater. Shantung is one of the fabrics that originated in silk and has been imitated extensively in the man-made fibers.

surah

A silk recognized by its sheen and its fine twill weave. Surah is popular for dresses and neckties and is also imitated in man-made fibers.

Thai silk

Silk made in Thailand. Most Thai silk is fairly heavy weight, often slubbed, and made in vivid colors that are usually iridescent or changeable.

tussah

Silk fabric woven from silk made by wild, uncultivated silkworms. Tussah is naturally tan in color, cannot be bleached, and has a rougher texture than cultivated silk. Wild silkworms eat leaves other than mulberry leaves which cultivated silkworms eat exclusively. The difference in diet accounts for the different fiber and fabric characteristics. Tussah is also used to describe fabrics designed to imitate this kind of silk. See wild silk.

wild silk

The silk from uncultivated silkworms that eat leaves other than mulberry leaves. Wild silk is coarser and is more uneven than cultivated silk. The resulting fabric is usually duller in finish and rougher in texture than other types of silk. Tussah is a silk fabric made from wild silk.

silk broadcloth

A soft spun-silk fabric in plain weave, used for shirts, blouses, and sports dresses.

silk culture

The care of the worm that produces silk fiber, from the egg to the moth.

silk illusion

A net similar to tulle but even finer in mesh, used primarily for bridal veils.

silk noil

Short ends of silk fibers used in making rough, textured, spun yarns or in blends with cotton or wool.

singeing

Removing surface fibers and lint from a cloth with hot copper plates or gas flames.

single yarn

One strand of fibers or filaments grouped or twisted together. See singles.

single-breasted

A garment that closes down the center front with only one row of buttons or other type of closure.

singles

A strand of several filaments held together by twist.

sisal straw

A type of straw used for rugs and ropes.

sizing

Starch, gelatin, glue, wax, casein, or clay added to fabrics in the finishing stages to give fabric additional body, a smoother appearance, and more weight. Cotton fabrics are those most commonly treated in this manner. At one time, sizing had to be replaced after each cleaning. Today, with more advanced finishing techniques, sizing is rarely used and fabrics usually retain their initial appearance through cleaning. A few fabrics such as needlepoint canvas are still sized so that they can be handled more easily. This in no way affects their final performance. Sizing also refers to the starch that is applied to the warp yarns to help prevent abrasion during the weaving process. This sizing is usually removed from the fabric in one of the finishing steps.

skein

A coil of yarn, which, unlike a spool of thread, has no center supporting object. The term skein and hank are sometimes considered synonyms. See hank.

ski wear

Clothing suitable to wear while skiing, such as warm, waterproof pants, jackets, and so forth.

skiver

A common name in leather for the hide of an animal with the fur removed.

sleeve cap

The top part of the sleeve at the shoulder that may be set flat (smooth), pleated, or shirred (gathered).

slider

An ornament that slides up and down a chain.

slipcover

An unattached covering for a sofa or chair. Slipcovers are made with openings so they can be removed for cleaning. They are also called loose covers.

sliver

A filmy sheet of fibers resulting from carding.

smocking

Rows of shirring done in a pattern to add some give (stretch) to a gannent and for decoration. A common pattern of smocking is to gather the fabric with stitches that cross each other diagonally, forming a honeycomb-like pattern. It is often done with colored embroidery thread and gives an effect similar to shirring. See shirring.

soft fabrics

Fabrics that tend to drape in soft folds and to cling instead of standing away from the figure or item being covered. Soft fabrics is usually used as the opposite of crisp fabrics. Single knits usually are considered soft fabrics.

soil release

A special finish applied to some man-made fiber fabrics in an attempt to overcome one of their disadvantages: the tendency to retain dirt, especially water-borne and/or oil-based stains, once it has penetrated the fibers. Polyester is one of the fibers that retains oil-based stains.

solution dyeing

The solution for man-made fiber is colored before making it into fiber. Dyestuff is put into ttre spinning solution and the color is locked in as the fiber is coagulated. Synonytnous with spun dycing and dope dyeing. See dyeing, spun dyeing, and dope dyeing.

space dyeing

A method of dyeing yarn by dipping in dye or spotting in various places along the yarn. This causes different sections of the yarn to appear in different colors. The resulting fabric often has unusual, rainbow-like effects.

spaghetti straps

Very narrow, tubular cloth straps.

spandex

The generic name of man-made fibers derived from a chemical substance called segmented polyurethane (resin). This man-made elastic fiber has a good deal of stretch and recovery for its weight. Spandex is used extensively in foundation garments and is much more comfortable than rubber because it is lighter in weight. Spandex is also found in some fabrics where stretch is considered desirable, such as in ski clothes. See polyurethane.

specialty fibers

Hair fibers from various breeds of goats and camels. Also included are cow- and horsehair, fur from rabbits, and feathers of the duck, goose, and ostrich.

specific gravity

The density of a fiber relative to that of water at 4 centigrade.

spinneret

A spinneret, which looks very much like a showerhead (a jet or nozzle containing very fine holes), is used in the manufacture of man-made fibers. The material from which the fibers are forrned is forced through holes in the spinneret (extruded) while it is in a syrupy or melted state. The resulting long strands harden into filament fibers. See filament and fiber.

spinning

A method of drawing out and twisting together fibers to make a continuous thread or yarn. Spinning also refers to the manufacture of man-rnade fibers as they are formed by fcucing the material from which they are rnade through a spinneret. In conventional spinning, the tighter the twist, the stronger the yarn, but too tight a twist can weaken the final yarn. Crepe yarns have such an extremely high twist that the yarn actually turns back on itself (kinks), producing the characteristic crepe or corksc_rew look. Pabrics can be given shadow effects by the Lise of two yarns which have been twisted in opposite directions during spinning. This will strike each of these yarns in a different way producing this effect. See spinneret.

spinning quality

"The ease with which fibers lend themselves to yarn-manufacturing processes

Spitalfields

An English town and the home of Huguenot weavers, it is now a lace-making center. In this town, the hand-woven Jacquard silk Spitalfields tie originated.

splash yarn

An elongated nub yarn that has been tightly twisted around a base yarn.

sponging

A method of shrinking wool fabrics involving the application of water to the fabric followed by drying it, usually with some heat, in order to shrink it. Some wool fabrics sold by the yard are labeled sponge shrunk, ready for the needle, and they shouId not shrink again when cleaned.

sportswear

Clothing worn for active or spectator sports or recreational activities.

spread

Any kind of covering. A bedspread is usually a decorative covering that covers the bianket and pillows on a bed during the day. Bedspreads are available in many styles from simple throws ar ranged casuaily over the bed to tailored box spreads. A box spread is a shaped and fitted bedspread with a tailored appearance. The corners are square, giving the spread its name. See throw.

spun dyeing

See solution dyeing, dyeing, and dope dyeing.

spun fiber yarn

(1) A yarn twisted by spinning. (2) Yarn made from staple lengths of man-made fibers instead of the long fiIaments in which man-made fibers are formed. To accomplish this, long filament fibers are chopped into staple lengths and spun to imitate natural fiber yarns. See filament arrd staple.

spun polyester

See spun fiber yarn.

spun rayon

See spun fiber yarn.

spun silk

Yarn or fabric made from short fibers of pierced cocoons or from short ends at the outside and inside edges of the cocoons that cannot be reeled.

stabilising

Treating a fabric so that it will not shrink or stretch more than a certain percentage, perhaps 2%.

stable knit

Any knit unlikely to stretch excessively. Double knits are usually stable knits.

stand-up collar

A collar that rises from the neckline to form a narrow, circular strip or band around the neck.

staple

Short lengths of fiber, measured in inches or fractions of inches, like those naturally found in cotton and wool. These short lengths must be spun to obtain a length sufficient for weaving or knitting. Silk is the only natural fiber that does not come in staple lengths, but instead in filament lengths. Man-made fibers often are cut into staple lengths for spinning to imitate natural fibers. See spinning, filament, and spun fiber yarn.

staple fabrics

Those cloths which, over a period of years, have a steady sale or demand. Such cloths as muslins, flannels, broadcloth, shanttung, and taffeta are staples that have to be kept in stock.

stencil printing

A type of resist printing where portions of the design are covered with metal or wood so the covered parts do not take the dye. See printing and resist printing.

stitch

A single passage of a threaded needle through fabric and back again, as in sewing or embroidery. Stitches may be made by hand or done on a sewing machine to hold layers of fabric together or to clecorate fabric such as embroidery, stitchery, and needlepoint. The most commonly used hand stitches follow. See embroidery, needlepoint, and stitchery.

back stitch

A stitch taken backwards on top of another to lock the .stitch in place or for extra strength. The back stitch is often uscd to end a row of running stitches, but can also be used in a continuous row in the same way as a running stitch. See running stitch.

hemming stitch

A stitch used to finish the raw edge of a fabric, usually by turning up and catching the edge to another point on the fabric. The needle is inserted in a slanted direction into the edge being hemmed, then into the fabric which is to be oaught. Many other types of stitches can also be used for hemming. See hent.

running stitch

The basic lsand stitch. The needle is inserted into the fabric and then moved in and out, joining two sections of fabric together. The stitches formed are ideally of the same length on both the top and the bottom layer of the fabric.

stitchery

The contemporary approach to traditional embroidery in which the same basic stitches are used, but in a freer, less restricted manner to create their own form and shapes. The yarns used in stitchery go beyond traditional wool and silk embroidery floss. Anything can be used to make the stitches from ribbon and cord to narrow strips of fabric or even fishline. Stitchery may be used to decorate clothing, home furnishings items, and for wall hangings. Sec embroidery.

stock tie

A long, wide piece of fabric wrapped around the neck several times and looped over itself in front.

stockinette stitch

In hand weft knitting, characterized by vertical wales on the face and horizontal courses on the back of the fabric. See plain stitch.

stole

A long rectangle or triangle of fabric or fur worn as a wrap around the shoulders.

straight sleeve

A narrow, tube-Like short or long set-in sleeve.

straw

A fairly stiff material made from the stems, leaves, bark, or stalks of various plants. It is usually braided or woven to form a fabric. Straw is used in large quantities for hats when they are in style. Most straw today is used for baskets and handbags of various kinds. Chip straw is used almost exclusively for baskets. It is a by-product of the lumber industry and is made from chips and other pieces of wood, including shavings. Leghorn straw is a braided straw popular for hats and is made from wheat grown in Italy. Panarna, another braided hat straw, is made from the screw pine. Other types of straw include Bangkok, linen (straw made to resembie woverr linen), Milan, ramie, sisal (used for rugs and ropes), toyo, and Tuscan.

stretch fibers

Rubber or man-made plastik fibers (such as spandex and anidex) that are naturally elastic or man-rnade fibers, highly twisted, heat-set, and untwisted to leave a strong crimp. Polyester has a certain degree ol natural streich and more can iue given to the yarn in the processing or in the finishing of the fabric. Occasionally, polyester woven fabrics are described as stretch fabrics. Usually, stretch implies a degree of visible give in a fiber or fabric that stretches and then returns quickly to its original shape. Stretch fabrics are sometirnes described as elastic. Sec elastic, crimp, and recovery. See also spandex and anidex.

stretch yarn

A textured yarn that has good stretch and recovery. It can also refer to yarns made of fibers that have elastic properties or to those yarns whose elastic properties are obtained by alterations of the basic fiber.

stretchable knit

Any knit that has a good deal of give or stretch. Most single knits are considered stretchable knits.

striations

The many fine microscopic lines extending lengthwise on the viscose rayon fiber.

string tie

A narrow necktie tied in a bow or simply knotted.

awning stripes

Stripes seen on awnings designed to protect windows from sun. Awning stripes are sometirnes used on fabric for apparel and are usttally brightly colored and at least 1'' wide. Awning stripe patterns may also have a narrow stripe about 1/4'' wide on each side of the main stripe.

balanced stripes

A pattern of stripes in which the same cotors and widths are used on both sides of the center. A blue stripe on a white ground with a narrow red stripe on each side is an example of a balanced stripe.

blazer stripes

Types of stripes originally used on jackets, ultimately calted blazers, because of the bright blaring colors used in the stripes. Blazer stripes are usually at least 1 wide and are vividly colored.

chaik stripes

Narrow white stripes usually on a dark colored ground fabric. See pin stripes.

pinstripe

Narrow stripes in any color. When the stripes are white, they are often called chalk stripes.

Roman stripes

Narrow, multicolored stripes that cover an entire fabric. The colors may be as vivid as those of blazer stripes or as subtle as soft ombre shadings. See blazer stripes and ombre.

stripper

A mechanical device that pulls the bolls off when they enter the rollers of the machine.

stroller

A three-quarter length fur coat.

structural design

A woven-in pattern as opposed to one printed on a fabric.

structured apparel

Clothing designs that give a garment shape even when not being worn. For example, a jacket that has padding, lining, binding, and a fitted waist.

studs

Small, decorative objects added to fabric. They are usually round and metallic and are occasionally jewelled. Studs have teeth on the bottom that are pushed through the fabric by hand or with a tool called a stud setter. The teeth are then bent against the fabric to hold the stud in place.

stuff

Another name for fabric. Any braided, felted, woven, knitted, or nonwoven material, including cloth, hosiery, and lace. Stuff is also referred to as cloth, material, and goods.

stuffer warp

A warp that passes straight through the carpet to form a stuffing.

sublistatic printing

A technique in which the design, printed on rolls of paper, is pressed against the fabric. When heat is applied, the design is transferred to the fabric.

substrate

An underlying support or foundation. An example is a fiber substrate prepared with a mordant before dyeing.

suede

A common name in leather for the hide of a cow with the fur removed. Soft, tanned leather with the flesh side buffed into a nap.

suede fabric

A woven or knitted fabric of cotton, man-made fibers, wool, or blends, finished to resemble suede leather. It is used in sport coats, gloves, linings, and cleaning cloths.

sulfur dye

A dye derived from chemicals containing sulphur. It is used mostly for vegetable fibers. It has fair resistance to washing and poor resistance to sunlight.

summer-weight suiting

Another name for tropical suiting. A general term for many fabrics that have the characteristics of suiting fabrlcs: they are crisp, take sharp creases well, and are lightweight for wear in hot weather. A typical summer-weight suiting is linen.

sunburst (or tan) pleats

Narrow pleats that begin at a central point and fan out to the edge ot a fabric. They are often narrow at the top of the fabric and wider at the edge and are especially popular for skirts.

supported vinyl

Vinyl backed with fabric. Supported vinyl wears better than unsupported vinyl when used in upholstery. See vinyl.

surplice neck

A V-shaped neckline formed by diagonally overlapping fabric.

swag

A decorative, draped fabric section placed over a window. Swags usually are used in conjunction with draperies or curtains.

swatch

A small piece of fabric, usually large enough to show color and pattern. It is given to a potential buyer as a sample.

sweatshirt

A loose, collarless, heavy cotton jersey pullover. It also is found in a lacket style with a hood.

sweatshirt fabric

A knitted fabric with a smooth face and a fleecy, pile back. Sweatshirts were originally designed for exercise during which perspiration was encouraged, but they are also worn for warmth in cold weather and are available in several styles. They were made of cotton for its absorbency, but acrylic versions are also available.

sweetheart neckline

A low-cut neckline with the bottom edge cut in a shape resembling the top of a heart.

swint

Perspiration on the wool fiber.

Swiss

A fine, sheer, lightweight, crisp fabric of almost any fiber whose name has been almost forgotten except in the form of dotted (or figured) Swiss. It is used for curtains. See dotted Swiss.

Swiss dot

Another term for dotted Swiss. See dotted Swiss.

synthetic fiber

A man-made textile fiber derived from natural bases or produced by chemical synthesis. These chemicals were never fibrous in form.

tab

A small flap that often has a buttonhole at its end.

table linen

Any fabric, regardless of fiber content, suitable for a table covering.

taffeta

A fine, yarn-dyed, closely woven, plain-weave, smooth on both sides, stiffened fabric with a crisp feel and a sheen on its surface. Taffeta was originally made of silk, but is also made of rayon, cotton, acetate, or other man-made fibers. lt is named for the Persian fabric "taftan". The rustle of silk taffeta is called scroop, and it may be a solid color, printed or woven so that the colors appear iridescent. A list of the most common types of taffeta follows. lt is used for dresses, blouses, ribbons, draperies, bedspreads, and curtains. See scroop.

faille taffeta

Taffeta made with a prominent crosswise rib as in faille. See faille.

moire taffeta

The most common moire fabric. A moire is a watermark design produced by passing fabric through heated rollers engraved with the designs.

paper taffeta

A lightweight, crisp taffeta used for evening clothes.

tambour curtains

Imported Swiss, heavily embroidered batiste, lawn, or polyester curtains.

tapa doth

A papery cloth made by pounding and flattening the inner bark of certain trees found in the Pacific Islands. It is often used in America for decorative wall hangings. See bark cloth.

tapestry

A Jaquard woven fabric in cotton, wool, or man-made fibers. Traditionally, a decorative wall hanging woven to depict a scene. The filling threads are changed in color to fit the design. On the back, shaded stripes identify this fabric. It is used extensively for wall hangings, table covers, draperies, and upholstery. Some rugs are made in tapestry weaves. The word is also used for needlepoint, but this use is generally considered incorrect. Machine-made fabrics, also called tapestry, have regular designs on the surface and a slightly looped pile. They are used for such things as coats and handbags.

tarlatan

A thin, open fabric used extensively for theatrical costumes and hangings. It is transparent, but layers are usually used to provide a degree of opacity. Tarlatan usually has a stiff glazed finish. See opacity.

tarnish-resistant fabric

A fabric used for wrapping silver to keep it from becoming darkened by atmospheric pollution. The cloth itself is made to absorb sulfur from the atmosphere, a major cause of tarnish.

tartan

A pattern made of intersecting stripes. Each tartan pattern is associated with a certain specific family called a clan. Plaid, a term used for tartan, is actually the name of a shawl made of tartan fabric. The use of plaid has become so general that tartan is almost always limited to authentic clan designs. Some of the most common tartans follow, but there are many others.

Barclay

Wide stripes of black on a yellow ground crossed at intervals by narrower white stripes.

Black Watch

A regimental tartan of the 42nd Royal Highland Regiment. It consists of green stripes on a light blue ground.

Campbell

A tartan made of green stripes on a blue ground, crossed with darker blue, narrower stripes. The blue ground is also crossed with darker blue, narrow stripes.

Cumming

Stripes of dark and light green combined with red and blue stripes to form the plaid. In faded or antique colors, ttris tartan is especially attractive.

Linsay

A pattern of crossed stripes of green and bright pink.

Mackay

A checked pattern of stripes of blue on light green.

Ogilvie

One of the more complicated tartans. It combines stripes of red, yellow, greenish blue, and dark blue in an intricate pattern.

Rob Roy

A classic hunting jacket pattern of red and black checks.

Stewart

The tartan of the royal family of Great Britain. Stewart tartan has narrow stripes of yellow, blue, and white widely spaced on a red or white ground.

tassel

Several strands of yarn loops joined together below the top and cut at the end. Tassels are used in rows as home furnishings trimmings and singly for such uses as zipper pulls or on the corners of pillows.

Tattersall check

Tattersall checks are an overcheck pattern in two colors, usually on a white oc other colored ground. An example is a pattern of brown lines going in one direction, crossed by green lines in the opposite direction, forming the checks on a yellow background. These checks were named for Richard Tattersall who used the pattern on horse blankets. See overcheck.

teasel

A plant with a prickly flower head. lt i.s used for raising a nap on fabrics. See napping.

tenaeity

The tensile strength of a fiber, expressed as force per unit of linear density of an unstrained specimen. lt is usually expressed in grams per denier or grams per tex. See tex.

tensile strength

The maximum tensile stress required to rupture a fiber, expressed as pounds per square inch or grams per square centimeter.

tentering

A fabric finishing step in which the fabric is stretched on a frame to its finishecf width and final shape, then dried to maintain these dimensions.

tex

A system of yarn numbering that measures the weight in grams of one kilometer of yarn.

textiles converter

A business that buys unfinished fabrics, has them bleached, printed, and finished by another business specializing in particular types of finishes, then sells the end product.

texturalized

A method of adding texture to otherwise smooth yarns. See textured yarn.

texture

One of the elements that determines the way in which a finished fabric looks. lt is the surface effect of a fabric.

textured

A surface woven with a nubby yarn construction. lt may be made in any liber.

thermal

An adjective used to describe fabrics which are warmer for their weight than other fabries. lt is usually limited to those fabrics woven in a honeycomb pattern leaving small spaces in which an can be trapped. Thermal fabrics are popular for underwear and blankets. See honeycomb.

thermal woven

A porous cloth so constructed that air warmed by the body is trapped between the yarns. First used in underwear, it is now used for blankets and the reverse sides of comforters.

thermoplastic

A word used to describe fibers that are heat-sensitive. Most man-made fibers are thermoplastic. A thermoplastic fiber has the property of softening or fusing when heated and of harderring agaln when cooled. With the application of heat and pressure, it can be molded and remolded. This can be both an udvarrtaKe and a disadvantage. lt is advantageous because in fabrics made of thermoplastic fibers, certain features like pleats can be made permanent through heat-setting. However, care must be taken in drying und ironiog fabrics made of thermoplastic fibers because of their sensitivity to heat. See man-made fibers and heat-setting.

thermosetting

A process for giving thermoplastic fibers or fabrics certain characteristics, such as erirnp or permanent pleats through the applicativm of heat. Thermosetting is also used to develop certain finishes in a fabric to produce desirable characteristics such as durable press. See heat setting, thermoplastic, and durable press.

thick and thin yarn

Produced by varying the diameters of man-made fibers.

thread

A special type of a thin, continuous length of tightly twisted ply yarn used primarily for sewing. Thread occasionally is used instead of yarn, as in the terms warp thread and filling thread.

buttonhole twist

A thick, twisted silk cord. Buttonhole twist is lustrous and is used for topstitching. lt is also used for sewing buttons onto a garment as well as for making buttonholes or embroidery.

carpet thread

A heavy thread used for repairing carpets and for sewing on buttons. Carpet thread was originally made of cotton, but usually is made of polyester today.

cotton thread

Formerly the most common thread, but difficult to find today. lt is usually made in two types. A plain thread with a dull surface is called basting thread. Mercerized cotton thread has a shiny surface that enables it to slide smoothly through fabric and is suggested for general purpose sewing. Polyester thread has replaced cotton thread to a large extent. See mercerization.

cotton-wrapped polyester (core) thread

A type of polyester thread made with a polyester core wrapped with cotton, theoretically giving the thread characteristics of both fibers.

nylon thread

The thread introduced as an alternative to silk thread that has more give than most natural fiber threads. lt is used extensively for sewing man-made fiber fabrics, especially knits.

polyester thread

Thread made of 100% polyester. Polyester thread has more give than most natural fiber threads and is used extensively for sewing man-made fiber fabrics, especially knits. lt can be used on almost any fabric. Polyester thread is strong, but tends to knot easily.

silk thread

A classic sewing thread for fine work and for sewing silks and woolens. lt has more give than other natural fiber threads, but less than polyester or nylon. lt is used primarily for sewing on silk fabrics.

three-dimensional polymer

A polymer formed when molecules unite in both length and width, producing a relatively rigid structure. This is typical of polymers used in processing.

throw

Any piece of fabric such as an afghan or bedspread-that does not fit closely to the item it is covering, but instead is arranged on or over it casually. See afghan and spread.

throwing

The combining and twisting of strands of reeled silk into tightly twisted yarn.

ticking

A broad term for extremely strong woven fabrics which are used as a covering for pillows, mattresses, and box springs, home-furnishings, and for work clothes and sports clothes. lt is a heavy, tightly woven carded cotton fabric usually in a pattern of alternately woven stripes in the warp, Jacquard or dobby designs, or printed patterns. lt is usually twill but may be sateen weave. When ticking is used in clothing, striped ticking with narrow woven stripes is usually most popular. Red and white, black and white, and navy and white are the most popular ticking color combinations.

tie dyeing

A form of resist dyeing. Items to be dyed are tied or knotted so that the folds of the fabric form barriers to the dye to create patterns or designs on the fabric. See dyeing and resist dyeing.

tie-back

A full length (either to the windowsill or to the floor) curtain or drapery looped back at the side of the window with a band of trimming or self-fabric. The curtain or drapery is closed at the top of the window, and almost entirely open at the point of the tie-back. The look is popular in informal houses in such fabrics as organdy and batiste and in formal houses in luxurious fabrics.

tier

One of a series of bands, ruffles, or flounces arranged one above the other.

tissue taffeta

A crisp, lightweight taffeta. See paper taffeta.

toggle

A bar-shaped button fastened to a garment with a loop.

toile

The French word for cloth. Toile is also a woven fabric that has been printed, usually in one color only, with a scenic design. This is occasionally called turle de Jouy. lt is most commonly found in home furnishings fabrics. Toile is also used in the field of expensive designer clothing where the word is used to describe a fabric pattern for a garment.

Toile de Jouy

Cotton fabric printed in pictorial designs. The original toile was printed by Oberkampf in 1759 at Jouy, France. lt is used for draperies and bedspreads. See toile.

topstitching

A decorative stitch that reinforces seams, pocket edges, or collars. lt is often done in a color that contrasts with the background fabric.

tote

A sturdy rectangular bag with an open top and two strap handles.

tow

Short flax fibers, separated by hackling (combing) from the longer fibers. Also, the poorly hackled, uneven linen yarn made from these short fibers. lt may also refer to a continuous loose rope of man made filaments drawn together without twist to be cut in lengths for spun yarn.

tow linen

Fabric made of uneven, irregular yarns composed of the every short fibers.

towel

A rectangular piece of fabric used for drying (people, glasses, dishes).

dish towel

One of the few textile products which is still made of linen (occasionally they are made of cotton or even paper). Dish towels are used for hand-drying dishes after washing. Many linen dish towels are made in Ireland and printed with colorful pictures. llish towels can also be made of terry cloth and huck toweling. See terry cloth and huck.

glass cloth

A towel used to dry drinking glasses, glass plates, and silver. lt is made from linen. Glass towels are often checked red and white and rnay have the word "Glass;" woven into the fabric."

terry cloth

A cotton or cotton and man-made fiber fabric with a looped pile on one or both sides. lt is made into towels for drying after a bath. It may also be used for dish towels.

velour

A knit or woven fabric with a thick, short pile. Every velour cloth has cut loops to produce the velour effect. [t also has a rich look, but is not as effective in drying as conventional terry cloth. lt may also be spelled velours.

toyo straw

See straw.

tracing cloth

A nonwoven, transparent fabric used for tracing designs and especially patterns. Since tracing cloth is fabric, it can be marked and altered more easily than paper used for the same purpose.

tram silk

A low-twist, ply silk yarn formed by combining two or three single strands.

transparent velvet

A sheer-cut pile velvet usually all rayon or with rayon pile, suitable for evening dresses, wraps, and millinery.

trapunto

A form of quilting in which fabric is quilted only in certain areas. The design to be quilted, a monogram for example, is first worked through two layers of fabric. Then, the back ing fabric is slit so that the yuilted areas can be padded with yarn, cord, or a filling such as fiberfill. See fiberfill.

triacetate

A thermoplastic fiber classified under the generic name of acetate, although it is a modification of acetate. Triacetate fabrics resist shrinkage, wrinkles, and fading. They do not dissolve in acetone, can be washed at higher temperatures than those made of acetate, and can be ironed with the heat set for linen. See acetate.

tricot

A term originating from the French tricoter, meaning to knit. lt is a fabric made by a warp-knitting (tricot) machine, a machine in which parallel yarns run lengthwise and are locked into a series of loops. Warp knits have a good deal of crosswise stretch. See two-bar tricot.

trilobal

A fiber with a modified cross section having three lobes.

trimming

Anything used to decorate clothing or home furnishings.

ball fringe

A trimming that consists of round fluffy balls (pompons) attached by threads to a band of fabric by which it is sewn to fabric. lt is often used on curtains and upholstery.

banding

A narrow, flat fabric that is woven, knitted, or braided, and is used as is to trim an edge or folded over to bind an edge.

bias tape

A strip of fabric cut on the diagonal between the lengthwise and crosswise grain of the fabric. Because bias tape has considerable stretch, it is used to bind edges where a certain degree of stretch is necessary for a smooth finish. Curved areas are often finished with bias tape. Bias tape can also be used for purely decorative trimming. lt is available precut and packaged in a wide range of colors.

binding

Any narrow fabric used to enclose (bind) edges, usually raw edges. lt also can be used for purely decorative purposes. Bias tape often is used as binding. See bias tape.

braid

A term used to describe narrow trimmings with multicolored designs woven into them. Various types of braid, such as peasant braid, are popular during certain fashion periods.

bullion

A twisted, shiny, cord-like fringe used primarily in upholstery.

chainette fringe

A yarn fringe designed to resemble chain. lt is used as a trimming or window shades.

cord

A heavy, round string consisting of several strands of thread or yarn twisted or braided together. See cording.

cord gimp

Cord gimp combines cord with gimp. See cording and gimp.

cording

A round decorative edging. The term is also used to describe white cord covered with bias strips of fabric to form welting or piping. See welting.

festoon

A decorative cord accented by tassels. lt forms a decoration for the edge of such items as table cloths.

fringe

A trimming made of hanging yarns, cords, or tassels. lt may be made in loop form or with the loops cut.

frog

A decorative fastening for clothing consisting of twisted cord wound into a design that looks like three petals joined to a similar design on the opposite edge of an opening with a loop of the cord.

galloon

A closely woven, flat braid used for accenting draperies and furniture. Also called braid. The term galloon is also used for any narrow fabric with decorative edges, such as scallops finished the same on each side. Lace made in this way is called galloon lace.

gimp

An edging often with small scallops of fine cord along its edges. Gimp was originally designed to hide upholstery tacks on chairs and sofas, but now is used for other decorative purposes.

knotted fringe

Fringe in which the hanging sections are knotted to form a pattern, and the ends are allowed to hang like regular fringe. See fringe.

military braid

A flat and ribbed braid. It is usually used for decorating uniforms.

moss fringe

A short and thick fringe made of fluffy of woolen or acrylic yarns.

picot trimming

A narrow band edged with a series of delicate loops.

piping

Another name for welting. See welting.

pompon

A fluffy ball, usually made from yarn and used as a decorative accent.

rattail

A narrow, round cord used for trimming and for macrame. See macrame.

rattait fringe

A decorative edging made of rattail in which the rattail forms loops across the edging. See rattail.

ribbon

A narrow, woven fabric with two finished edges. Both natural and man-made fibers are used in making ribbon. lt is available in many patterns and colors and in such fabric constructions as velvet, satin, and grosgrain. See velvet, satin, and grosgrain.

rick-rack

A flat braid woven in a zigzag, serpentine shape. lt is available in several widths and is an extremely popular and inexpensive trimming.

ruche

A ruche is a ruffle

ruffle

A piece of fabric gathered along one edge. Ruffles are narrow and are used to trim necklines, sleeves, hems, and the edges of home furnishings items such as pillows and slipcovers.

seam binding

A flat, narrow twilled ribbon, used to cover raw edges of seams to protect them from ravelling.

twill tape

A narrow, twill-weave ribbon, fairly heavy in weight. lt is stitched into garment areas such as collar lapels, shoulders, and facing edges for strength and to prevent stretching. lt is also used in the seams of slip covers and other home furnishing items for added strength. Twill tape is usually available only in white and black. See weaving and twill.

welting

Welting is a decorative edging. It gives strength to the area in which it is sewn. Welting is made by covering cord with bias strips of matching or contrasting fabric. lt is a popular finish for seams on upholstery. Occasionally is used on clothing, too. Welting is the same as piping.

t-shirt

A knitted cotton undershirt with short sleeves that may be worn for sports or work without an outer garment.

tuck stitch

A variation of a basic stitch in weft knitting to make a knobby, bumpy, knitted texture. Unknitted loops are slipped from one needle to another. On the following row, the unknitted loops are knitted as regular stitches.

tuft

A bunch of yarns or threads forced through a quilt, mattress, or upholstery to secure the stuffing. See quilt.

tufted carpet

Made by needling pile yarns into a previously woven backing of jute or cotton.

tufted fabric

"A fabric ornamented with soft, fluffy, slackly twisted ply yarns (usually cotton). Most tufts are inserted by needles into a woven fabric, such as unbleached muslin, textured cotton, and rayon plain-weave cloth. When tufts are spaced (as coin dots), a bedspread is called candlewick

tufting

A brush-like button of clipped cotton yarn that appears at regular intervals on mattresses. Also, the most common method for making rugs. Groups of yarns are forced through a backing fabric. The yarns are held in place permanently when the underside of the rug is coated, often with liquid latex.

tulle

A soft, fine, transparent silk net. Formerly made only of silk, tulle is now made of nylon or rayon, and is a favorite for evening dresses and bridal veils. See net.

tunic

A blouse-like garment that falls to the hips or below and often is gathered at the waist or belted.

turban

Fabric that is twisted and draped around the head to form a hat. lt is an adaptation of an oriental headdress.

turtleneck collar

A high, close-fitting collar rolled or turned down on itself.

tuscan straw

See straw.

tussah silk

Silk fabric woven from silk made by wild, uncultivated silkworms. Tussah is strong, but coarse and uneven. lt is naturally tau in color, cannot be bleached, and has a rougher texture than cultivated silk. lt is used in shantung and pongee. Wild silkworms eat leaves other than mulberry leaves eaten exclusively by silkworms. The difference in diet accounts for the different fiber and fabric characteristics. Tussah is also used to describe fabrics designed to imitate this kind of silk. See wild silk.

tussore

Tussore is another term for tussah.

tuxedo collar

A shawl collar cut in one width and which extends the full length of the front edge of a jacket.

Donegal tweed

Originally, a fabric woven by hand in County Donegal, Ireland. Today, the word is used to refer to any tweed with thick, usually colored slubs as part of the fabric.

Harris tweed

Tweed hand-woven from yarns spun by hand or machine on the islands of the Outer Hebrides off the coast of Scotland. Harris is one of these islands.

Irish tweed

Tweed made in Ireland, Northern Ireland, or Eire. These tweeds generally can be distinguished by a white warp and colored filling threads.

Scottish tweed

Scottish tweed is a term often used for tweed originally made in Scotland and woven with very nubby yarns, often with white warp and colored filling. Similar to Irish tweed.

tweed-textured

An exaggerated chevron or tweed-like structural design with accentuated nubs.

twill

(1) A weave with a diagonal rib (twill line) that runs from the upper left to the lower right, or from upper right to lower left. In a twill weave, each filling thread passes over or under at least two warp threads, to a point where the filling thread goes under moving up and over by at least one thread in each row. Herringbone weave is a broken twill weave and forms ""V""s in the weave pattern. (2) A narrow ribbon, fairly heavy in weight. It is stitched into garment areas such as collar lapels, shoulders, and facing edges for strength and to prevent stretching. It is also used in the seams of slipcovers and other home furnishings items for added strength. Twill tape usually is available only in white or black.

twist

A technical term referring to the way in which yam is turned during the course of its manufacture. It is the number of times (turns) one inch of yarn is twisted. In carpeting, twist is a corkserew-like, uncut pile. Yarns of different colors may be twisted together to form pile loops causing a pebbly appearance. It resists footmarks and is good for high traffic areas.

two-bar (double-bar) tricot

A warp knit in which two sets of yarns are required, one knitted in one direction and the othcr in the opposite direction. A ribbed surface results. It is synonymous with doublewarp tricot knit.

Ulster

Originally, the name for a frieze overcoating fabric made in Ulster, Ireland. Today, the word is usually used as a synonym for overcoat. See frieze.

unbalanced plaid

An unbalanced plaid is one in which the arrangement of the stripes is different on the crosswise and lengthwise grain of the fabric. In constructing a garment of this type special care must be taken in matching the plaid design.

unbalanced yarns

Yarns in which there is sufficient twist to set up a torque effect, so that the yarn will untwist and retwist in the opposite direction.

unbleached muslin

A cotton plain-weave printcloth fabric in grey goods and lightweight sheetings, used for ironing board covers, dust covers, and dust cloths.

uncut velvet

Uncut velvet is a type of velvet in which the pile is left in loop form. For production, the wire method is used. Occasionally called terry velvet.

underlay

A synonym for padding or rug cushion. It usually describes the layer of fabric of sponge rubber or hair placed underneath a carpet or rug to provide it with longer life, to give it a more luxurious appearance and feeling, to prevent the rug from slipping, and to make the rug softer and more cushiony. Carpet padding is made of cattle hair, rubberized hair, rubber, and combinations of jute and cattle hair, as well as some man-made fibers. Sec: rugs and carpets, padding, and rug cushion.

uneven plaid

A synonym for unbalanced plaid. See unbalanced plaid.

uneven twill weave

The filling passes under more yarns than ones it passes over.

unfinished worsted

A suiting fabric: in twill weave, finished with a nap longer than those of other worsteds.

union cloth

A traditional name for fabric made from two or more different fibers, such as a fabric woven with a wool worsted warp and a cotton filling. The term "union cloth" was used primarily when this fabric was used for underwear, perhaps because a union suit was another name for shoulder-to-ankle, one-piece underwear. See union suit.

union dyeing

Dyeing different fibers in the same cloth in one shade. See dyeing.

union suit

A one-piece knitted undergarment extending from the neck to the knee or longer.

unpressed pleat

A pleat (folds) the edges of which have not been set by pressing. The rounded edges create a look that is softer than pressed pleats. The term unpressed pleats is usually used for wide unpressed pleats, whereas cartridge pleats, also unpressed, describe narrower, decorative pleats.

unravel

The term unravel means the same as ravel. lt is the tendency of fabric to come unwoven or unknitted at unfinished edges. Loosely woven fabrics tend to unravel more than those made of tight weaves. Occasionally, the tendency to unravel is desirable in order to create a fringed edge.

unstructured apparel

Apparel with little, if any, detail in tailoring. lt takes its shape from the person wearing it. For example, a jacket that does not have padding, lining, or insets.

unwashable fabric

A fabric that should not be washed by hand or by machine. Such fabrics are usually labeled "dry clean only".

valance

A decorative fabric or board installed across the top of a window or a top for curtains or draperies. lt is usually hung from a rod and made of fahric or fabric over a stiffening material, such as buckram. A valance differs from a ruffle in that it is absolutely flat. See buckram, trimming, and ruffle.

vafenciennes lace

A flat bobbin lace worked with one thread forming both the background and the design for lace.

vat dyeing

Vat dyeing refers to the type of dye rather than to the way in which the dyeing is done. This process uses an insoluble dye made soluble in its application. lt is put on the fiber and oxidized to its original insoluble form. Exeellent colorfastness to washing and sunlight.

Velcro

A burr-like fastening device with one side made of a velvet-like material and the other of small stiff hooks. This fastening can be used for clothing and home furnishing items.

velvet

Velvet is a fabric with a short and closely woven nap. The production of velvet varies between two methods. One uses a double-cloth construction in which two shifts of fabric are woven with long threads joining them together. After the double fabric is woven, the center threads are cut, producing two pieces of velvet. The second method of producing velvet uses wires. During the weaving the yarn is lifted over the wires to form the pile. After removing the wires the yarn is cut to form the velvet surface. While velvet was originally made of silk, today many other fibers are used to manufacure velvet (e.g. rayon or nylon).

beaded velvet

Beaded velvet is another name for cut velvet.

cisele velvet

Cisele velvet is a satin weave fabric. A velvet pattern is woven in.

cut velvet

Cut velvet has a pattern of velvet on a bare ground.

faconne velvet

A cut velvet made by the burnout method of printing. See cut velvet, printing, and burn-out printing.

Lyons velvet

Velvet originally made of silk in Lyons, France. Lyons is a thick, stiff velvet with a very short pile. Today, this type of velvet (often called Lyons-type) is made of man-made fibers. It is used for home furnishings as well as for evening wear.

mirror velvet

Velvet with the pile pressed flat to impart a shimmering appearance.

nacre velvet

A velvet with a changeable appearance created by using one color for the pile and another for the backing.

panne velvet

Velvet with the pile flattened in one direction. See mirror velvet.

velvet rug

A floor covering woven on a plain harness loom with Cut pile. It has solid color or printed pile.

vinal

The generic name for a man-made fiber derived from polyvinal alcohol. Vinal fibers soften at low temperatures, but resist chemicals. Although vinal is no longer made in the United States, it is made in Japan and is found in tires, some home furnishings, and industrial products.

vinyl

Any fabric made with a base of vinyl, including those listed as vinal and vinyon. The term usually is used to refer to thick fabrics coated with a vinyl-based coating used for such purposes as upholstery and raincoats.

vinyon

The generic name for a man-made fiber derived from polyvinyl chloride, a derivative of natural salt, water, and petroleum. Vinyon fibers soften at low temperatures and resist chemicals. Vinyon is often referred to as polyvinyl chloride. Its primary use is in commercial products.

virgin fibers

Fibers never made into fabric before. The term is used primarily for wool fibers to differentiate between these and reclaimed, repro cessed, and reused fibers. See reprocessed fibers, reclaimed fibers, and reused fibers.

virgin wool

A term applicable to fabrics or products that do not use wastes from preliminary processing of new wool. lt is new wool made into yarns and fabrics for the first time.

viscose process

Viscose process describes the production of rayon fibers from purified cellulose.

viscose rayon

Viscose rayon is a Rayon fabric. While processing the viscose process is used. Most of todays rayons are viscose rayons.

visor

An eyeshade with a deep front brim attached to an elastic or buckled head strap.

v-neck

A neckline cut in the shape of the letter V.

voile

A sheer, transparent, low-count, crisp or soft, lightweight, plain-weave muslin with a thready feel, made of highly twisted yarns. lt can be comprised of wool, cotton, silk, rayon, polyester, or other man-made fibers. Voile is especially popular when made of cotton or blends for summer wear and is often printed to match heavier fabrics. Voile is used for clothing, especially for blouses and summer dresses, and for curtains and similar items.

waffle cloth

A fabric with a characteristic honeycomb weave. When made in cotton it is called waffle pique. It is used for coatings, draperies, dresses, and toweling.

waffle weave

Identical to honeycomb and thermal weaves. A weave resulting in fabrics with diamonds or rather geometric shapes resembling a waffle. See thermal.

warp

The group of yarns placed first on a loom in weaving. Warp runs parallel to the selvage, forming the length of the fabric. The filling threads are interlaced over and under the warp threads in a pattern or weave. See weaving and selvage.

warp beam

A cylindrical spool at the back of the loom on which warp yarns are wound.

warp knit

A warp knit is made on a machine in which parallel yarns run lengthwise and are locked into the series of loops. It is a process that makes a more dimensionally stable fabric than weft knitting. Warp knits have a good deal of crosswise stretch. It is frequently run-resistant. Examples are tricot and Raschel.

warp printing

A printing method in which only the warp yarns are printed with a design before the fabric is woven. A hazy, grayed effect is produced. The resulting fabric has a wavy, shadowy effect. lt is also called shadow printing.

warp yarns

Yarns that run parallel to the selvage or long dimension of a fabric.

wash and wear

A term used to describe fabrics and garments that can be washed and then worn with little or no ironing. Originally, the fabrics were chemically treated and cured (baked). There are no standards governing its use. See easy care and durable press.

wash test

A trial washing of an inconspicuous part of a garment to determine if the color is fast to washing.

washable fabric

A fabric that can be washed. The method of washing (by hand or machine) may not be designated.

wash-fast fabric

One that will not fade or shrink excessively during laundering.

waste silk

Another name for silk noil. Short ends of silk fibers used in making rough, textured, spun yarns or in blends with cotton or wool.

water repellent fabric

The chemical treatment of a fabric to reduce its affinity for water. Pores of the fabric are open, and the degree of repellency varies. A water repellent fab ric will give protection in a shower, but not in heavy rain. Water repellency is often created with wax or silicone resin finishes that enable the pores of the fabric to stay open so that it is more comfortable to wear than waterproof fabrics. Another name for water repellent is water resistant. See waterproof fabric.

water softener

A chemical compound added to the rinse water or to the soap and the rinse water if the water is very hard. Its purpose is to prevent the formation of soap film that tends to gray the fabric.

waterproof fabric

A fabric that will not permit water to penetrate it. Among methods of waterproofing are coating the fabric with rubber or plastic. True waterproof fabrics are warm and clammy to wear because their waterproof nature also prevents the evaporation of perspiration and blocks the circulation of air.

basket weave

Basket weave is made with two or more filling threads passing over and under an equal number of warp threads on alternate rows.

plain weave

Plain weave, the best known and most basic form of weaving, is made by passing the filling thread over and under one warp thread in alternating rows.

satin weave

A weave that produces a very smooth surfaced fabric. It is made by passing the filling threads under several warp threads before passing over one warp thread. Satin weave is used to make sateens in which cotton filling thread goes over several cotton warps, then under one warp.

twill weave

A weave with a diagonal rib (twill line) that runs from the upper left to the lower right, or from upper right to lower left. In a twill weave, each filling thread passes over or under at least two warp threads, with the point where the filling thread goes under moving up and over at least one thread in each row. Herringbone weave is a broken twill weave which forms Vs in the weave pattern.

webbing

A strong, narrow fabric made from jute or man-made fibers. It is used for belts and straps that must resist strain. Webbing is usually woven and is used on the underside of upholstered chairs and sofas.

weft

Another name for filling, the crosswise thread that interlaces with the warp threads on a woven fabric. Other names are woof, shoot, and shute.

weft knitting

A process in which the thread runs back and forth crosswise in a fabric. See warp knitting.

weighted silk

Fabric in which metallic salts have been added in the dyeing and finishing to increase its weight and to give a heavier hand. A ruling requires weighted silk to be marked and the amount of weighting indicated.

weighting

Finishing materials applied to a fabric to give increased weight.

welt pockets

"Typical set-in pockets with one or two strips of fabric (varying from 1/4"" to 1"" deep) attached to the opening."

wet decating

A finishing process to add luster to wooI fabrics.

wet took

A descriptive term for extremely shiny fabrics. Fabrics such as vinyl and cire are often described as wet-look fabrics.

whipcord

An extremely strong, twill-weave worsted fabric made in fairly heavy weights of cotton, wool worsted, and fabrics of man-made fibers and blends. It is similar to gabardine, but heavier and with a more pronounced diagonal rib on the right side. lt is so named because it simulates tlre lash of a whip. Cotton whipcotds are often four-harness warp-twill weaves. lt is used for draperies and upholstery, uniforms, riding clothes, and other wearing apparel where a strong fabric is required. See twill under entry for weaving.

white-on-white

A fabric in any fiber mixture or blend that has a white woven-in design on a white background. Usually, it is a fabric with a white dobby or Jacquard design on a white ground, common in madras, broadcloth, or nylon. See madras.

wickability

The property of a fiber that allows moisture to move rapidly along the fiber surface and pass quickly through the fabric.

wide wale

In knitted fabrics, the wale is a row of toops lying lengthwise on the fabric. In woven fabrics, wale is a series of ribs or ridges usually running lengthwise on the fabric. Wale describes the pile ribs found on corduroy fabrics. Wide wale describes one of the different types of ribs in corduroy. See corduroy, velveteen, and pile.

windbreaker

A jacket made of a closely woven fabric: or a fabric treated with a finish designed to prevent the passage of air. The fabric used in windbreakers offen has a degree of water repellency because of its tight construction.

Windsor knot

A fairly loose, bulky necktie knot originated by the Duke of Windsor.

wire

Gach row of pile or tufts on the surface of a rug.

woof

Another name for filling, the crosswise thread that interlaces with the warp threads on a woven fabric. Other names are weft, shoot, and shute. See filling.

wool

The term used for the fleece of lambs and sheep, but also applies to similar fibers from such animals as the angora and cashmere goats, the llama, and other animals used for clothing. lt is un like carpet wool, which is much coarser and unsuitable for clothing. Wool refers to fleece wool used for the first time in the complete manufacture of a wool product. Wool differs from hair and fur in that it has a natural felting ability. See felt, woolen, and worsted.

wool crepe

Wool crepe is made of woolen or worsted yarns. The crepe texture is achieved by keeping the warp yarns loose.

wool rug

A wool rug is a wool floor covering made of carded yarn.

woolen

Woolen is a wool fabric made of short-staple carded yarns. Woolens normally have a blurry surface and are not shiny.

woolen yarn

Woolen yarn is a type of carded yarn made of relatively short fibers of varying lengths.

woven seersucker

Woven seersucker is a crinkly and stripy cotton fabric made by weaving some of the yarns in tighter tension than others.

yard goods

See yardage, piece goods, and fashion fabrics.

yardage

Fabrics sold to the consumer by the yard. Yardage is also called piece goods, yard goods, and fashion fabrics.

yarn

A generic term for a continuous strand spun from a group of natural or synthetic staple fibers (short lengths of fibers), filaments (long lengths), or other materials twisted or laid together for use in weaving, knitting, or some other method of intertwining to form textile fabrics.

yarn dyed

Yarn dyed fabrics are dyed before the finishing of the fabric. Yarn dyed fabrics are considered more colorfast than piece dyed or printed fabrics.

yoke

A fitted or shaped piece of fabric fullness principally designed to control fullness from gathers, pleats, or darts. Sometimes a yoke is used strictly as a decorative design element. Yokes are gener ally found in the shoulder area of shirts, blouses, and dresses, but are also used in the waist and hip areas of skirts and slacks.

zein

Cornmeal from which protein is derived for synthetic fibers.

zephyr yarn

A fine, soft yarn with a low twist popular for hand knitting. Originally made from wool, zephyr is usually made of acrylic and often has other fibers such as silk added to it.

zibeline

A heavily napped coating fabric with the long sleek nap brushed, steamed, and pressed in one direction, thus hiding the underlying satin weave. Zibeline is usually made of a combi nation of such fibers as camel hair or mohair with wool, cotton, or a man-made fiber as the largest percentage,

zipper

A garment closure made of interlocking teeth attached to strips of fabric known as the zipper tape. Zippers were originally made of metal, but are now available with polyester or nylon molded teeth on a woven or knit polyester tape. Most zippers are attached to garments by stitching the zipper tape to the garment seam. Invisible zippers do not show once they are attached to the garment because the teeth of an invisible zipper are covered by the zipper tape and hidden in the seam of the garment. Zippers come in every size and color and can be used functionally or decoratively.

z-twist

Z-twist is a right-hand twisted yarn.

abraded yarn

A two-ply combination yarn. One is an abraded ply, the other is filament viscose rayon.

abrasion

Rubbing, scraping off or scuffing of the surface of a fabric. Some permanent press finishes lessen abrasion resistance. Draperies that are frequently in use should be made of abrasion resistant fabrics.

absorbent finish

Chemical treatment of fabrics to improve their absorption.

acetate

A organic and chemical fiber. Acetate is a blend of cellulose and acetic acid that has been hardened. Solution and spun-dyed acetates are colorfast against sunlight, perspiration, and air pollution. Acetate is often used for luxurious fabrics because its appearance is similar to silk. It is mixed occasionally with other fibers to give additional gloss and lower the cost.

acrylic

The generic name of fibers made from acrylic granulate, which comes from coal, air, water, petroleum, and limestone. The quota of acrylonitrile units has to be at least 85% for a fiber to be called acrylic. Acrylic is light in weight for the warmth it gives and is very popular for blankets or as a substitute for wool.

acrylonitrile

The chemical composition from which acrylic fiber is made. It results from the reaction of ethylene oxide and hydrocyanic acid.

ajour

An openwork design for lace or embroidery with the pattern scattered.

aloe lace

A bobbin or tatted lace made from aloe plant (i.e. agave) fibers.

alpaca

The Alpaca is a domesticated member of the lama family, the so called South American camel. Alpaca fabric is one of the luxury fabrics for its silky, soft and fairly lightweight attributes. Today, the term alpaca is also used for fabrics made from a blend including some wools that have a similar appearance to true alpaca.

angora

"(also Mohair ) On the one hand this term is used for fabrics made of hair of the Angora rabbit. On the other hand it is also used for fabrics made of the wool of the Angora goat. To set the record straight, the Wool Labeling Law requires that a fabric has to be marked as angora rabbit hair rather than angora or angora wool.Fabrics made of the long and soft fur of the Angora goat are called ""mohair""."

antique taffeta

As it was originally a pure silk fabric nowadays normally contains a mixture of polyester and silk (predominantly dupion silk). Often yarn-dyed with two colors to give it an iridescent effect. Connected to: shantung

aramid

A chemical man-made fiber. A class of aromatic polyamide fiber that differs from nylons polyamide fiber.

ardil

Made of the protein in peanuts. Produced in England. A type of azlon.

art linen

A medium-weight linen or blended fabric which is plain-woven. Normally used for embroidery, dresses, uniforms, table linens, and other types of embroidered items.

asbestos

A mineral fiber that is nonmetallic. Its greatest virtue is that it is nonflammable. It is used in combination with other fibers for theater curtains and in industrial clothing where flameproofing is essential. Asbestos is often used to make ironing board covers and potholders..

astrakhan

The term was used to name the wool from karakul lambs. Nowadays, it is also used to describe a fabric woven or knitted to similar to this wool. It is curly and heavy. Connected to: karakul

azlon

This term describes manufactured fibers made from regenerated natural proteins, such as casein, zein, soybean, and peanut. In a mixture with other fibers it gives the fabric a soft feeling.

backed cloth

A double cloth that has two sets of fillings and one set of warps, or two sets of warps and one set of fillings. See double weave.

bagheera

Name for an uncut pile velvet clothing fabric with a rough surface. Extraordinary restistant. Connected to: pile, velvet

baize

Loosely woven fabric, normally made of cotton or wool, which nowadays also can contain other fibers. Originally used for school bags or as covers for the doors leading to servants quarters in England. Baize is used for industrial purposes as well.

barathea

Barathea is mixed fabric which contains silk, rayon, cotton or wool and is closely woven. It has a typical pebbly surface. Barathea is used for dresses, neckties, trimmings, and suits.

Barkcloth

Originally, the term referred to a fabric found throughout the South Pacific and is made from the inner bark of certain trees. The bark is beaten into a paper-like fabric, then dyed or otherwise colored. Tapa cloth is one of the best known types of true barkcloth. Barkcloth is a term that also refers to a fabric, often cotton or rayon, with a somewhat crepe-like feel that is designed to resemble true barkcloth. This fabric is used extensively for draperies, slipcovers, and other home furnishings. See crepe and tapa cloth

Barre

The term "Barre" describes a fabric, either knit or woven, in which stripes run in crosswise directions. Barre also refers to flaws in fabric that appear as unwanted crosswise stripes of texture or color.

basic dye

A way of dyeing without a mordant that colors wool and silk. To use it for cotton a mordant is needed.

basic finishes

Regular processes (mechanical or chemical) applied in some form to a fabric after it has been constructed.

basket weave

One of the most important patterns in weaving. Basket weave is made with two or more filling threads passing over and under an equal number of warp threads on alternate rows.

bast fiber

Bast fiber is the name for a Fiber between the pithy center of the stem and the skin. Examples are flax, jute, hemp, and ramie.

batik

Batik describes a special technique of resist dyeing which was first used in Indonesia. Before dyeing the fabric is pile-spread with wax. The waxed areas remain in the original color while the rest of the fabric adopts the dyeing color. To get the typical veined effect to the design the wax is cracked. Today, it is largely produced in an industrial way. Connected to: resist dyeing

batiste

A fabric named for Jean Baptiste, a French linen weaver. (1) In cotton, a sheer, fine muslin, woven of combed yarns and given a mercerized finish. It is used for blouses, summer shirts, dresses, lingerie, infants dresses, bonnets, and handkerchiefs. (2) A rayon, polyester, or cotton-blend fabric with the same characteristics. (3) A smooth, fine wool fabric that is lighter than challis, and similar to fine nuns veiling. It is used for dresses and negligees. (4) A sheer silk fabric either plain or figured, similar to silk mull. It is often called batiste de soie and is made into summer dresses.

batting

Batting is usually stocked in linens and domestics departments although it is used today primarily for crafts. Batting is a filling material used to stuff pillows, toys, and quilts. At one time, batting was made of cotton

bed linen

Bed linen is a term for any fabric sheeting used on a bed.

Bedford cloth

Bedford cloth is a strong woven fabric with lengthwise ribs. Normally used for upholstery and riding breeches and may be made of any fiber.

Bedford cord

Bedford cord is a durable cloth with lengthwise ribs made of cotton, wool, silk, rayon, or combination fibers. Mainly used for outer garments or Sportswear.

beetling

A finish primarily applied to linen or cotton whereby the cloth is beaten with large wooden blocks in order to produce a hard, flat surface with a sheen. lt gives a linen-like appearance to cotton.

Belgian lace

Belgium lace is a term used for any lace made in Belgium. Originally the term described a bobbin lace worked on a machine-made net. Connected to: bobbin lace

belting

A heavy cotton, rayon, silk, or mixed fabric with large fillingwise ribs. lt may be knit. Any heavyweight, fairly stiff fabric used to support the top of a skirt, a pair of pants, or line a belt to give additional support. Beltings come in various widths.

Benares

Benares is a lightweight fabric from India. Named after the town of Benares it is usually woven with metallic threads.

Bengaline

Bengaline is a ribbed fabric similar to faille, but heavier and with a coarser rib in the filling direction. lt can be made of silk, wool, acetate, or rayon warp, with wool or cotton filling. The fabric was first made in Bengal, India, and is used for dresses, coats, trimmings, and draperies.

bias

Bias is a fabric cut diagonally across the warp and filling yarns. A true bias is cut on a 45 angle from the lower left to the upper right of a cloth.

bib

The part of an pinafore garment or overalls that extends above the waist.

bicomponent fiber

A bicomponent fiber consists of two filaments of the same generic class but different composition which have been extruded simultaneously. This results in a continuous-filament man-made fiber composed of two related components, each having a different degree of shrinkage.

biconstituent fiber

Biconstituent fiber is made by mixing two different man-made generic fiber materials together in their fluid stage. Afterwards they are forced through a spinneret.

billiard doth

Billiard cloth is the cloth used on billiard tables. It is always dyed green. This is traditionally a very fine twilled fabric consisting of quality wool. Nowadays also other fibers are used for billiard cloth.

birds-eye

Fabric with a woven-in dobby design. The pattern has a center dot and resembles the eye of a bird. It is used in cotton diapers, pique, and wool sharkskin. See pique.

blazer cloth

Fabric traditionally used for loosely fitting tailored jackets worn by men and women. The fabric was formerly made of wool with a satin weave.

bleach

A chemical that removes color from an item. Fabrics are often bleached after manufacture and before dyeing to ensure the dyed colors are true. Household bleach is used to disinfect clothing and remove soil from whites and colorfast colors. Chlorine bleaches are the most common household bleaches, but are too strong for some colors and fabrics.

bleaching

A basic finishing process to whiten fabrics. Different chemicals are used for different fabrics. Sun, air, and moisture are good bleaches for some materials, although bleaching by this method is slower.

blended yarn

A strand of fibers produced from two or more constituent fibers that have been thoroughly mixed (blended) before spinning.

block printing

A hand-printing process in which a design is carved on a block of wood or linoleum. Dye is placed on the surface and the block is placed on the fabric, thereby transferring the dye. Every color requires a different block, making this type of printing tedious and expensive. It is now almost entirely limited to the craft field. See printing.

bobbin lace

Bobbin lace is a lace made by using a pillow to hold the pins around which thread is arranged. Other names for bobbin lace are bobbinette lace and pillow lace.

bolster

A long, narrow pillow, either round or rectangular in shape, that is the width of the bed. It is used for decoration and support.

bonded-face fabric

The side of a bonded fabric used as the face (right side) of the cloth in a garment or other end use.

bonding

A process of joining two or more layers of cloth with a layer of adhesive, or pressing fibers into thin webs or mats held together by adhesive, plastic, or self-bonding that melts when heat is applied.Nonwoven fabrics are made in this way. The term occasionally is used as a synonym for laminating, but this is technically incorrect

boucle

Boucle is a fabric woven with boucle yarns with looped appearance on the surface. The fabric has a abrasive surface. Boucle fabrics are woven or knitted by both, hand and machine.

boucle yarn

Boucle yarn is a rough, quite thick and slubby linen yarn that is characterized by tight loops projecting from the body of the yarn with regular intervals. It is a novelty yarn often mixed with yarns of other fibers for textural interest. Boucle yarn is very popular because there are many varieties and weights.

boxing

A term describing the straight strip of fabric that covers the sides of a three-dimensional round or square pillow. The boxing is joined to the rest of the cover with seams and occasionally includes a decorative trimming such as welting.

bright yarns

Bright yarns are high luster yarns made of rayon or acetate fibers.

broadcloth

Although the term broadcloth originally meant any fabric made on a loom of a certain width, it now means a fine, tightly woven fabric with a faint rib. Originally, it was made of mercerized cotton, but today the term is used to describe several dissimilar fabrics made with different fibers, weaves, and finishes. (1) Originally, a silk shirting fabric so named because it was woven in widths exceeding the usual twenty-nine inches. (2) A plainweave, tightly woven, high-count cotton fabric, with fillingwise rib finer than poplin. Best grades are made of combed pima or Egyptian cotton, usually with high thread counts (136x60 or 144x76). The fabrics are usually mercerized, sanforized, and given a soft lustrous finish, and are used for womens blouses, tailored summer dresses, and mens shirts. (3) A closely woven, medium-weight wool cloth with a smooth nap, velvety feel, and lustrous appearance. Wool broadcloth can be made with a two-up-and-two-down twill weave or plain weave. In setting up a loom to make the fabric, the loom is threaded wide to allow for a large amount of shrinkage during the filling process. The fabric takes its name from this wide threading. High-quality wool broadcloth is fine enough for garments that are closely molded to the figure or draped. Its high-luster finish makes it an elegant cloth. Wool broadcloth is ten to sixteen ounces per yard and is now being made in chiffon weights. (4) A fabric made from silk or man-made filament fiber yarns and woven in a plain weave with a fine crosswise rib obtained by using a heavier filling than warp yarn.

brocade

Brocade is used as a drapery or upholstery fabric. It has a Jacquard weave with an allover interwoven design, normally figures or flowers. The name is derived from the French word meaning to ornament. The brocade pattern is accentuated with varying surfaces or colors and often has gold, silver, or other metallic threads running through it. Although true brocades still are produced, nowadays the term is also used for knits with a similar luxurious look. A brocade rug, in carpeting, is one in which different yarns of the same color create a subtle pattern.

brocaded satin

A satin fabric with raised designs in Jacquard weave.

brocatelle

Brocatelle is a fabric similar to brocade but made of a Jacquard loom. It is used as drapery and upholstery fabric and made in double-cloth construction with a silk- or rayon-fibered face.

brushed rayon

Brushed rayon is a rayon fabric that has been heavily napped. Brushed rayon is highly flammable.

buckram

A stiff, open-weave fabric made from coarse yarns and used primarily for stiffening in interfacings and hat shaping. Originally, buckram was sized with starch that was not permanent, but today most buckrams have a permanent stiff finish.

buckskin

A fairly inexpensive leather from deer and elk skins. Also, a fabric made in a form of satin weave with a napped finish. Originally wool, the term buckskin is now applied to various synthetic fabrics with smooth surfaces, with or without the napped finish. See leather.

bulking

A yarn finishing process in which the yarn is made thicker or bulkier by heat setting crimp into the filaments or by looping individual fibers with an air jet. Bulking gives yarn and fabrics a less shiny, fluffier appearance. Bulking is often used in making sweater yarns.

bunting

A loosely woven fabric used primarily for flags and draping. Bunting used in public places must be flameproof. Bunting is also a term used to describe a simple rectangular square of material in which a baby is wrapped for warmth.

burn-out printing

Burn-out printing describes a process in which a fabric consisting of two different fibers is treated with chemicals partly take away one fiber to create a structure on the surface of the fabric. For example, sculptured velvet is produced with this method.

butcher rayon

A coarse rayon, or rayon and acetate blend, mediumweight fabric woven in a plain weave and originally intended as a substitute for butcher linen.

butchers linen

Strong, heavy, plain weave fabric, originally of linen (and originally worn by butchers), now made of any fiber.

cable cord

Cable cord is the result of twisting singles together in various directions, e.g. S/Z/S or Z/S/Z. Connected to: S twist, Z twist

cable stitch fabric

Cable stitch fabic is a knit fabric. The pattern looks like a plaited rope running lengthwise down the fabric. It is mainly used for sweaters.

calendering

Calendering is a term for the finishing process for fabrics that produces a shiny and smooth surface. The cloth is passed through recessed and heated cylinder rolls by running it through a friction or glazing calender.

calico

A smooth-surfaced, plain weave cloth. Today, the term is almost always applied to fabric with bright, sharply contrasting, usually small-print designs. Calico is usually woven, although calico prints may appear on knits. Calico is a traditionally popular fabric for patchwork. It is also used for dresses, sportswear, and aprons.

cambric

A closely woven, plain weave, white fabric that is finished with a slightly glossy surface. The fabric is traditionally made from cotton or linen, but can be made from any fiber. It was formerly used in underwear and handkerchiefs, but today its major uses are to reinforce book bindings and to upholster the underside of chairs and sofas. Very low count, heavily sized glazed cambric is used for costuming.

camels hair

Camels hair comes from the soft lustrous underhair of the Bactrian, a two humped, pack-carrying species of camel. The fabric is fawn to brown in color. Because it is a luxury fabric and therefor very expensive, camels hair is nowadays very often blended with other fibers, sometimes sheeps wool, sometime manmade acrylic fibers.

candlewick

Candlewick is a thick and mellow yarn used to form tufts by pulling it through a base fabric and then cutting it. The term ""candlewick"" is also used for the fabric made by this method.

Canton crepe

Canton crepe is heavier than crepe de Chine with a slightly ribbed crepe filling. It was originally made of silk in Canton, China. Today it is as well made of rayon or acetate.

Canton flannel

Canton flanell is a heavy and warm cotton material. While it has a twilled surface there is a long soft nap on the back. It is named for Canton because thats where it was first made. Canton flanell is strong and absorbent.

canvas

A heavy, strong, usually plain weave fabric that historically was made of flax, hemp, or cotton. Today, it is usually made of cotton, but some fabrics made of man-made fibers or blends are also called canvas. Canvas is, roughly speaking, heavier than duck or sailcloth although the three names are often used interchangeably. The unbleached fabric is used for coat fronts, lapels, and linings of mens suits. Hair canvas for interlinings is made of goats hair and wool. See duck and sailcloth.

cashmere

Cashmere is the fine and soft undercoat hair of the cashmere goat which exists in Iran, India, Tibet, Mongolia, China and Iraq. Cashmere is one of the luxury fibers and today is usually blended with normal sheeps wool or man-made fibers to reduce the cost. Another reason for the widespread blending is the fact that it makes the finished fabric more durable for original cashmere fabrics are quite sensible. It is mainly used for clothing.

cavalry twill

A sturdy twill-weave fabric with a pronounced diagonal cord. It is used for sportswear, uniforms, and riding habits.

cellulose

The naturally occurring polymer (giant molecule) that forms the solid framework of plants. Cellulose from wood pulp is the base for rayon and acetate, both of which are man-made fibers. Cotton is more than ninety percent cellulose before it is cleaned (scoured). See cotton, rayon, and acetate.

cellulosic fibers

Cellulosic fibers are fibers consisting of cellulose.

chalfis

One of the softest fabrics made, it is named for the AngloIndian term shalee, meaning soft. lt is a fine, light-weight, plain-weave fabric, usually made of wool, cotton, or man-made fibers. Challis was traditionally printed with vivid floral patterns on dark grounds or with paisley designs, but now is produced in darker tones of allover prints and solid colors, in the finest quality fabrics. lt is normally used for neckties, dresses, blouses, scarves, bed jackets, and infants sacques.

chambray

(1) A plain-woven fabric with an almost square count (80x76), a colored warp, and a white filling, that gives a mottled, colored surface. The fabric is named for Cambrai, France, where it was first made for sunbonnets. Although chambray is traditionally woven, the look itself is so popular it is imitated in knitting. It is similar in appearance to denim but much lighter in weight. It is used for womens and childrens summer dresses and mens shirts. (2) A cotton print cloth made of yarn-dyed yarns that can also be woven in patterns and woven in stripes. (3) A similar but carded-yarn fabric used for work clothes and childrens play clothes. See denim.

chamois

Soft, pliable leather from the skin of the chamois goat, although other animal skins may be substituted. It is used for gloves and as a cloth for washing autos. Chamois cloth is woven to imitate the leather, usually has a slightly napped surface, and is usually yellow, as is the goat skin. It is also used in clothing.

changeable fabric

Fabric woven with yarns of one color in the warp and another color in the filling so that the fabric seems to change color as the light strikes it. Other names for this type of fabric are iridescent and shot.

check

A check is any small, regular pattern of squares woven or knitted into, or printed on, a fabric. See types of checks following.

broken check

A check pattern in which the checks are irregular instead of perfect squares.

district check

The name given to several quite different woven check patterns that originated in Scotland. The term applies to designs ranging from glen checks to shepherd checks

gingham check

Regular check in which the design is woven so that, in a red and white checked gingham, for example, there are squares of solid red, squares of solid white, and squares of white warp and red filling, as well as squares with red warp and white filling. Gingham checks are also printed on woven and knitted fabrics, and are knitted into some fabrics by means of a Jacquard attachment.

glen check

Glen check patterns usually consist of checks in varying colors with overlines or overchecks of other colors. Glen checks and glen plaids are the same.

overcheck

A design in which one check is woven or printed over another of a different size. Glen checks are overchecks.

chemical finishing processes

Treatments with alkalies, acids, bleaches, starch, resins, and the like.

chenille

Chenille is a fabric consisting of wool, cotton, silk or artifical fibers. It is woven from blurry yarns or tufts. Usually it is a mix from chenille and normal textile yarns. While chenille is the filling, the other yarn is the warp. Chenille is a pile yarn originally made by weaving a pile fabric and subsequently cutting it into strips. Its main use is for draperies and bedspreads.

Cheviot

Cheviot is a roughly textured, woolen fabric with a twill weave. The name is derived from the sheeps of the Cheviot Hills (England) of whichs wool it was originally made of.

chevron

Chevron is a design that forms horizontal rows of joined Vs. Another name for chevron is flame stitch.

chiffon

Chiffon is an extraordinary lightweight and thin crepe fabric. Originally, chiffon was made of silk, but today also wool, rayon, nylon and other fibers are used for the production of chiffon. It is an open weave with slightly twisted yarns and can have both, a soft or stiff finish. Chiffon is often used for dresses and scarves.

chiffon velvet

A lightweight, soft, usually silk fabric with a dense pile.

China silk

China silk is a lightweight and soft fabric. This plain-weave silk fabric is used for lingerie and soft suits. Nowadays, China silk has been replaced almost completly with lining fabrics of man-made fibers.

chine

This French word, meaning speckled, is used for fabrics in which the warp threads are printed before weaving whereas the filling threads are left plain, giving a shadowy effect to the finished fabric.

chino

A twill-weave cotton originally used for slacks, sport shirts, and summer military uniforms. It is made of two-ply cotton combed yarns, vat-dyed, and is mercerized and Sanforized. Today, the name is given to any medium-weight, sturdy fabric with a slight sheen. Khaki green and military tan are common chino colors, but the fabric is also made in other colors.

chintz

Any closely woven, plain-weave, glazed cotton and blends of polyestercotton fabric, often printed in bright designs, which are most often floral. It is used for draperies, slipcovers, bedspreads, upholstery, and now mens and boys shirts, and ladies and girls dresses.

chlorinated wool

Woolens chemically treated to decrease shrinkage and to increase affinity for dyes.

cire

An extremely shiny, glossy surface given to fabrics as part of the finishing process. Cire fabrics have a much higher shine than glazed fabrics and are usually somewhat slippery.

cloque

Term used to describe a fabric with a raised effect Jacquard, usually knitted from two colors, and often used interchangeably with matelasse and blister. Cotton cloque is frequently popular for summer dress and jacket or coat costumes.

Coating

A term used to describe a fabric suitable for outerwear, such as coats, as in coating fabric. Also, something applied to a finished fiber or fabric, such as a rubber coating to make a fabric impervious to water. Coating suggests a thicker layer of the substance than does the word finish. A rubber-coated fabric is probably more resistant to water than one that has been treated with a water-resistant finish.

conditioning

A finishing process of sizing a fabric after dyeing to give it a hand.

copolymer

A polymer composed of two or more different monomers.

corded fabric

The term corded fabric (often shortened to cord) refers to fabrics with a lengthwise rib, often woven in stripes. Any fabric with a lengthwise rib.

cordovan

A common name in leather for the hide of an animal with the fur removed.

corduroy

A ribbed, high-luster, cut-pile fabric with extra filling threads that form lengthwise ribs or wales. The rib has been sheared or woven to produce a smooth, velvet-like nap. The thread count varies from 46 x 116 to 70 x 250. Traditionally made of cotton, corduroy can be made of many different fibers, such as rayon and polyester blends. lt is used for dresses, coats, sports jackets, sports shirts, bathrobes, slacks, and draperies.

cortex

Cortical cells in the wool fiber consisting of bundles of fibrils.

cotton

A white or yellowish white vegetable fiber from a plant related to the hollyhock, and grown in the United States, Russia, China, India, and other countries. Cotton is the name of the fiber and also the fabric made from the fiber. Different types of cotton plants produce cotton of higher or lower quality, usually associated with staple length and fineness of the fiber. Certain names for these plants are occasionally seen in advertising-Sea Island, Egyptian, and Pima-to indicate quality of the fiber.

cotton knits

Cotton knits are made by the same methods as other knits, although they often are of finer gauge than wool and man-made fiber knits. They are the traditional underwear fabric, but recently have become popular for shirts, dresses, and sportswear. Many cotton knits today include some man-made fiber to reduce shrinkage and give the knit greater stability.

cotton linters

Cotton fibers that are too short for yarn or fabric manufacturing.

count of yarn

Size of yarn as distinguished by its weight and fineness. This term is applied to cotton, wool, and spun yarns.

crepe

A lightweight fabric of silk, rayon, cotton, wool, man-made, or blended fibers, and characterized by a crinkled surface. This surface is obtained through the use of crepe yarns (yarns that have such a high twist that the yarn kinks), and by chemical treatment with caustic soda, embossing, or weaving (usually with thicker warp yarns and thinner filling yarns). Although crepe is traditionally woven, crepe yarns are now used to produce knit crepes.

crepe-backed satin

A two-faced fabric that can be used on either side. One is satin whereas the reverse, made of twisted yarns, is crepe.

crepe de Chine

Traditionally, a very sheer, pebbly, washable silk with the fabric degummed to produce crinkle. Today, it is a sheer, flat crepe in silk or man-made fibers. It is used for lingerie, dresses, and blouses.

crepe georgette

A sheer fabric, similar to chiffon, made with a crepe yarn that gives the fabric a crepe appearance. See chiffon and crepe

cretonne

A plain-weave, carded cotton fabric, usually printed with large designs. Cretonne is unglazed, and is used for draperies, slipcovers, and other home furnishings.

crinkle crepe

A fabric with an taneven surface, created by use of caustic soda that causes it to shrink unevenly. Plisse is an example of a crinkle crepe fabric. Crinkle crepe and plisse usually have a larger pattern to surface irregularities than crepe.

crochet

A method of making fabric in which one yarn and one needle are used to form loops into which other loops are inserted. True crochet is a handcraft. Machine-made crochets are usually knitted on raschel machines.

cross-dyeing

A method of coloring fabrics made from more than one kind of fiber, for example, a wool and cotton blend. Each fiber in a fabric designed for cross-dyeing takes a specific dye in a different color or in variations of a color. A fabric that is crossdyed is more than one color. Cross-dyeing is often used to create heather effects (soft, misty colorings), but strongly patterned fabrics can also be achieved, depending on the fibers used in the fabric.

cultivated silk

Fibers from a silkworm that have had scientific care.

curled yarn

A textured yarn made by a heated blade that curls the filaments.

damask

A glossy, heavy, firm-textured Jacquard weave fabric, similar to brocade, but lighter, with flat and reversible patterns. It is made of silk, linen, cotton, rayon or a combination of fibers in double or single damask. It is used for tablecloths, napkins, home furnishings, draperies and upholsteries, and occasionally clothing, such as afternoon and evening dresses.

decating

A process for setting the luster on wool, silk, spun silk, and rayons.

decorative fabrics

A term used to describe fabrics for upholstery, slipcovers, curtains, and draperies. These fabrics are usually of heavier weights than the fashion fabrics used in clothing. Also called decorator fabrics and home furnishing fabrics.

degumming

A process for removing natural gum from silk by boiling it in a soap solution.

denier

A technical term referring to a unit of yarn number equal to the weight in grams of 9000 meters of the yarn. It is used for silk and man-made yarns in hosiery as a description of sheerness.The lower the denier number, the more sheer the stocking, panty hose, or garment. For instance, 40 denier hose are much finer and more sheer than 60 denier hose.

denim

A cotton twill weave fabric made of single hard-twisted yarns. The staple type has colored warp and white or undyed filling thread. When the fabric (and the look) became popular, the name denim was given to many other types of fabric, including cross-dyed fabrics and brushed fabrics, both knit and woven, that resemble true denim. Most jeans are made of denim and the most popular and traditional denim color is blue. Sports denim is softer and lighter in weight. It is now available in many colors, and in plaids and stripes. Woven-in stripes and plaids are popular for draperies, upholstery, and bedspreads.

dimity

Literally, double thread

discharge printing

A method of obtaining light designs on a very dark ground. The fabric is piece dyed first, then the color is discharged or bleached in spots, leaving white designs in a pattern. An additional step is often the roller printing of these design areas with patterns and colors. See dyeing.

dobby

A dobby fabric is one with small geometric figures incorporated into the weave, and is made with a dobby attachment on the loom. Less elaborate than a Jacquard attachment, which also produces geometric designs, the dobby is used to produce geometric designs such as those found in pique fabrics.

Donegal tweed

Originally a thick woolen homespun fabric woven by hand by Irish peasants in County Donegal, Ireland. Today, the term is used to refer to any tweed in plain weave characterized by thick, colorful slubs woven into the fabric. See tweed.

double damask

A rich traditional tablecloth, made in a heavier weight than ordinary damask.

double face

A double cloth which can be used on either side. Also used to describe any fabric with two right sides.

double yarn and twist yarn

A two-ply yarn made from single yarns of different colors. A mottled effect is produced.

doupion

Silk that comes from the fiber formed by two silk worms who spun their cocoons together in an interlocking manner. The yarn is uneven, irregular, and larger than regular filaments. It is used to make shantung and doupioni. Also called douppioni, dupion, and dupioni.

drill

A heavy, strong, durable twilled fabric of cotton or man-made fibers, similar to denim, that has a diagonal 2x1 weave running up to the left selvage. When strength of fabric is essential, drill is suitable for slacks, uniforms, overalls, and work shirts. See twill

dry cleaning

A method of removing soil from certain fabrics done with organic solvents instead of water.

dry decating

A process of setting the luster of a wool fabric

dry spinning

A derivative to be spun is dissolved in a solvent that can be evaporated, leaving the desired filament to be hardened by drying in warm air.

duchesse satin

One of the heaviest and richest looking satins. It is important for such formal clothing as wedding gowns.

duck

Originally, a fabric lighter in weight than canvas. Today, the terms are synonymous. A durable plain-weave, closely woven cotton, generally made of ply yarns, in a variety of weights and thread counts. It is used for uniforms, belts, awnings, tents, and sails. See canvas.

duffel cloth

A thick, heavy, napped coating fabric, usually used for duffel coats, hooded coats with wooden buttons that fasten through rope or leather thongs. Duffel cloth is traditionally tan or green, but can be any color.

duplex printing

A method of printing the same design on both sides of the fabric to give the design additional definition and clarity of color. Also called register printing.

durable finish

A rather loose term for a finish added to fabric as one of the final steps to improve the wearability of the fabric.

easy care

An extremely loose term implying that a limited amount of ironing will be necessary after the item is washed. Easy care fabrics seem to be most successful when they are made of at least 65% polyester, or have had a special finish applied to them. Durable press is a more reliable indication that garments or other items require little or no ironing.

Egyptian cotton

A fine, long, staple cotton generally grown in Egypt along the Nile Delta. Egyptian cotton fibers average more than 1112 inches in length and produce a strong, lustrous yarn. See cotton.

embroidery

The term for a group of decorative, usually ornamental and nonfunctional needlework done with thread or yarn on fabric. Most machine embroidery is done by the Schiffli ma chine which can imitate many different hand embroidery stitches. Although embroidery is usually thaught of as being done in several colors, white work (white embroidery on white fabric) and black work (black embroidery on white fabric) are fairly common. Embroidery terms are tremendously variable, with different words being given to the same stitches in different countries, and even different sections of the same countries. Some of the most common embroidery stitches are beading, buttonhole stitch, chain stitch, chevron stitch, satin stitch, stem stitch, back stitch, and straight stitch.

eyelash

Term used to describe clipped yarns that lie on the surface of a fabric, giving the effect of eyelashes.

fabric softeners

Chemical solutions added to the final rinse to improve the hand of terry cloths and infants fabrics.

faille

A soft, slightly glossy silk, rayon, acetate, cotton, wool, or a mixture of these, in a rib weave, that has a light, flat, narrow crosswise rib or cord. It is made by using heavier yarns in the filling than in the warp, and has more ribs to the inch than bengaline. Ottoman is similar to faille but has a wider rib. Faille is considered a dressy fabric, and is used for evening clathes, tailored dresses, coats, suits, ties, handbags, shoes, and draperies. See ottoman.

faille crepe

A silk, rayon, acetate, or other man-made fiber dress fabric with a decided wavy (crepe) cord fillingwise. It is used for negligees, blouses, daytime and evening dresses, handbags, and trims.

fake fur

A slang term for pile fabrics and garments that imitate animal pelts. The most popular fake furs are probably those made from modacrylic fiber. See modacrylic and pile.

fast dyes

Those dyes that are fast for the purpose for which the fabric is intended.

felt

A nonwoven fabric or interlocked fiber made from wool, fur, and hair fibers that mesh together when heat, moisture, and mechanical action are applied. Processes of spinning, weaving, or knitting are not employed. The fibers develop a tight bond and will not ravel. Some percentage of wool is necessary in the manufacture of true felt to achieve the felted effect. It is used for coats, hats, and many industrial purposes.

fiber

The basic unit used in the fabrication of textile yarns and fabrics. Fibers are much longer than they are wide. The term at one time was limited to materials that could be spun into yarn, but now is used to include filaments that do not require spinning, such as silk and man-made fibers.

filament

Extremely long continuous fibers that can be measured in meters or yards, or in the case of man-made fibers, in kilometers or miles. Filaments do not require spinning to form yarn. Examples are rayon, nylon, acrylic, polyester, and other man-made fibers. Silk is the only natural filament

finishing

"An overall term that usually refers to all processes, with the exception of coloring, to make fabric more acceptable (some experts also include coloring). Much of the look, feel, and behavior of a fab ric is determined by the finishing steps taken. Finishing can be mechanical (as in calendering) or chemical, or both. Special treatments are applied to fabrics during finishing to make them perform better, shrink less, resist flarnes, and repel water. Calendering refers to a process in which the fabric is passed through heated cylinders. This gives the fabric a lustrous surface and can also emboss it. Another important step in finishing, and usually the final process, is tentering

fire resistant

Fire resistant refers to a fabric or fiber that has been treatedto discourage the spreading of flames. See lame-retardant-fabric/180/flame-retardant-fabric.html" title="flame retardant fabric" class="normal">flame retardant fabric.

fireproof

Fireproof means that a fabric literally will not burn. To be labeled fireproof, the Federal Trade Commission requires that a fabric must be 100% fireproof. If the fiber or fabric has been treated to prevent flames from spreading, it must be labeled as fire resistant. See fire resistant and lame-retardant-fabric/180/flame-retardant-fabric.html" title="flame retardant fabric" class="normal">flame retardant fabric.

flame retardant fabric

A fabric that resists or retards the spreading of flames. A flame retardant fabric can be made by using fibers that are themselves flame retardant, or by using special finishes on fabrics. Selow is a list of some flame retardant fabrics. Many companies produce similar items but have not given them names referring specifically to their flame retardant nature.

flat crepe

A firm, medium-weight silk crepe with a soft, almost imperceptible crinkle. It has creped fillings alternating with two S and two Z twists. The surface is fairly flat. Flat crepe may also be made of man-made fibers. It is used for dresses, negligees, and blouses. See crepe de chine,

flax

Fibers of the flax plant that are spun into linen yarns and woven into linen cloth. The word linen is derived from linum, part of the scientific name for the flax plant. See linen.

fleece

from animals, usually a sheep. Fleece is also used to describe certain coating fabrics that have a deep, thick pile that imitats this wool.

floss silk

Tangled silk waste. Floss is also a twisted silk yarn used in art needlework.

fluorescent fabric

A fabric that glows with a more vivid color than usual under daylight, headIights, and ultra-violet light. Fluorescent fabrics are important, especially in colors such as orange, where high visibility is essential for safety in hunting clothes, clothes for crossing guards, and outfits for school children. Occasionally, fluorescent fabrics become fashionable for other items of clothing.

foulard

A lightweight, soft, plain- or twill-weave fabric made of silk, mercerized cotton, rayon, acetate, or thin worsted wool. Foulard has a high luster on the face and dull on the reverse side. It is often printed, and the patterns range from simple polka dots to small, allover elaborate designs on light or dark grounds. It is also made in plain and solid colors. Foulard has a characteristic hand that can be described as light, firm, and supple. It is used for spring and summer dresses, scarves, robes, and neckties, and frequently sold as surah.

frieze

A heavy pile fabric used primarily for upholstery, slipcovers, and draperies. Frieze is looped, and the loops are often sheared to varying heights to form the pattern. Originally made of cotton (and still often referred to as cotton frieze), the fabric is now usually made of mohair, wool, cotton, and blends of cotton and man-made fibers. Also called frise.

frise

Lace made by using a pil

functional finish

A special finish added to a fabric as une of the final steps in its manufacture that alters the performance and contributes a specific attribute to the fabric in some way. A water repellent finish, for example, is a functional finish because it prevents water from penetrating the fabric, thereby changing the function of the fabric. Other examples of special finishes are soil release and crease resistant.

gabardine

"A strong, hard-finished, clear-surfaced, mediumto heavy-weight, tightly woven steep-twilled fabric with rounded wales and a flat back. The diagonal wales are fine, close, and steep, and are more pronounced than in serge. The wales cannot be seen on the wrong side of the fabric. Gabardine goes in and out of fashion

garnetting

Shredding wool fabrics into a fibraus state, prior to remanufacture into woolen yarn.

gas fading

The loss of colar some fabrics suffer because of nitrogen in the atmosphere rather than exposure to sunlight. Certain dyes (blues and greens, for example) are often more susceptible to gas fading than others, as are certain fibers (acetate). Special dyes can be used on these fabrics and colors to reduce or eliminate this problem. Also ealled atmospherie and pollution fading.

gauze

A thin, sheer, open, loosely woven, plain-weave cotton fabric with widely spaced yarns, used for diapers and surgical dressings. It can also be made of wool, silk, rayon, or other man-made fibers. Some weights are stiffened for curtains, trimmings of dresses, and other decorative or apparel purposes.

georgette

A soft, sheer dull-textured silk fabric, similar to chiffon, made with a crepe yarn to give the fabric a crepe appearance. The crepy surface is obtained by alternating right-hand and left hand twist yarns in warp and filling. It is used for summer and evening dresses. See chiffon and crepe.

glass fiber

Very fine flexible fiber made from glass. It. is used extensively for curtains and draperies. Glass fiber fabrics are very strong and wash well, but care should be taken to avoid getting small splinters of the glass yarns in the hands. Glass fiber is stiff and has poor resistance to wear and abrasion. It is also fireproof. See fireproof.

glazing

A finishing process consisting of treating the fabric with glue, starch, paraffin, shellac, or resin, then moving it through hot friction rollers.

glitter

The name, sometimes used in place of lame, for any fabric woven or knitted with all metallic yarns or with a combination of metallic and other fiber yarns. Today, most glitter is made from one of the nontarnishable metallic fibers, a great improvement over lame of the past that tended to darken with age.

gossamer

Any sheer, fine fabric may be given the name gossamer, although the term was traditionally used to describe silk fabrics.

grading

Determining, by touch, the fineness of the diameters of individual fibers. Wool tops are graded in this fashion. Efforts are now being made to grade wool in the grease by this method.

grain

The direction in which the yarns run in weaving. The straight grain is the direction of the warp yarns.

grass cloth

A plain-weave, loosely woven fabric made from such fibers as hemp, ramie, and even nettle. Today, true grass cloth is relatively rare, but the appearance of grass cloth is copied in wallpaper and fabrics of man-made fibers.

greige

The state of a fabric as it comes from the loom (after it has been constructed) but before it has been colored or finished.

grenadine

A tightly twisted ply yarn composed of two or three singles.

grosgrain

A fairly heavy, closely woven, firm, corded or ribbed fabric, made in silk or rayon warp with cotton cords. The cords are round and firm, heavier than in poplin, rounder than in faille. Grosgrain is often made in narrow widths for use as trimming. The most common use of grosgrain is for ribbons in which the ribs are usually narrow, but it can be made with larger ribs for academic gowns. It is really a bengaline in narrow goods and is used for ribbons, neckties, and lapel facings.

guanaco

A wooly, reddish-brown wild animal of the llama family.

habutai

Soft, lightweight silk dress fabric originally woven in the gum on hand looms in Japan. It is sometimes confused with China silk, which is technically lighter in weight.

hackling

A combing process that prepares the flax fibers for spinning by removing short lengths of fiber, leaving only longer ones and laying them parallel. It may be done by hand or by machine.

haircloth

A stiff, wiry fabric made from a combination of natural or man-made fibers with animal hair filling, usually mohair (goat) or horsehair. It is used in upholstery and as interfacing and stiffening because of its strength.

hand-blocked print

Fabrics printed by hand with blocks made of wood or linoleum.

haute couture

The business of designing, making, and selling high fashion, custom-made clothing.

heat setting

Although practices similar to heat setting are used in the finishing of almost all fabrics, the term heat setting, strictly speaking, refers only to thermoplastic man-made fibers. Because of the thermoplastic nature of most man-made fibers (they change their shape when heat is applied), certain features, such as pleats, can be made permanent by treating them under very high heat. Heat setting usually gives a smooth appearance to a fabric and sets its final measurements. Boarding, a process in the rnanufacture of stockings, is a type of heat setting.

heat transfer

A form of printing in which elaborate colors and designs are printed onto a special type of paper. The paper is placed over the fabric and the designs and colors are transferred to the fabric through the application of heat.

hemp

A plant grown in the Philippines, Mexico, Central America, the West Indies, and India. Outer fibers are used for cordage, inner fibers for cables and canvas.

herringbone

A fabric in which the pattern of weave resembles the skeletal structure of the herring. lt is a twill weave in which the wale runs in one direction for a few rows and then re verses, forming a V pattern. lt is made with a broken twill weave that produces a balanced, zigzag effect and is used for sportswear, suits, and coats.

high tenacity

High strength of modified rayon and acetate fibers as a result of chemical treatment while the fibers are in the plastic state.

high-bulk yarn

Although the term high-bulk yarn is definitely a technical one, it is used occasionally in advertising. Highbulk yarns are processed so that, through a form of shrinkage in the processing, they are thicker and bulkier than they would be otherwise.

holland

A plain-weave fabric used in the home primarily for window shades.

homespun

Originally, fabrics made from yarns spun by hand. Today, homespun is used for fabrics that imitate this look. It is a very coarse, rough, plain-weave fabric, loosely woven with irregular, tightly twisted, and nubby, unevenly spun yarns. It is made from linen, wool, cotton, or man-made fiber, or blends in varied colors and is used for coats, suits, sportswear, draperies, upholstery, and slipcovers.

homopolymer

A polymer composed of one substance or one type of molecule.

Honan

A heavy silk, pongee-type, but a finer weave, originally the product of wild silkworms of Honan, China. A fabric of the best grade of Chinese silk, it is sometimes woven with blue edges. It is now made to resemble a heavy pongee, with slub yarns in both warp and filling. Honan is manufactured from silk or from man-made fibers. It is used for womens dresses. See silk, pongee, and wild silk.

honeycomb

A weave that results in fabrics that have diamonds or other geometric shapes resembling a honeycomb. Waffle weaves are identical to honeycomb weaves, and many weaves called thermal are honeycomb weaves.

horsehair

Fibers that are hair from the mane and tail, for the most part, of Canadian and Argentine horses. It is occasionally used for upholstery, but is more commonly used in interfacings for stiffening and strength. It is always combined with other fibers. True horsehair is rare and fabrics loosely called horsehair are often made from other hairs (such as goat) or man-made fibers.

huck

A type of toweling fabric with a honeycombed surface made by using heavy filling yarns in a dobby weave. It has excellent absorbent qualities. It is woven with a pattern, most often with a dobby attachment on the loom and may have Jacquard borders. Huck is traditionally made of cotton, linen, or rayon, or a mixture of these, although today, other fibers may be used. In a mixture it is called a union fabric. Face or hand towels are made in white or colors and are used for drying dishes, glasses, and kitchen utensils. Huck is also called huckaback. Embroidery enthusiasts often use huck as a ground for their work. See dobby.

illusion

Very fine net or mesh fabrics such as those used in bridal veils. Illusion usually is made of either silk or nylon.

Indian muslin

Muslin is the name for a very large group of plain-weave fabrics originally made of cotton. Most muslin used for purposes other than sheets is unbleached, which means that bits of trash, usually appearing as brown flecks, add color to the fabric. Occasionally, unbleached muslin becomes popular in fashion, even for wedding gowns. Indian muslin is a very fine muslin from India, often printed with gold and silver and is an expensive luxury fabric. See muslin, trash, and flecks

indigo

A type of dyestuff, originally obtained from the indigo plant, now produced synthetically. Blues are brilliant. It Is colorfast to washing and light.

ingrain

A knitted or woven fabric made of yarns dyed before knitting or weaving.

intarsia

A pattern knitted into a fabric. The term usually refers to a design on only one part of the fabric.

interfacing

A stiffening fabric made of horsehair (often goat hair, wool, man-made fibers, or combinations of these fibers). Interfacing is used to give additional body and strength to certain parts of garments. Areas that usually require interfacing include the front opening edges, collars, pocket flaps, and any piece where stretching or a loss of crispness would be a disadvantage.

interlining

A tayer of fabric placed between the outer fabric and the lining of the garment to add warmth. lt is most commonly found in coats and jackets. Interlinings are offen made of reprocessed wool, but other materials such as polyester fiberfill may be used. See fiberfill, reprocessed wool.

interlock

A fine gauge, compound knit fabric with a smooth surface on both front and back, composed of two separate 1 x 1 rib fabrics interknitted to form one cloth, made on an interlock machine. The fabric was traditionally used for underwear, but today is being used for apparel. Despite the name of the fabric, poorly made interlock develops runs at the edges and all interlock knits should be reinforced or finished in some way at these edges.

iridescent

Fabric woven with yarns of one color in the warp and another color in the filling so that the fabric seems to change color as the light strikes it. Other names for this type of fabric are changeable and shot.

jacquard

A term used to describe fabrics with a woven or knitted pattern, whether or not they are made with a Jacquard attachment on the loom. The Jacquard attachment for weaving and knitting machines makes possible the manufacture of complicated, repeated geometrical designs in knits and wovens. See dobby.

jacquard patterns

Fancy patterns knitted in articles made by a special attachment on the knitting machine. Jacquard weave A construction characterized by very intricate woven-in designs. A special Jacquard loom makes these designs by controlling each warp yarn.

jean

In theory, a sturdy, solid-colored or striped twill-weave cotton fabric, softer and finer than denim and drill. In practice, the term denim is almost always used for the fabric, whereas the term jeans is used for pants made of denim. Jean is used for sport blouses, work shirts, womens and girls pants and shorts, and childrens overalls and playclothes.

jersey

A single knit fabric with plain stitches on the right side and purl stitches on the back. A weft-knitted rayon, acetate, or two-bar tricot-knitted rayon or acetate used for slips, gowns, and blouses. Jersey is also made of wool, cotton, silk, nylon, or blends of the newer synthetics. As an elastic knitted wool fabric, usually in stockinette stitch, jersey was first made on the Island of Jersey off the English coast and used for fishermans clothing. [t is also used for blouses, dresses, and basque shirts. The word jersey is also occasionally used as a synonym for any knit. See knitting, single knit, and purl knit.

you will find a wide selection of jersey fabrics at jerseyfabrics.net.

jute

One of the natural fibers still used extensively for fabrics. It is a bast fiber that comes from jute plants grown primarily in India, 1akistan, and Bangladesh. Jute is used for many purposes, including the manufacture of burlap, gunny sacks, bags, cordage (twine and rope), trimmings, binding threads, and backings for rugs and carpets.

kapok

A fluffy fiber that comes from the seed pods of the kapok tree found in the tropics. Kapok at one tirne was extremely popular for stuffing pillows and was also used in life preservers as it is naturally buoyant. Today, rnan-made fibers have replaced kapok in many cases.

kashmir

Another spelling for cashmere. Kashmir is also an alternate spelling for the name of the goat from which cashmere wool comes. See cashmere.

kersey

A thick, heavy, pure wool and cotton twill-weave fabric similar tonrelton. It is well fulled, with a fine nap and a closesheared surface. Kersey is used for uniforms and overcoats.

khaki

A term used for both an earth color or olive green color (yellow-brown color with a greenish tint) and for fabrics made in these colors, whether of wool, cotton, linen, or man-made fibers. Khaki is a classic uniform color and material. It is also used for sportswear and leisure clothes.

kilim

Near Eastern oriental fabric woven with a shuttle or needle, with no pile. Kilims are used by the Orientals as portieres, couch covers, and table covers.

knit terry cloth

Terry cloth is a soft, absorbent fabric with loops on one or both sides. When this fabric is knit rather than woven, it is called knit terry. Knit terry is especially popular for bathrobes and beach wear because of its absorbency. Stretch knit terry (usually made stretchable by the addition of a synthetic elastic fiber) is popular for baby clothes because of its absorbency and comfort.

knitting

The process of constructing an elastic, porous fabric by interlocking a series of loops of one or more yarns with needles. It may be done by hand or by machine. These yarns form a series of connecting loops that support one another like a chain. Almost any textile item can be and has been knitted, including rugs. A warp knit is made on a machine in which parallel yarns run lengthwise and are locked into the series of loops. Warp knits have a good deal of crosswise stretch. Wett knits are made on a machine that forms loops in a circular direction and have one continuous thread running across the fabric. The following entries are common knit terms.

double knit

A wett knit fabric produced in two layers which cannot be separated. Its appearance is the same on either side with a characteristic fine vertical wale.

jacquard knit

A knit with a design knit into the fabric in a regular allover pattern. Most Jacquard patterns are closely knitted, but it is possible to make some pattern knits with a Jacquard machine.

rib knit

A knit that consists of groups of alternate plain and purl stitches (the reverse of a plain knit with loops showing). Rib knit fabrics are stretchier and have a snugger fit than plain knits. Rib knit is frequently used at wrists, waists, and necklines of plain or patterned knit garments where it is called ribbing.

single knit

Single knit, made on a weft knitting machine, is another term for plain knit

knitwear

Knitted apparel, including hosiery, underwear, outerwear, and sportswear.

lace

A decorated openwork fabric created by looping, interlacing, braiding, or twisting threads. [t is made (either on a background fabric of net or without a background fabric) with a design formed by a net work of threads made by hand or on special lace machines, with bobbins, needles, or hooks. The pattern in lace is usually open and most often floral in design. Machine-made lace is most commonly seen today and many patterns formerly only made by hand, are imitated by machine. hace is the traditional bridal fabric, but it is also used for other nonformal clothing such as sports clothes. The following entries are some of the major types of lace.

ajour lace

An open lace design with the pattern scattered on the ground.

allover lace

Lace in which the pattern covers the entire fabric, rather than being isolated on one section of background net.

antique lace

A heavy lace made on a square knotted net with designs darned onto the net. Machine-made antique lace is often used for curtains. See embroidery and darn.

crocheted lace

Lace made with a single yarn. A crochet hook is used to form loops joined to other loops to form the design.

hairpin lace

A delicate, narrow lace worked over a hairpin or a special hairpin-shaped, loom-like tool.

Irish lace

The term Irish lace can be used to refer to any lace made in Ireland, but crocheted laces are those most often given the name. Embroidered nets are another type of Irish lace. See crocheted lace.

needlepoint lace

Lace made with a sewing or embroidery needle to form buttonhole stitches as the basis of the design.

Nottingham lace

One of the first of the machinemade laces. It originated in Nottingham, England. Today, the term Nottingham lace is often used for any lace made by any machine.

pillow face

Lace made by using a pillow to hold pins around which thread is arranged. See bobbin lace.br />

Renaissance lace

A lace made of woven strips of fabric joined by flat stitches. See Battenberg lace.

tatting

A method of lace-making worked with the fingers and a shuttle that holds the thread. Tatting forms a narrow, knotted lace, often used for edging.

Val lace

See Valenciennes lace.[1][1]See Venise lace. The name for the liquid form of natural or man-made rubber. It

Valenciennes lace

A flat babbin lace worked with one hand forming both the background and the design for the lace.

Venetian lace

See Venise lace

Venice lace

See Venise lace

Venise lace

A needlepoint lace usually in a floral pattern connected by picot edgings. It is also called Venice lace and Venetian lace. See picot.

lacing

String, cord, or ribbon strung through eyelets or over hooks in order to bring together and fasten parts of an item such as a blouse, belt, or shoe.

Battenberg lace

A lace similar to Renaissance lace with a pattern formed by tape or braid joined by bars. See Renaissance lace.

beading

A type of lace made by the bobbin lace method. Also, an openwork lace or embroidery containing holes designed for the insertion of decorative ribbon. See bobbin lace.

Binche lace

A lace in which hand-made lace motifs are appliqued to a machine-made net ground. The name comes from Binche, a town in Belgium, where the lace is said to have originated.

bobbinet lace

See bobbin lace and pillow lace.

Breton lace

Lace made on open net, usually embroidered with very heavy, often brightly colored, yarns, Breton is the area in France where the lace is said to have originated.

Brussels lace

Brussels lace may be either a bobbin lace or a needlepointlace.It is usually worked on a machine-made ground and sometimes the designs are appliqued onto the ground. Because of the importance of Brussels, Belgium, in the history of lace-making (many patterns developed there), several different laces are called Brussels lace. See bobbin lace and needlepoint lace.

Chantilly

One of the most popular of bridal laces often used for the trimming on bridal veils. It is made by the bobbin method and has designs outlined by thick cords. See bobbin lace.

Cluny lace

A heavy lace, often made of thick cotton or man-made fibers using the bobbin method. It is the traditional lace for doilies and place mats, but is also used in apparel. See bobbin lace.

lambrequin

A structure at the top and sides of a window that frames it and is usually part of the window decoration. I,ambrequins are often covered with fabric and trimmed. They are usually made of wood and may be simply painted.

lambs wool

Soft, resilient wool clipped from sheep less than eight months old. It is used in fine-grade woolen fabrics.

lambskin

A common narne in leather for the hide of an animal with the fur removed.

lame

Brocade, damask, or brocatelle fabrics in which flat metallic yarns (or with a combination of metallic and other fiber yarns) are woven or knitted in warp and filling for a luxurious effect. Today, most lame is made from one of the nontarnishable metallic fibers, a great improvement over lame of the past that tended to darken with age. Lame is also a trademark terrn for a nontarnishable metallic yarn. Glitter is sometimes used to describe this type of fabric and is used for evening dresses, blouses, and trimmings.

laminating

The sticking of a fabric to a plastic foam or sheet of plastic. A method of joining one fabric to another by rneans of an adhesive. Polyurethane is often laminated to the back of an outerwear coating fabric for warmth. The term laminating is occasionally used as a synonym for bonding, but this is incorrect. See bonding.

lansdowne

A lightweight twill fabric made from natural or man-made fibers and usually used for dresses.

lapel

The front part of a garment that is folded back on the chest and forms a continuation of the collar. A notched lapel joins the collar at a seam and its outer point slants downward.

lappet

An ornamental embroidery effect woven into a cloth by a series of needles. The design, often in zigzag effect, is not clipped.

lariat

A woven belt that looks like a cowboys rope.

lastrile

Generic name for a made-made elastic fiber. There is not now, and has never been, any commercial production of this fiber in the United States. See generic name.

latex

The name for the liquid form of natural or man-made rubber. It can be formed into thread for use as an elastic yarn. Latex is also used extensively as part of the backing in the manufacture of rugs and at one time, was used extensively in corsets and brassieres. Now, however, although some latex foundation garments are still made, it has been largely replaced by spandex. Solid latex is sometimes referred to as rubber. See spandex.

launder-ometer

A standard laboratory devise for testing a fabrics fastness to washing.

lawn

A light, well-hackled linen fabric first made in haon, France. Now, it is a lightweight, fairly sheer, fine, plain-weave cotton or linen muslin fabric generally more sheer and with a higher count than nainsook. It can be given a soft or crisp finish and is sized and calendered to produce a soft, lustrous appearance. Linen lawn is synonymous with handkerchief linen. Cotton lawn is a similar type of fabric. Lawn is slightly stiffer than batiste, but can be used for similar purposes. [t is white, solid colored, or printed and is used tot dresses, blouses, curtains, lingerie, and as a base for embroidered items. See batiste, nainsook, and handkerchief linen.

leather

The hide of an animal with the fur removed_ lt has been used throughout history for clothing and other purposes. Today, manmade fabrics that imitate leather are widely available. Common leather names include alligator, buckskin, calfskin, chamois, cordovan, cowhide, crocodile, doeskin, grain leather, kid, lambskin, morocco, nappa, patent, peccary, pigskin, pin seal, reptile, reversed leather, Russian, shearling, skiver, snakeskin, and suede.

leather converter

A business that buys hides and skins, has them processed in contract tanneries, and then sells the finished product.

leatherette

A term used for imitation leathers. More correctly, these should be described by their actual construction, such as vinyl-coated fabric.

Leavers lace

Machine-made lace named for the inventor of the machine on which it is made. Many hand-made lace patterns can be copied on this machine. The term is sometimes used in preference to machine-made lace to imply quality.

leg warmers

Bulky knit, footless socks that extend from ankle to midthigh. They can be worn over stockings, boots, and pants, and also with skirts.

leghorn straw

A braided straw popular for hats and is made from wheat grown in Italy. See straw.

leno

An open, lacy woven fabric made with a special loom attachment. In a leno weave a pair of filling yarns twist around the warp yarns in various patterns to achieve the lacy effect. A leno weave is also made by twisting adjacent warps around each other like a figure eight. The filling passes through the twisted warps. l.eno fabrics are popular for curtains and summer dresses.

letting off

Releasing warp yarns from the warp beam as the weaving operation proceeds.

limp fabric

A fabric that is too soft because of inadequate amounts or improper application of finishing materials.

line

Longest flax fibers used for fine, even linen yarns. Shortest flax fibers are called tow.

line yarn

Well-hackled, even linen yarn made of long fibers.

linear polymer

A polymer formed by end-to-end linking of molecular units. The resulting polymer is very long and narrow. It is typical of fibrous forms.

linen

A vegetable fiber obtained from the inside of the woody stalk of the flax plant. It is one of the oldest fabrics known. It is strong, and todays man-made fibers are often blended with it to improve its wrinkle resistance and give the fabric other desirable qualities. Linen is woven in various weights for different purposes and is occasionally used in knit blends. The following entries are common linen names.

Belgian linen

Any linen produced in Belgium.

embroidery linen

Another name for art linen. See art linen.

handkerchief linen

A fine, sheer linen used for handkerchiefs, dresses or blouses, or whenever a lightweight cloth is desired.

irish linen

Irish linen refers to linen items from Northern Ireland and Eire.

Iinen straw

A type of straw made to resemble woven linen. See straw

linen tester

A magnifying glass for counting cloth, also called pick glass or pick counter.

linens and domestics

The term used in stores to describe various household items which, at one time, were made of linen. Today, most linens and domestics are made of cot ton and man-made fibers. The following entries are some of the items found in the linens and domestics sections of stores. See blankets, towels, and bedding.

antimacassar

A piece of cloth originally pinned to the back of a chair to protect the upholstery from hair oil (macassar). Today, although antimacassars are still available, changes in hair grooming and the development of fairly easy-to-clean upholstery fabrics have made their purpose primarily decorative.

napkin

A rectangular piece of fabric or paper used to wipe the mouth and hands in the course of eating. Napkins are often matched to the tablecloth or placernats.

pillow cover

A fabric cover which is placed over the bed pillow before the pillowcase. Pillow covers are designed to give more protection to pillows than is provided by pillowcases alone. See pillowcase.

pillowcase

Pillowcases are washable covers for bed pillows that usually match the sheets and protect the pillow from soil. Most American pillowcases are made in a rectangular form with one open, hemmed edge. They occasionally are decorated on one of the narrower ends.

placemat

A piece of cloth or other material (often foam-backed plastic) placed on a table between the table and the place setting to protect the table and to decorate it during meals. Placemats are available in a variety of sizes, shapes, and colors.

runner

A rectangular piece of fabric used with placemats to decorate and protect the dining table. It is placed in the center of the table under condiments (salt, pepper, mustard) and any decorations such as flowers or candles. Runners frequently match the placemats and are also used on chests of drawers to protect the top from spills.

silence cloth

A cloth put on a dining table to protect it and (as the name suggests) to prevent the clatter of dishes against the table. A silence cloth is usually a napped, fairly heavy fabric. Silence cloths are placed beneath tablecloths and are also called silencers.

silencer

Another name for silence cloth. See silence cloth and table pad.

tablecloth

Thetraditional table covering for protection and decoration. Tablecloths range from informal ones made, for example, of checked fabrics, to formal, such as double damask. Napkins are usually rnatched to the tablecloth. See double damask and napkin.

lingerie

Another term for womens underwear and nightwear, including panties, slips, petticoats, camisoles, pajamas, and nightgowns. Lingerie implies delicate fabric, often lace-trimmed. The term lingerie fabrics is occasionally used for very delicate fabrics. Formerly, the finest lingerie was made of muslin, lawn, or silk.

lingerie crepe

Pormerly called French crepe because it was originally made in France. The creped surface was made by embossing (pressing cloth over a fleece blanket). Because it is no longer pressed, it is not a crepe and it is used for lingerie and spring and summer dresses.

lining

Fabric made in the same shape as the outer fabric, a lining supports and protects the outer fabric and hides seams as well. Linings are found not only in apparel, but also in draperies and oc casionally curtains and bedspreads. Items that are lined tend to wear better and last longer than unlined items and the appearance of a lined item is usually better than that of an unlined one. Special lining fabrics include those sold under the trademarks Si Bonne and Earl-Glo. Linings should be of the same construction as the outer fabric.

linsey-woolsey

When linen and wool were woven together in the 18th century, the resulting coarse, loosely woven, and rather scratchy fabric, was called linsey-woolsey. Although linen and wool blends are occasionally made today, the use of finer finishing techniques makes them extremely comfortable and the name linsey-woolsey is limited to historical references.

linters

Very short fibers that cover the cotton seeds after the I long fibers have been removed by ginning. These short, fuzzy fibers, after removal from the cotton seeds, are a source of cellulose for rayon and acetate.

Linton tweed

The trademark of Linton, Ltd., Carlisle, England. These tweeds are noted for their softness and subtle or vivid calorings.

lisle

A hard, usually long-staple cottan ar wool yarn of defined length im two or more ply and with a minimum twist far a given count specified by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) rules for hosiery.

loafer

A slip-on shoe with a separate sole and heel.

loden cloth

A thick, heavy, napped fleecy coating fabric woven of coarse grade wool in Austria and the German Tyrol. It is similar to duffel cloth if made of wool or the occasional man-made fibers. Since the wool has some grease, it is naturally water-repellent. lt is usually a light forest green color, called loden, from which it (gets its name. Loden cloth moves in and out of fashion everywhere except in those parts of Germany and Austria where loden jackets, suits, and coats are considered basic dress. Loden cloth is sometimes gray in color. See duffel cloth.

loft

The springiness or fluffiness of a fiber.

longdoth

A fine, soft, cotton cloth woven of softly twisted yarns. It is similar to nainsook but slightly heavier, with a duller surface. Longcloth is so called because it was one of the first fabrics to be woven in Iong rolls. lt is also a synonym for muslin sheeting af gaod quality. The fabric is used for underwear and linings. See nainsook and muslin sheeting.

loom

A machine for weaving cloth. It is aperated either by hand or by machine.

loom-figured fabrics

Fabrics that have the design or pattern woven or knitted in as opposed to those which, for instance, have patterns printed on finished cloth.

loom finished

A term referring to certain fabrics soid without most of the steps mentioned in the entry under finishing. Loom finished fabrics are relatively rare because the consumer has grown accustomed to finished fabrics. See finishing.

loop

Any material (braid, fabric, and so forth) that is shaped into an oval and topstitched to a garment or encased into a seam and used as a buttonhole.

loop yarn

The slack-twisted strand is twisted to form loops or curls. This strand is held in place by one or two binder yarns.

loose cover

Another term for slipcover. See slipcover.[1]The gloss, sheen, or shine of a fiber, yarn, or fabric.

lounge wear

Intimate apparel that includes robes, housecoats, and bed jackets.

lumen

The open structure or canal from which the protoplasm has disappeared.

luster

The gloss, sheen, or shine of a fiber, yarn, or fabric.

luster rugs

Rugs that are chemically washed to give them sheen. They may be Wilton, Axminster machine-made rugs with oriental designs or velvet construction, and are frequently referred to as sheen-type rugs.

Macclesfield silk

Hand-woven silk or rayon fabric with small overall Jacquard patterns. Macclesfield, England, is the town of origin. Today, the name applies to small, yarn dyed, dobby designs used in mens neckties. See Spitalfields.

Mackinaw

A thick, heavy, usually coarse fabric with a certain degree of natural water repellency. It was originally made of wool, but other fibers such as acrylics are being used today. It was named for the blankets made by the Mackinaw Indians in Michigan. Mackinaw and similar fabrics are extremely popular for hunting jaekets and are usually plaid or checked. Mackinaw is also spelled Mackinac.

macrame

An ancient method of forming open fabrics by knotting string, yarn, or other threads. Macrame can be used to make anything from delicate trimmings to sturdy items such as hammocks. Recently, wall hangings of macrame have also become popular.

macromolecule

A large molecule formed by hooking together many small molecule units. The term is used synonymously with polymolecule or polymer. See polymer.

madder

A root from which a vegetable dye called Alizarin was obtained originally. It is now produced synthetically. See Alizarin dye.

Madras

1) Called Indian Madras. A fine, hand-loomed cotton imported from Madras, India. The Federal Trade Commission has ruled that it is deceptive to apply this term to a fabric that does not meet this description. In addition, the FTC definition requires that any dyes.used on this fabric must be vegetable dyes that will bleed (the col:ors run into each other). The fact that the FTC felt called upon to make such a definition is some indication of the popularity of Madras and imitation Madras fabrics in recent years. The authentic Madras and its imitations usually have checked or plaid designs

maillot

A one-piece, typically strapless, womans bathing suit.

maline

A gauze-like veiling of net used to trim hats. See net.

Mandarin collar

A small (two- to three-inch deep) collar standing on a high, close neckline.

man-made fibers

An overall term referring to all fibers not found naturally. This includes rayon and acetate made from cellulose, a natural product. The term synthetic fibers also ap plies only to man-made fibers made entirely in the laboratory from such things as petroleum (polyester).

mantilla

A lace scarf worn over the head.

marabou

Short, fluffy feathers now taken from domesticated fowl, usually dyed to match the garments on which they are used as trimming. They were originally taken from the stork.

marl

A technical term that refers to a yarn made of different colored fibers. The word is used descriptively for fabrics to indicate randomly or uniformly colored slubs that appear on the surface giving added textural and design interest to the fabric.

marquisette

A light, strong, sheer, open-textured curtain fabric in leno weave, often with dots woven into the surface. The thread count varies from 48 x 22 to 60 x 40. Marquisette, extremely popular for curtains and mosquito netting, is made of cotton, rayon, acetate, nylon, polyester, acrylic, glass, silk, or mixtures.

Marseilles

A firmly woven reversible fabric with raised geometric designs. Marseilles was originally made of cotton, but is now usually made from man-made fibers or blends.

Mary Jane

A low-heeled girls or womans pump with a strap across the instep and a rounded toe.

mat

Another spelling for matte. See matte.

matelasse

A soft double or compound fabric with a quilted appearance. One of the fabrics that, like cloque, has a blistered or quilted look to the design. Officially, the word matelasse implies the use of two different yarns that, when finished, react differently to the finishing resulting in a puckered effect in the fabric. In practice, the term matelasse is usually applied to luxury fabrics for evening wear, while a word such as cloque is used for a similar fabric made from cotton. The heavier type is used in draperies and upholstery, whereas crepe matelasse is popular in dresses, semiformal and formal suits and wraps, and trimmings.

material

Another word for fabric. See fabric.Fibers 1 to 11 long

matte

A dull surface on a fabric. Since one of the characteristics of fabrics made from man-made fibers is a shiny surface, mattefinished fabrics have become popular and matte looks for man-made fabrics are achieved in yarn processing or finishing. See finishing.

mechanical finishes

Those finishing processes done by copper plates, roller brushes, perforated cylinders, tenter frames, or any type of mechanical equipment.

mechanical picker

A device with vertical drums equipped with spindles that remove the cotton from the boll.

medulta

Honeycombed cellular section found in medium and coarse wools.

melamine resins

Finishes used to give wrinkle resistance and other desirable qualities (including a degree of shrinkage resistance) to fabrics, primarily those made from natural fibers. Melamine resins are chlorine retentive which means that if fabrics with these finishes are bleached with a chlorine bleach, they will keep both the color and the odor of the chlorine.

melton

Melton, usually called melton cloth, is a thick, heavily felted or fulled wool fabric in a twill or satin weave, with clipped surface nap, felt-like in feeling, and lustrous, similar to a dull broad cloth. The close weave means that the fabric appears to be completely smooth. Melton was originally made of all wool or cotton and wool, but today is made of other fibers. It is used extensively for coats and also for uniforms. See nap.

mercerization

A finish applied to cotton yarn or fabric or to a blend of cotton and other fibers to make it stronger, more absorbent, and to give the fabric additional luster and increased ability to take dye. Mercerization can be done at the yarn stage or the fabric stage. In common with several other textile processes, mercerization involves the use of caustic soda (sodium hydroxide or lye).

merchandise beam

It is synonymous with cloth beam.

merino

Wool from the merino sheep that produces a short staple fiber of extremely high quality. Merino sheep are raised in the United States, Australia, South Africa, and South America. Occasionally, the term merino is used as a synonym for Botany. See Botany.

mesh

A term for a large class of open fabrics made by almost all methods except felting. It can be made of any fiber, mixture, or blend. Mesh fabrics are used for bags, summer sport shirts, under wear, foundation garments, and hosiery. Mesh hosiery is knitted in such a pattern that, when one yarn is snagged, the stocking will not develop a long, vertical run, but a hole instead. Mesh stockings and panty hose are believed to wear better than other constructions.

metal complex dyes

A class of dyestuffs that is ionic and premetallized (chemically coupled with nickel, copper, and cobalt salts to make the dye on the fiber).

metallic

A generic name for a manufactured fiber that may be metal, metal coated with a synthetic, or a man-made fiber core covered with metal. When the metal is coated with a man-made film, the metal does not tarnish.

metallic doth

Any fabric, such as lame, woven with gold, silver, tinsel, or other metal threads.

micronaire fineness

The weight in micrograms of one inch of fiber.

middy twill

The term middy twill is used for many fabrics that are sturdy and have a twill weave. Traditionally made of cotton, middy twill today is likely to include at least some man-made fibers in its construction. When middy blouses are in fashion (a loasefitting, hip-length overblouse with a sailor collar) the most popular color for this twill is navy blue. It is used also for school uniforms.

Milan straw

A type of straw.

milanese

A kind of warp knitting with several sets of yarns. Characteristie is its diagonal argyle-type pattern.

mildew resistant

Among the many properties that can be given to fabrics in the finishing is resistance to traditional enemies. Waterproofed fabrics and fabrics treated with metallic com pounds and certain organic compounds will resist mildew. Fabrics such as canvas, that are exposed to the damp conditions that encourage the growth of mildew fungus, can be treated with finishes to resist this fungus, making them mildew resistant. See finishing.

minaudiere

A small evening bag made from precious metals and offen studded with precious or semiprecious gems.

mineral fibers

Textile raw material obtained from minerals in the earth, such as asbestos, silver, gold, copper, and the like.

mixture

Although the word mixture is often ignored in favor of the word blend, it should be used to describe fabrics made from a combination of two or more fibers in which one of the fibers is used for the filling thread. See blend and biconstituent fiber.

mock crepe

A term for fabrics that have the appearance of crepe, but are not made from crepe yarns. See crepe.

modacrylic

A generic name for modified acrylic fibers derived from thirty-five to eighty-five percent of acrylonitrile units. It differs from acrylic in its chemical structure. Modacrylic is used Most commonly to make fake furs and wigs. Modacrylic fibers are naturally flame-retardant (slow-burning). See acrylic.

modified acetate fibers

Fibers that are stretched and then treated with alkali.

modified cellulose fibers

Cotton fibers treated with caustic soda to give strength, increased luster, and improved affinity for dye. Modification of a fiber changes its physical and chemical properties within the limits of a generic family.

modified fibers

Fibers that are treated to eliminate charactetistics considered undesirable and to add characteristics considered desirable. Some treatments improve a fibers ability to take dye, whereas others give a fiber stretch it does not naturally have.

modified rayon fibers

Chemical treatment while fibers are in the plastic state to give them high tenacity (high strength). Changes in the molecular structure of the fiber have been made.

modified yarns

See modified fibers.

mogadore

A corded silk or rayon fabric with wide ridges and often with wide stripes used for ties.

Mohair

The long, lustrous hair of the Angora goat. It is used, mixed with other fibers, to make mohair fabrics.

mohair rug

Floor covering with mohair pile and jute back.

moire

A wavy, rippling pattern similar to a watermark produced in the finishing of certain fabrics by calendering, usually on a ribbed tex tile fabric. On acetate, moire made this way is permanent.

moireing

A finishing process by engraved rollers that produces a waved or watered effect on a textile fabric. Design is permanent when heat-set.

moisture regain

The moisture in a material determined under prescribed conditions and expressed as a percentage of the weight of the moisture-free specimen.

molding

The thermoplastic nature of most of the man-made fibers means that they change their shape under heat, thereby enabling the molding of items instead of knitting them or cutting and sewing them to the desired shape. Although this method of manufacture has great promise, so far it has been successful primarily in brassieres (most seamless brassieres have molded cups) and in upholstery applications.

molecular orientation

The degree to which fiber molecules are parallel to each other and to the longitudinal axis of the fiber.

moleskin finish

A cotton fleece lined with close, soft, thick nap that is used in underwear for cold climates.

momie cloth

A fabric made with a weave that produces a pebbled effect, similar to crepe.

momme

A Japanese unit of weight used for weighing silk. A momme is slightly less than 4 grams (about .034 ounces).

monochromatic scheme

The use of a combination of different shades of one color.

monofilament

A single, fine thread of continuous man-made fiber (as in nylon hosiery). See multifilament, staple, and tow.

monogram

Initials of a name combined in a single design and used on clothing, ornaments, stationery, and the like.

monomer

A single unit or molecule from which polymers are formed.

mordant

A substance that acts as a binder for the dye. A mordant has an affinity for both the dyestuff and the fabric.

mosquito netting

A coarsely meshed, net fabric used to make mosquito nets to place over windows and beds to keep mosquitoes out. See net.

moss crepe

Officially, moss crepe is made in a plain or dobby weave with rayon yarns that produce the moss-like effect. In practice, however, the term refers to any crepe, including polyester, considered to have a moss-like surface. See weaving.

moth repellency

An example of the desirable quaIities that can be given to fabrics in the finishing process. Some fabrics are treated with colorless chemicals, similar to dyestuffs, added to the dye bath. Another method atomizes the fabric with mothproofing chemicals. Fabrics that attract moths, such as woolens, can be treated for repellency. The treatment also repels other insects, such as carpet beetles. Wool rugs are almost always treated for moth repellency today.

motif

A design or color used alone or repeated on a fabric.

Mousquetaire

A long glove, eight to sixteen buttons in lenght. It has a vertical opening with buttons near the wrist, so that the wearer can remove the finger section and tuck it into the arm section without having to remove the entire glove.

mousseline

The name for a broad category of fabrics, usually fairly sheer and lightweight and made in a variety of fibers, including man-mades, silk, cotton, and wool. Mousseline usually has a crisp hand. The word mousseline is offen used today for a fabric resembling de soie. See mousseline de soie and hand.

mousseline de soie

Literally, muslin of silk. The words de soie mean of silk which may explain why the fabric, similar to this made from man-made fibers is usually called mousseline. Mousseline de soie (silk organdy) is a lightweight, sheer, plainweave silk fabric similar to chiffon in its appearance and uses, but a little crisper.

Moygashel

A trade name representing excellent quality in imported Irish linen.

muff

A tube of fur, wool, or velvet covering used to warm the hands outdoors. It is occasionally supplied as a matching accessory with an outerwear costume.

muffler

A long woven or knitted scarf worn around the neck for warmth.

multicomponent fabric

A fabric in which at least two layers of material are sealed together by an adhesive.

multifilament yarn

A yarn made of two or more filaments (long threads) of man-made fibers (monofilaments) that are joined together, usually by twistingally by twisting.

multilobal

A fiber with a modified cross section exhibiting several lobes.

muslin

The name for a large group of plain-weave fabrics, originally made of cotton.

muslin sheeting

A carded muslin for bed sheets in white or colors made in types 140 (A grade), 128 (B grade), and 112 (C grade).

quilt

A fabric construction, usually thinner and less resilient than a comforter, most often used as a bed covering for added warmth. It consists of a layer of printed cotton muslin fabric, known as the quitt top, and backing fabric, also made of printed or solid cotton muslin fabric, with a layer of cotton, wool, or synthetic batting between. All three layers are sewn together with fine quilting (running) stitches that usually create a design of its own. Quilted bed coverings filled with down feathers are called eiderdowns or comforters. A patchwork quitt has a patchwork quitt top. See quilting, patchwark, and batting.

quilting

Stitching through two or more layers of fabric to form a design or pattern. The most common quilting design today is a diamand pattern, but quilting stitches (usually a short running stitch) may also be dane in abstract, pictorial, geometric, floral, or random patterns. Quilting stitches often are used to outline patchwork or applique designs on a quitt. See applique, quitt, and patchwork.

rabbit

An inexpensive fur often dyed to resemble other furs or for fashion impact. It is also calted coney and lapin.

rabbit hair

"Angora rabbits fur. The hair of rabbits often is mixed with ""normal"" fibers to give softness or an more illustrious texture to the finished fabric."

raffia straw

See straw.

rag rug

A floor covering woven with strips of twisted rags made of cotton, wool, r synthetic fabrics braided, crocheted, or bound and used as the filling on a cotton or synthetic yarn warp. Rag rugs are made by hand or machine, and with the exception of some handmade antique rags, usually are the most inexpensive rugs.

raglan sleeve

A sleeve whose shoulder seam extends, slanted, from the neckline to the underarm.

rainwear

Water-resistant or waterproof apparel, such as a raincoat car rain boots.

ramie

A strong, lustrous, natural bast fiber from a nettle-Iike East Indian shrub, also produced in China, Egypt, and the United States. it is used for shirts, suitings, automobile seat covers, and in blends with wool for carpets,

ramie straw

A type of straw. See straw.

random-tip shears

Carpets and rugs with a high pile sheared at random.

raschel

A knit made on a raschel machine, a warp knitting machine that can use bulky yarns to form designs imitating crochet or net.

rattail fringe

A decorative edging made of rattail in which the rattail forms loops across the edging. See rattail.

raw-stock dyeing

dyeing of fibers before spinning into yarn. It is synonymous with fiber-dyed. See fiber-dyed.

rayon

The first successful man-rnade fiber, rayon was originally called artificial silk. It is made from ceilulose and is weak when wet. Rayon is soft and comfortable and dyes well, but is weakened by exposure to sunlight. ecause of its low wet strength, rayon may shrink or stretch unless treated. fwo main processes are used in this country to produce rryon: viscose process and cuprammonium process. Several different rnodificatiorrs of these types of rayon are being made and consist of the following. See cellulose.

euprammonium rayon

Rayon niade by a process that allows very fine filament fibers to be fornred. The fineness of its filaments is its best known characteristic.

high wet modulus rayon

Rayon made by a modified viscose process. The resulting rayon is rnuch stronger when wet than ordinary rayon. Zantrel and Avril are examples of high wet modulus rayon. See viscose rayon.

poeynosie rayon

Rayon less likely to shrink or stretch when wet because of the way in which it is made. Regular rayon shrinks and stretches when wet and is said to have poor wet strength.

saponified rayon

A type of rayon made from cellulose acetate filaments, sirnilar to the kind used in making acetate. These fibers are treated in a special way to prodtrce a rayorr that is very strong. Fortisan is an examplc of saponified rayon.

ready-to-wear

A term used in the fashion industry. It was developed to distinguish between manufactured items of clothing and those made from fabrics sold by the yard to the consumer. The term is sometimes shortened to r-t-w. See pret porter.

real lace

Hand-made lace. See lace.

redaimed textile fibers

Fibers made into fabric (whether sold comrnercially or not) and then converted back into fiber. Most reclaimed textile fibers are wool and other natural fibers because it is extremely difficult to reclaim man-made fibers. See reprocessed fibers and reused fibers.

recovery

The ability of a fabric to return to its original shape after being stretched. This term is used most often in reference to stretch fabrics. A quality stretch fabric will recover promptly. Recovery may also be used in reference to knit fabrics because they have varying amounts of stretchability.

recycled fiber

See reclaimed textile fibers, reprocessed fiber, and reused fiber.

reed

This frame, located directly in front of the harnesses, swings forward to batten the last filling inserted against previous fillings. See battening.

reeling

The process of winding silk filaments onto a wheel directly from cocoons.

reembroidered lace

Lace with designs outlined in embroidery stitching. See embroidery.

regirnentai stripe

See stripe.

register printing

A method of printing the same design on both sides of the fabric to give it additional definition and clarity of color. Also called duplex printing.

rep or repp

Heavy filling-wise corded fabric, heavier than poplin. It may be silk, rayon, man-made fibers, cotton, wool, or a mixture. The fabric may be solid or striped. It is used for ties, robes, draperies, and upholstery, and in lighter weights for blouses and trimmings.

reprocessed fibers

Fibers obtained from scraps and clips of woven and felted fabrics made of previously urmsed woot that have been shredded back into fiber form and then remade into new yarns. Reprocessed fibers are usually wool fibers and must be relabeled as reprocessed wool according to Federal Trade Commission standards. Reprocessed fibers are less desirable than new or virgin fibers. See virgin Fiber.

residual srinkage

The amount of shrinkage remaining in a fabric or gannent after all manufacturing processes are completed. More than residual shrinkage is undesirable, but common because in many fabrics the removal of residual shrinkage is not always included as patt of the finish.ing process. Because fabrics often have residual shrinkage, it is important to preshrink before cutting fabrics used in hon3e sewing. See preshrunk.

resiliency

The ability of a fabric to return to its original shape after compressing, bending, or other deformation

resin finish

A finish made of synthetic awsins applied to fabrics to irnpart certain characteristics such as wrinkle and crease resistance. See finishing.

resist printing

Printing similar to resist dyeing. In resist printing, the fabric is coated with a paste that protects it from colors in certain areas.

retting

The removal, usually by soaking, of the outer woody portion of the flax plant to gain access to the fibers. This may be done by several methods: pool, dew, tank, and chemical.

reused wool

Old wool that has been made into a wool product and used by consumers, then cleanecl, garnetted, and remade into merchandise. It must be labeled reused wool. See reused fibers.

reversible fabric

A fabric that can be used on either side. Generally, the term reversible is applied to two quite different fabrics joined together by such methods as laminating or double cloth construction. Reversible fahrics frequentiy are used for coats, less frequently for other garments. See laminating and double cloth.

rhinestone

A faceted pie of glass (the glass is cut with faces that reflect light). Rhinestones are used in costume jewelry or as decoration on clothing or trimming. Rhinestones are also ealled diamante,

rib

A straight, ridged, or corded effect that usually moves vertically or horizontally on a fabric.

rib stitch

A weft knit identified by vertical ribs on both sides of the fabric. A very resilient stitch. Combined with the tuck stitch, it is called rib-and-tuck stitch.

rib weave

A plain weave that forms ridges in a fabric through the way in which it is woven or by the use of thicker yarns for the filling than those used tot the warp. See weaving, filling, and warp.

ribbed cuff

A close-fitted knit finish in ribbed pattern tot the open end of a sleeve.

ribbing

Rib knit that is used at wrists, waists, and necklines of plain or patterned knit garments. See rib-knit/250/rib-knit.html" title="rib knit" class="normal">rib knit.

rick-rack

A flat braid woven in a zig-zag, serpentine shape. It is available in several widths and is an extremely popular and inexpensive trimming.

rippling

Threshing of flax to strip the seeds or bolls from the plant. This process may be done by hand or by machine.

roll collar

A collar that rises from the neckline then folds over (or rolls) so that the edge of the collar touches the garment.

roller blinds

Shades wound around a toller or dowel when the window is exposed. Originally made only in neutral colors, today these shades often are made in colors or matched and coordinated with the draperies in a room.

roller printing

Roller printing may be the most important method of printing today. The design is etched onto a toller through which the fabric is passed. For each color in the design a different toller is used. High speed can be obtained in toller printing.

toller shades

Another name for toller blinds.

romain crepe

A semisheer fabric of abraded yarns in warp and filling. It is made of rayon and acetate ar wool and is used tot street and dressy dresses.

rough crepe

A heavy fabric of rayon, acetate, or mixtures made with alternately twisted fillings, two right and two left (2x2).

roving frame

A machine that puts a loose twist in the drawn-out sliver.

rows to the inch

Rows of yarn tufts to the inch lengthwise.

rubber

The generic name of man-made fibers in which the fiber-forming substance is natural or synthetic rubber.

ruff

A wheel-shaped collar made of several layers of fabric (usually lace) in S-shaped folds.

drugget

A coarse, felted floor covering made from mixtures of such fibers as cotton, jute, and wool. Drugget is usually napped on one side and is a traditionally inexpensive floor covering used by institutions.

hand-knotted rug

Hand-knotted rugs, including Oriental and Persian rugs, are among the most expensive made. Intricate designs are possible. The higher the number of knots to the inch, the finer the rug.

hooked rug

A rug made by hand or machine using a hook to pull loops of yarn or fabric through a coarse backing or canvas to form a pile.

rag rug

A rug woven with strips of cotton, wool, or synthetic fabrics used as the filling on a cotton or synthetic yarn warp. Rag rugs are made by hand and machine and, with the exception of some hand-made antique rag rugs, are usually the most inexpensive rugs.

random-sheared rug

A pile rug in which some sections of the pile are cut and other sections are not. See pile and shearing.

rya rug

A Scandinavian shag rug. Rya rugs are popular in the United States as area rugs because of their dramatic color combinations. The highest quality rya rugs, also quite expensive, are hand-knotted.

runless

A type of seamless nylon hosiery in a lock-stitch mesh.

run-resistant

Knitted fabric constructed to make runs difficult. See interlock knitting.

Russian leather

A common name in leather for the hide of an animal with the fur removed.

rustle

Another word for scroop, the rustle that certain fabrics such as silk taffeta have. Scroop is considered a desirable characteristic in luxury fabrics.

saddlebag

A pouch-like purse with a flap that folds over the top opening.

safari bag

A soft leather purse with a curved rectangular shape, a buckled center strap, two outside pockets with buckled flaps, and two strap handles.

sailcloth

Originally, a firmly woven cotton canvas used for making sails. Today, sailcloth is a very heavy, strong, plain-weave fabric made of cotton, linen, jute, nylon, or palyester. It comes in many qualities and weights. In common usage, the terms duck, sailcloth, and canvas often are used interchangeably. Sailcloth can be used for sportswear, slipcovers and upholstery, and curtains and draperies. See canvas and duck.

sailor collar

A collar that is V-shaped in front with a deep square or rectangle in back.

salt and pepper

A fabric made of a combination of white and black yarns. The term usually is used to describe tweed fabrics. See tweed.

sanforize

A process of preshrinking fabric to leave a residual shrinkage of less than 1%, a desirable characteristic. See residual shrinkage.

saran

The generic name for a man-made fiber derived from vinylidene chloride. Saran is strong, resists common chemicals, sunlight, and weather. It is used primarily in the fabric field for upholstery on public transportation vehicles and for garden furniture.

sari

A piece of fabric twelve to sixteen feet long used by Hindu women to drape and cover the body. The fabric is often silk with silver or gold threads forming a border design.

sash

Soft fabric or a ribbon tied at the waist as a heil.

satchel

A large rectangular purse with a buckled, snapped, or clasped flap and a wide shoulder strap.

sateen

A strong, lustrous, mercerized, satin-weave fabric made of cotton, blends of cotton with polyester, or spun-yarn fabrie characterized by floats running in the filling direction. Sateen Is also used to distinguish between cotton satin-weave fabrics and satin-weave fabrics made of sk or man-made fibers. It is used for linings, draperies, and comforters. See weaving and satin weave.

sateen weave

Characterized by floats running filling-wise. See float.

satin

One of the basic weaves. A shiny, smooth silk, acetate, rayon, or other man-made fiber combination woven in satin weave made with a cotton filling. It has a smooth, lustrous surface because the warp floats. It is used for linings of coats, jackets, facings, and ties. It is also used for draperies, upholstery, bedspreads, and sheets. Satin weave has proved so popular that various types of satin-weave fabrics have developed. Following i.s a listing of many of the types of satin fabrics. See weaving and sateen.

antique satin

Antique Satin is a satin-weave fabric which is normally used for draperies. Both sides may be used. The face is a classic lustrous satin.

crepe-backed satin

Creped-backed satin can be used on either side. While the surface is satin, the back is crepe. It is mainly used for the production of clothing. Connected to: crepe and satin crepe.

double-faced satin

A satin fabric with a satin appearance on both sides unlike ordinary satin, which has a definite right and wrong side.

duchesse satin

One of the heaviest and richest looking satins. It is important for such formal clothing as wedding gowns.

slipper satin

Slipper satin is a tightly woven satin fabric, usually lighter in weight than duchesse satin, and used for many purposes including evening shoes or slippers.

satin brocade

A satin with a raised woven-n design. It resembles a fine embroidered pattern.

satin crepe

A heavy reversible fabric with satin on one side and crepe on the other. It is used in fall and winter dresses and linings.

satin weave

Characterized by a smooth surface caused by floats running warp-wise.

saturation regain

The moisture in a material at 95% or % relative humidity.

savonnierie

A French rug made to imitate Oriental knotted rugs with rococo patterns.

Saxony

Saxony is a heavyweight, napped coating fabric, traditionally made from merino wool. Saxony originated in Saxony, Germany. See merino.

scales

Protective covering of the wool fiber.

scallops

Decorative semicircular curves usually used as edge trimming. They are popular clothing accents and offen are used on cafe curtains. See curtains and draperies and cafe curtains.

scoop neck

A neckline in the shape of the letter U

scouring

A finishing process for removing oil, sizing, dirt, grease, and swint from wool and other fabrics.

screen printing

In screen printing, a sheer fabric, such as silk or nylon gauze, is stretched over a wood or metal frame to form a screen. The entire screen, except for the design area to be printed, is coated with a substance that closes the pores of the fabric screen. The dye is poured onto the screen and forced through the uncoated design areas onto the fabric below. A different screen must be used for each cotor in the print.

scrim

An open, plain-weave, mesh fabric used for curtains, bunting, and as a supporting fabric for some laminated fabrics. Scrim was traditionally made of cotton, but today usually is made of nylon or other man-made fibers. See bunting.

scroop

A characteristic rustling or crunching sound acquired by silk that has been immersed in solutions of acetic or tartaric acid and dried without rinsing. It is probably caused by acid microcrys tals in the ribers rubbing against each other. It is also the rustle that certain fabrics such as silk taffeta have. Scroop is considered a desirable characteristic in luxury fabrics.

scrubbed

See scrubbing.

scrubbing

Another name for the brushing method of raising a nap. Scrubbed denim, for example, means napped denim. See napping.

sculptured rug

A floor covering in which the pile is cut in different lengths to form a Jacquard design made with different heights.

scutching

The separation of the outer covering of the flax stalk from the usable fibers.

seal

A common name in leather for the hide of an animal with the fur removed.

seamless

A self-explanatory term. A seamless garment has no seams or fewer seams than the ordinary cut-and-sewn garment of its type. The word seamless is used primarily for garments that are given their final shape by heat-setting (called boarding in the case of hosiery) or molding. See cut-and-sewn, heat-setting, boarding, and molding.

seam-line pockets

Pockets set into a seam and hidden behind the garment fabric.

seed yarn

A very small nub often made of dyed man-made fibers applied to a dyed or natural-base yarn.

self-belt

A belt made of the same fabric as the clothing with which it is worn. It may simply be a sash or a stiff belt with a buckle.

selvage

The long, outer, finished edge of both sides of a woven fabric that does not ravel because the filling yarns wrap around the warp yarns. It may also be called self-edge or selvedge.

semi-fashioned

A hosiery term for seamless hosiery that has had a fake seam added so it will resemble full-fashioned hosiery. See full-fashioned.

senna knot

Type of knot used to make pile in Persian hand-tied rugs.

sequin

A shiny, usually metallic, decoration or spangle. Sequins are sewn to clothing, especially evening dresses because they shimmer and sparkle in the light. Sequins usually have a sin gle, central hole for fastening to the garment or fabric. Sequins are also known as paillettes. Fabric covered with sequins is available by the yard.

sericulture

The raising of silkworms and production of silk.

set-in pockets

(or slash-)pockets made by cutting an opening in the garment and stitching the pocket to the inside of the garment so only the opening is visible.

sewing-knitting machine

The latest machine for making fabrics. In the best known of these, the malimo machine, the warp thread is placed on top of the filling thread and the two are stitched together with a third thread.

shade cloth

The narne for any fabric used to make window shades.

shades

A window covering that plays a double role. Shades provide: both light control and privacy and can also lend a decorative accent. Shades range from the traditional roller blinds, available in versions that exclude light completely to those that permit some light to come in, to some with a more decorative purpose such as Austrian shades. Following is a listing of some of the popular types of shades. The term blind is a synonym for shade.

accordion shades

Shades made of accordion pleats sharply creased at regular intervals horizontally across their width. Accordion shades take up relatively little room when drawn up to uncover the window. See pleats and accordion pleats.

Austrian shades

Shades made of fabric shirred across the width of the shade. When drawn up, Austrian shades hang in graceful loops of fabric. See shirring.

Koller blinds

Koller blinds are shades wound around a roller or dowel when the window is exposed. Originally made only in neutral colors, today these shades often are made in colors or matched and coordinated with the draperies in a room.

Roman shades

Shades similar to Austrian shades. When the window is exposed, the fabric of Roman shades hangs in graceful folds at the top of the window. Austrian shades are shirred throughout when they cover the window, but Roman shades hang straight and only form folds when drawn up to uncover the window.

sky line shades

Another name for Roman shades.

Venetian blinds

One of the most popular window coverings to control light and privacy. Venetian blinds are made of strips of fabric, metal, or plastic. These strips can be tipped to shut out light completely or opened to varying degrees to filter light to the desired intensity. They can also be raised to the top of the window to bare it completely. Conventional Venetians hang with the slats or strips horizontal to the windowsill, but vertical Venetians are also available and often are used as room dividers as well as window coverings. Venetians are available in various colors and widths.

shading

Crushing of the pile of a rug so that it seems to have light and dark spots in it.

shadow printing

A printing method in which only the warp yarns are printed with a design before the fabric is woven. ""fhe resulting fabric has a wavy, shadowy effect. It is also called warp printing.

shadow stripes

Faint impressions of stripes achieved by using yarns of the same color but different twists in weaving a fabric. The shadow effect comes from the way in which the light strikes the yarns of varying twists. See twist.

shag

A floor covering with relatively long, loose wool or man-made fibered plie.

sharkskin

(1) A heavy weight, fairly lustrous cotton, linen, silk, or man-made fiber fabric with a sleek, hard-finished, crisp, and pebbly surface and a chalky luster. Today, it is almost always made of acetate or triacetate. Filament yarns, when used, are twisted and woven tightly in a plain-weave or basket-weave construction, depending on the effect desired. Staple fiber yarns are handled in the same manner, except for wool. Sharkskin is best known in its stark white color especially popular for tennis outfits and for permanently pleated white skirts when they are in fashion. (2) A wool fabric in twill weave, originally made of yarns of two colors.

shawl

A triangular or oblong piece of cloth worn around the shoulders.

shawl collar

A collar formed by cutting the lapel and collar in one continuous piece.

shearing

A method of removing the hair from an animal (the wool from sheep, for example) without injuring the animal. Shearing also refers to trimming the pile on a fabric to a desired height.

sheath-core yarn

A bulky yarn of synthetic fibers consisting of a core of fine denier fibers with considerable shrinkage and a cover or wrapping of coarse denier relaxed fibers.

shed

The opening between warp yarns through which filling yarns are passed.

shedding

The raising and lowering of the warp ends by means of the harness and heddles to form the shed (passage) for the filling yarn to pass through from one side of the loom to the other.

sheer

The opposite of opaque. Sheer fabrics are usually made in an open weave to create fabrics with varying degrees of transparency. Batiste, organdy, and voile are examples of sheer fabrics. See batiste, organdy, and voile.

sheer curtains

Thin fabrics of polyester, cotton, and blends that hang next to the window glass.

sheet

A rectangular piece of fabric used to cover and protect the top and sides of a mattress. This is usually referred to as a bottom sheet. A top sheet is placed on top of a bottom sheet to protect the skin from a sometimes scratchy blanket and to protect the blanket from soil. Traditionally, sheets were made of linen or cotton.

shiki

Heavy rayon, acetate, and cotton, or other mixtures identified by wavy filling-wise cords. It is used for draperies.

shirring

A method of gathering fabric to create decorative fullness. Shirring consists of three or more parallel rows of stitching, placed about 1/4'' to 1'' apart, and drawn up (gathered) together to form bands of controlled gathers. Shirring is used in clothing and in items of home furnishings.

shirting

Any lightweight fabric appropriate for shirts or blouses. The term top-weight (its opposite is bottom-weight) is often om-weight) is often used for this type of fabric instead of the word shirting. Some crepes and satins, as well as voile and Oxford cloth, are examples of shirting fabrics although there are many others.

shoddy

Originally, a fabric made from reprocessed wool. Today, the word is used for a fabric - or anything else, for that matter - that is poorly made or made of inferior materials. See reprocessed fibers and reused wool.

shoot

Another term for filling, weft, woof, and shute. The crosswise thread that interlaces with the warp threads on a woven fabric.

shortie glove

A wrist-length glove with a side or center palm opening that can be snapped or buttoned.

shot

Another name for iridescent and changeable fabric. Fabric woven with yarns of one color in the warp and another color in the filling so that the fabric seems to change color as the light strikes it.

shoulder bag

Any type of purse with shoulder straps.

shoulder pad

A support placed in the shoulder area of a garment to give a wider look to the shoulder when this look is in style. A thinner version known as a shoulder shape is used in coats and suits to maintain shape and give support in the shoulder area. Shoulder pads and shoulder shapes are available in notions departments and in fabric stores. See findings.

shower curtain

A shower curtain is a length of fabric hung around a bathroorn shower or shower-tub combination to keep water from splashing out onto the floor. Shower curtains should be waterproof. When decorative, nonwaterproof shower curtains are used, a waterproof liner, usually made of plastic, should be placed inside.

showerproof

One of the many terms used to describe varying degrees of imperviousness to water. A showerproof fabric will repel water to a limited extent, but is not waterproof. See waterproof.

shrinkage-controlled fabric

Fabric treated in some way to prevent it from shrinking more than a specified amount. Unfortunately, the term shrinkage-controlled is an arbitrary standard and varies from rnanufacturer to manufacturer and gives the consumer no true measure of quality. Shrinkage-control is usually achieved by shrinking the fabric in the finishing steps or by the addition of finishing agents to the fabric.

shute

Another term for weft, woof, shoot, and filling. The crosswise thread that interlaces with the warp threads on a woven fabric.

shuttle

The part of the weaving machine (loom) that carries the filling yarn over and under the warp yarns.

shuttleless loom

A machine that carries the filling yarns through the shed by the use of air or water jets and grippers.

silhouette

Literally, shadow or outline. Silhouette refers to the shape of a garment. When the silhouette is soft, soft drapeable fabrics are popular.

silicone

Generic name for certain compounds obtained, from silicon, a component of sand. Silicones are used in fabric finishing to impart stain and wrinkle resistance. See finishing.

silk

The product of the silk worm and the only natural filament fiber (it is produced in a long thread). Silk was the leading luxury fiber for thousands of years. There were many types of silk and many ways of making it into cloth. foday, man-made fibers have to a very large extent replaced silk, but the traditional names for certain silk fabrics are still used and include the following:

Honan silk

Silk similar to pongee. See pongee.

pongee

A plain-weave, fairly lightweight silk fabric with a slight slub to the yarns. Today, the terms Honan and pongee are used interchangeably for fabrics with this texture, but made from man-made fabrics.

raw silk

A term used incorrectly for wild silk. Raw silk is the silk fiber before it has been processed in any way. Kaw silk is coated with a glue-like substance called sericin. The sericin is removed in later processing and is not silk.

shantung

A silk similar to pongee in that it, too, is made with slubbed yarns, but in shantung the unevenness of the yarns is even greater. Shantung is one of the fabrics that originated in silk and has been imitated extensively in the man-made fibers.

surah

A silk recognized by its sheen and its fine twill weave. Surah is popular for dresses and neckties and is also imitated in man-made fibers.

Thai silk

Silk made in Thailand. Most Thai silk is fairly heavy weight, often slubbed, and made in vivid colors that are usually iridescent or changeable.

tussah

Silk fabric woven from silk made by wild, uncultivated silkworms. Tussah is naturally tan in color, cannot be bleached, and has a rougher texture than cultivated silk. Wild silkworms eat leaves other than mulberry leaves which cultivated silkworms eat exclusively. The difference in diet accounts for the different fiber and fabric characteristics. Tussah is also used to describe fabrics designed to imitate this kind of silk. See wild silk.

wild silk

The silk from uncultivated silkworms that eat leaves other than mulberry leaves. Wild silk is coarser and is more uneven than cultivated silk. The resulting fabric is usually duller in finish and rougher in texture than other types of silk. Tussah is a silk fabric made from wild silk.

silk broadcloth

A soft spun-silk fabric in plain weave, used for shirts, blouses, and sports dresses.

silk culture

The care of the worm that produces silk fiber, from the egg to the moth.

silk illusion

A net similar to tulle but even finer in mesh, used primarily for bridal veils.

silk noil

Short ends of silk fibers used in making rough, textured, spun yarns or in blends with cotton or wool.

singeing

Removing surface fibers and lint from a cloth with hot copper plates or gas flames.

single yarn

One strand of fibers or filaments grouped or twisted together. See singles.

single-breasted

A garment that closes down the center front with only one row of buttons or other type of closure.

singles

A strand of several filaments held together by twist.

sisal straw

A type of straw used for rugs and ropes.

sizing

Starch, gelatin, glue, wax, casein, or clay added to fabrics in the finishing stages to give fabric additional body, a smoother appearance, and more weight. Cotton fabrics are those most commonly treated in this manner. At one time, sizing had to be replaced after each cleaning. Today, with more advanced finishing techniques, sizing is rarely used and fabrics usually retain their initial appearance through cleaning. A few fabrics such as needlepoint canvas are still sized so that they can be handled more easily. This in no way affects their final performance. Sizing also refers to the starch that is applied to the warp yarns to help prevent abrasion during the weaving process. This sizing is usually removed from the fabric in one of the finishing steps.

skein

A coil of yarn, which, unlike a spool of thread, has no center supporting object. The term skein and hank are sometimes considered synonyms. See hank.

ski wear

Clothing suitable to wear while skiing, such as warm, waterproof pants, jackets, and so forth.

skiver

A common name in leather for the hide of an animal with the fur removed.

sleeve cap

The top part of the sleeve at the shoulder that may be set flat (smooth), pleated, or shirred (gathered).

slider

An ornament that slides up and down a chain.

slipcover

An unattached covering for a sofa or chair. Slipcovers are made with openings so they can be removed for cleaning. They are also called loose covers.

sliver

A filmy sheet of fibers resulting from carding.

smocking

Rows of shirring done in a pattern to add some give (stretch) to a gannent and for decoration. A common pattern of smocking is to gather the fabric with stitches that cross each other diagonally, forming a honeycomb-like pattern. It is often done with colored embroidery thread and gives an effect similar to shirring. See shirring.

soft fabrics

Fabrics that tend to drape in soft folds and to cling instead of standing away from the figure or item being covered. Soft fabrics is usually used as the opposite of crisp fabrics. Single knits usually are considered soft fabrics.

soil release

A special finish applied to some man-made fiber fabrics in an attempt to overcome one of their disadvantages: the tendency to retain dirt, especially water-borne and/or oil-based stains, once it has penetrated the fibers. Polyester is one of the fibers that retains oil-based stains.

solution dyeing

The solution for man-made fiber is colored before making it into fiber. Dyestuff is put into ttre spinning solution and the color is locked in as the fiber is coagulated. Synonytnous with spun dycing and dope dyeing. See dyeing, spun dyeing, and dope dyeing.

space dyeing

A method of dyeing yarn by dipping in dye or spotting in various places along the yarn. This causes different sections of the yarn to appear in different colors. The resulting fabric often has unusual, rainbow-like effects.

spaghetti straps

Very narrow, tubular cloth straps.

spandex

The generic name of man-made fibers derived from a chemical substance called segmented polyurethane (resin). This man-made elastic fiber has a good deal of stretch and recovery for its weight. Spandex is used extensively in foundation garments and is much more comfortable than rubber because it is lighter in weight. Spandex is also found in some fabrics where stretch is considered desirable, such as in ski clothes. See polyurethane.

specialty fibers

Hair fibers from various breeds of goats and camels. Also included are cow- and horsehair, fur from rabbits, and feathers of the duck, goose, and ostrich.

specific gravity

The density of a fiber relative to that of water at 4 centigrade.

spinneret

A spinneret, which looks very much like a showerhead (a jet or nozzle containing very fine holes), is used in the manufacture of man-made fibers. The material from which the fibers are forrned is forced through holes in the spinneret (extruded) while it is in a syrupy or melted state. The resulting long strands harden into filament fibers. See filament and fiber.

spinning

A method of drawing out and twisting together fibers to make a continuous thread or yarn. Spinning also refers to the manufacture of man-rnade fibers as they are formed by fcucing the material from which they are rnade through a spinneret. In conventional spinning, the tighter the twist, the stronger the yarn, but too tight a twist can weaken the final yarn. Crepe yarns have such an extremely high twist that the yarn actually turns back on itself (kinks), producing the characteristic crepe or corksc_rew look. Pabrics can be given shadow effects by the Lise of two yarns which have been twisted in opposite directions during spinning. This will strike each of these yarns in a different way producing this effect. See spinneret.

spinning quality

"The ease with which fibers lend themselves to yarn-manufacturing processes

Spitalfields

An English town and the home of Huguenot weavers, it is now a lace-making center. In this town, the hand-woven Jacquard silk Spitalfields tie originated.

splash yarn

An elongated nub yarn that has been tightly twisted around a base yarn.

sponging

A method of shrinking wool fabrics involving the application of water to the fabric followed by drying it, usually with some heat, in order to shrink it. Some wool fabrics sold by the yard are labeled sponge shrunk, ready for the needle, and they shouId not shrink again when cleaned.

sportswear

Clothing worn for active or spectator sports or recreational activities.

spread

Any kind of covering. A bedspread is usually a decorative covering that covers the bianket and pillows on a bed during the day. Bedspreads are available in many styles from simple throws ar ranged casuaily over the bed to tailored box spreads. A box spread is a shaped and fitted bedspread with a tailored appearance. The corners are square, giving the spread its name. See throw.

spun dyeing

See solution dyeing, dyeing, and dope dyeing.

spun fiber yarn

(1) A yarn twisted by spinning. (2) Yarn made from staple lengths of man-made fibers instead of the long fiIaments in which man-made fibers are formed. To accomplish this, long filament fibers are chopped into staple lengths and spun to imitate natural fiber yarns. See filament arrd staple.

spun polyester

See spun fiber yarn.

spun rayon

See spun fiber yarn.

spun silk

Yarn or fabric made from short fibers of pierced cocoons or from short ends at the outside and inside edges of the cocoons that cannot be reeled.

stabilising

Treating a fabric so that it will not shrink or stretch more than a certain percentage, perhaps 2%.

stable knit

Any knit unlikely to stretch excessively. Double knits are usually stable knits.

stand-up collar

A collar that rises from the neckline to form a narrow, circular strip or band around the neck.

staple

Short lengths of fiber, measured in inches or fractions of inches, like those naturally found in cotton and wool. These short lengths must be spun to obtain a length sufficient for weaving or knitting. Silk is the only natural fiber that does not come in staple lengths, but instead in filament lengths. Man-made fibers often are cut into staple lengths for spinning to imitate natural fibers. See spinning, filament, and spun fiber yarn.

staple fabrics

Those cloths which, over a period of years, have a steady sale or demand. Such cloths as muslins, flannels, broadcloth, shanttung, and taffeta are staples that have to be kept in stock.

stencil printing

A type of resist printing where portions of the design are covered with metal or wood so the covered parts do not take the dye. See printing and resist printing.

stitch

A single passage of a threaded needle through fabric and back again, as in sewing or embroidery. Stitches may be made by hand or done on a sewing machine to hold layers of fabric together or to clecorate fabric such as embroidery, stitchery, and needlepoint. The most commonly used hand stitches follow. See embroidery, needlepoint, and stitchery.

back stitch

A stitch taken backwards on top of another to lock the .stitch in place or for extra strength. The back stitch is often uscd to end a row of running stitches, but can also be used in a continuous row in the same way as a running stitch. See running stitch.

hemming stitch

A stitch used to finish the raw edge of a fabric, usually by turning up and catching the edge to another point on the fabric. The needle is inserted in a slanted direction into the edge being hemmed, then into the fabric which is to be oaught. Many other types of stitches can also be used for hemming. See hent.

running stitch

The basic lsand stitch. The needle is inserted into the fabric and then moved in and out, joining two sections of fabric together. The stitches formed are ideally of the same length on both the top and the bottom layer of the fabric.

stitchery

The contemporary approach to traditional embroidery in which the same basic stitches are used, but in a freer, less restricted manner to create their own form and shapes. The yarns used in stitchery go beyond traditional wool and silk embroidery floss. Anything can be used to make the stitches from ribbon and cord to narrow strips of fabric or even fishline. Stitchery may be used to decorate clothing, home furnishings items, and for wall hangings. Sec embroidery.

stock tie

A long, wide piece of fabric wrapped around the neck several times and looped over itself in front.

stockinette stitch

In hand weft knitting, characterized by vertical wales on the face and horizontal courses on the back of the fabric. See plain stitch.

stole

A long rectangle or triangle of fabric or fur worn as a wrap around the shoulders.

straight sleeve

A narrow, tube-Like short or long set-in sleeve.

straw

A fairly stiff material made from the stems, leaves, bark, or stalks of various plants. It is usually braided or woven to form a fabric. Straw is used in large quantities for hats when they are in style. Most straw today is used for baskets and handbags of various kinds. Chip straw is used almost exclusively for baskets. It is a by-product of the lumber industry and is made from chips and other pieces of wood, including shavings. Leghorn straw is a braided straw popular for hats and is made from wheat grown in Italy. Panarna, another braided hat straw, is made from the screw pine. Other types of straw include Bangkok, linen (straw made to resembie woverr linen), Milan, ramie, sisal (used for rugs and ropes), toyo, and Tuscan.

stretch fibers

Rubber or man-made plastik fibers (such as spandex and anidex) that are naturally elastic or man-rnade fibers, highly twisted, heat-set, and untwisted to leave a strong crimp. Polyester has a certain degree ol natural streich and more can iue given to the yarn in the processing or in the finishing of the fabric. Occasionally, polyester woven fabrics are described as stretch fabrics. Usually, stretch implies a degree of visible give in a fiber or fabric that stretches and then returns quickly to its original shape. Stretch fabrics are sometirnes described as elastic. Sec elastic, crimp, and recovery. See also spandex and anidex.

stretch yarn

A textured yarn that has good stretch and recovery. It can also refer to yarns made of fibers that have elastic properties or to those yarns whose elastic properties are obtained by alterations of the basic fiber.

stretchable knit

Any knit that has a good deal of give or stretch. Most single knits are considered stretchable knits.

striations

The many fine microscopic lines extending lengthwise on the viscose rayon fiber.

string tie

A narrow necktie tied in a bow or simply knotted.

awning stripes

Stripes seen on awnings designed to protect windows from sun. Awning stripes are sometirnes used on fabric for apparel and are usttally brightly colored and at least 1'' wide. Awning stripe patterns may also have a narrow stripe about 1/4'' wide on each side of the main stripe.

balanced stripes

A pattern of stripes in which the same cotors and widths are used on both sides of the center. A blue stripe on a white ground with a narrow red stripe on each side is an example of a balanced stripe.

blazer stripes

Types of stripes originally used on jackets, ultimately calted blazers, because of the bright blaring colors used in the stripes. Blazer stripes are usually at least 1 wide and are vividly colored.

chaik stripes

Narrow white stripes usually on a dark colored ground fabric. See pin stripes.

pinstripe

Narrow stripes in any color. When the stripes are white, they are often called chalk stripes.

Roman stripes

Narrow, multicolored stripes that cover an entire fabric. The colors may be as vivid as those of blazer stripes or as subtle as soft ombre shadings. See blazer stripes and ombre.

stripper

A mechanical device that pulls the bolls off when they enter the rollers of the machine.

stroller

A three-quarter length fur coat.

structural design

A woven-in pattern as opposed to one printed on a fabric.

structured apparel

Clothing designs that give a garment shape even when not being worn. For example, a jacket that has padding, lining, binding, and a fitted waist.

studs

Small, decorative objects added to fabric. They are usually round and metallic and are occasionally jewelled. Studs have teeth on the bottom that are pushed through the fabric by hand or with a tool called a stud setter. The teeth are then bent against the fabric to hold the stud in place.

stuff

Another name for fabric. Any braided, felted, woven, knitted, or nonwoven material, including cloth, hosiery, and lace. Stuff is also referred to as cloth, material, and goods.

stuffer warp

A warp that passes straight through the carpet to form a stuffing.

sublistatic printing

A technique in which the design, printed on rolls of paper, is pressed against the fabric. When heat is applied, the design is transferred to the fabric.

substrate

An underlying support or foundation. An example is a fiber substrate prepared with a mordant before dyeing.

suede

A common name in leather for the hide of a cow with the fur removed. Soft, tanned leather with the flesh side buffed into a nap.

suede fabric

A woven or knitted fabric of cotton, man-made fibers, wool, or blends, finished to resemble suede leather. It is used in sport coats, gloves, linings, and cleaning cloths.

sulfur dye

A dye derived from chemicals containing sulphur. It is used mostly for vegetable fibers. It has fair resistance to washing and poor resistance to sunlight.

summer-weight suiting

Another name for tropical suiting. A general term for many fabrics that have the characteristics of suiting fabrlcs: they are crisp, take sharp creases well, and are lightweight for wear in hot weather. A typical summer-weight suiting is linen.

sunburst (or tan) pleats

Narrow pleats that begin at a central point and fan out to the edge ot a fabric. They are often narrow at the top of the fabric and wider at the edge and are especially popular for skirts.

supported vinyl

Vinyl backed with fabric. Supported vinyl wears better than unsupported vinyl when used in upholstery. See vinyl.

surplice neck

A V-shaped neckline formed by diagonally overlapping fabric.

swag

A decorative, draped fabric section placed over a window. Swags usually are used in conjunction with draperies or curtains.

swatch

A small piece of fabric, usually large enough to show color and pattern. It is given to a potential buyer as a sample.

sweatshirt

A loose, collarless, heavy cotton jersey pullover. It also is found in a lacket style with a hood.

sweatshirt fabric

A knitted fabric with a smooth face and a fleecy, pile back. Sweatshirts were originally designed for exercise during which perspiration was encouraged, but they are also worn for warmth in cold weather and are available in several styles. They were made of cotton for its absorbency, but acrylic versions are also available.

sweetheart neckline

A low-cut neckline with the bottom edge cut in a shape resembling the top of a heart.

swint

Perspiration on the wool fiber.

Swiss

A fine, sheer, lightweight, crisp fabric of almost any fiber whose name has been almost forgotten except in the form of dotted (or figured) Swiss. It is used for curtains. See dotted Swiss.

Swiss dot

Another term for dotted Swiss. See dotted Swiss.

synthetic fiber

A man-made textile fiber derived from natural bases or produced by chemical synthesis. These chemicals were never fibrous in form.

tab

A small flap that often has a buttonhole at its end.

table linen

Any fabric, regardless of fiber content, suitable for a table covering.

taffeta

A fine, yarn-dyed, closely woven, plain-weave, smooth on both sides, stiffened fabric with a crisp feel and a sheen on its surface. Taffeta was originally made of silk, but is also made of rayon, cotton, acetate, or other man-made fibers. lt is named for the Persian fabric "taftan". The rustle of silk taffeta is called scroop, and it may be a solid color, printed or woven so that the colors appear iridescent. A list of the most common types of taffeta follows. lt is used for dresses, blouses, ribbons, draperies, bedspreads, and curtains. See scroop.

faille taffeta

Taffeta made with a prominent crosswise rib as in faille. See faille.

moire taffeta

The most common moire fabric. A moire is a watermark design produced by passing fabric through heated rollers engraved with the designs.

paper taffeta

A lightweight, crisp taffeta used for evening clothes.

tambour curtains

Imported Swiss, heavily embroidered batiste, lawn, or polyester curtains.

tapa doth

A papery cloth made by pounding and flattening the inner bark of certain trees found in the Pacific Islands. It is often used in America for decorative wall hangings. See bark cloth.

tapestry

A Jaquard woven fabric in cotton, wool, or man-made fibers. Traditionally, a decorative wall hanging woven to depict a scene. The filling threads are changed in color to fit the design. On the back, shaded stripes identify this fabric. It is used extensively for wall hangings, table covers, draperies, and upholstery. Some rugs are made in tapestry weaves. The word is also used for needlepoint, but this use is generally considered incorrect. Machine-made fabrics, also called tapestry, have regular designs on the surface and a slightly looped pile. They are used for such things as coats and handbags.

tarlatan

A thin, open fabric used extensively for theatrical costumes and hangings. It is transparent, but layers are usually used to provide a degree of opacity. Tarlatan usually has a stiff glazed finish. See opacity.

tarnish-resistant fabric

A fabric used for wrapping silver to keep it from becoming darkened by atmospheric pollution. The cloth itself is made to absorb sulfur from the atmosphere, a major cause of tarnish.

tartan

A pattern made of intersecting stripes. Each tartan pattern is associated with a certain specific family called a clan. Plaid, a term used for tartan, is actually the name of a shawl made of tartan fabric. The use of plaid has become so general that tartan is almost always limited to authentic clan designs. Some of the most common tartans follow, but there are many others.

Barclay

Wide stripes of black on a yellow ground crossed at intervals by narrower white stripes.

Black Watch

A regimental tartan of the 42nd Royal Highland Regiment. It consists of green stripes on a light blue ground.

Campbell

A tartan made of green stripes on a blue ground, crossed with darker blue, narrower stripes. The blue ground is also crossed with darker blue, narrow stripes.

Cumming

Stripes of dark and light green combined with red and blue stripes to form the plaid. In faded or antique colors, ttris tartan is especially attractive.

Linsay

A pattern of crossed stripes of green and bright pink.

Mackay

A checked pattern of stripes of blue on light green.

Ogilvie

One of the more complicated tartans. It combines stripes of red, yellow, greenish blue, and dark blue in an intricate pattern.

Rob Roy

A classic hunting jacket pattern of red and black checks.

Stewart

The tartan of the royal family of Great Britain. Stewart tartan has narrow stripes of yellow, blue, and white widely spaced on a red or white ground.

tassel

Several strands of yarn loops joined together below the top and cut at the end. Tassels are used in rows as home furnishings trimmings and singly for such uses as zipper pulls or on the corners of pillows.

Tattersall check

Tattersall checks are an overcheck pattern in two colors, usually on a white oc other colored ground. An example is a pattern of brown lines going in one direction, crossed by green lines in the opposite direction, forming the checks on a yellow background. These checks were named for Richard Tattersall who used the pattern on horse blankets. See overcheck.

teasel

A plant with a prickly flower head. lt i.s used for raising a nap on fabrics. See napping.

tenaeity

The tensile strength of a fiber, expressed as force per unit of linear density of an unstrained specimen. lt is usually expressed in grams per denier or grams per tex. See tex.

tensile strength

The maximum tensile stress required to rupture a fiber, expressed as pounds per square inch or grams per square centimeter.

tentering

A fabric finishing step in which the fabric is stretched on a frame to its finishecf width and final shape, then dried to maintain these dimensions.

tex

A system of yarn numbering that measures the weight in grams of one kilometer of yarn.

textiles converter

A business that buys unfinished fabrics, has them bleached, printed, and finished by another business specializing in particular types of finishes, then sells the end product.

texturalized

A method of adding texture to otherwise smooth yarns. See textured yarn.

texture

One of the elements that determines the way in which a finished fabric looks. lt is the surface effect of a fabric.

textured

A surface woven with a nubby yarn construction. lt may be made in any liber.

thermal

An adjective used to describe fabrics which are warmer for their weight than other fabries. lt is usually limited to those fabrics woven in a honeycomb pattern leaving small spaces in which an can be trapped. Thermal fabrics are popular for underwear and blankets. See honeycomb.

thermal woven

A porous cloth so constructed that air warmed by the body is trapped between the yarns. First used in underwear, it is now used for blankets and the reverse sides of comforters.

thermoplastic

A word used to describe fibers that are heat-sensitive. Most man-made fibers are thermoplastic. A thermoplastic fiber has the property of softening or fusing when heated and of harderring agaln when cooled. With the application of heat and pressure, it can be molded and remolded. This can be both an udvarrtaKe and a disadvantage. lt is advantageous because in fabrics made of thermoplastic fibers, certain features like pleats can be made permanent through heat-setting. However, care must be taken in drying und ironiog fabrics made of thermoplastic fibers because of their sensitivity to heat. See man-made fibers and heat-setting.

thermosetting

A process for giving thermoplastic fibers or fabrics certain characteristics, such as erirnp or permanent pleats through the applicativm of heat. Thermosetting is also used to develop certain finishes in a fabric to produce desirable characteristics such as durable press. See heat setting, thermoplastic, and durable press.

thick and thin yarn

Produced by varying the diameters of man-made fibers.

thread

A special type of a thin, continuous length of tightly twisted ply yarn used primarily for sewing. Thread occasionally is used instead of yarn, as in the terms warp thread and filling thread.

buttonhole twist

A thick, twisted silk cord. Buttonhole twist is lustrous and is used for topstitching. lt is also used for sewing buttons onto a garment as well as for making buttonholes or embroidery.

carpet thread

A heavy thread used for repairing carpets and for sewing on buttons. Carpet thread was originally made of cotton, but usually is made of polyester today.

cotton thread

Formerly the most common thread, but difficult to find today. lt is usually made in two types. A plain thread with a dull surface is called basting thread. Mercerized cotton thread has a shiny surface that enables it to slide smoothly through fabric and is suggested for general purpose sewing. Polyester thread has replaced cotton thread to a large extent. See mercerization.

cotton-wrapped polyester (core) thread

A type of polyester thread made with a polyester core wrapped with cotton, theoretically giving the thread characteristics of both fibers.

nylon thread

The thread introduced as an alternative to silk thread that has more give than most natural fiber threads. lt is used extensively for sewing man-made fiber fabrics, especially knits.

polyester thread

Thread made of 100% polyester. Polyester thread has more give than most natural fiber threads and is used extensively for sewing man-made fiber fabrics, especially knits. lt can be used on almost any fabric. Polyester thread is strong, but tends to knot easily.

silk thread

A classic sewing thread for fine work and for sewing silks and woolens. lt has more give than other natural fiber threads, but less than polyester or nylon. lt is used primarily for sewing on silk fabrics.

three-dimensional polymer

A polymer formed when molecules unite in both length and width, producing a relatively rigid structure. This is typical of polymers used in processing.

throw

Any piece of fabric such as an afghan or bedspread-that does not fit closely to the item it is covering, but instead is arranged on or over it casually. See afghan and spread.

throwing

The combining and twisting of strands of reeled silk into tightly twisted yarn.

ticking

A broad term for extremely strong woven fabrics which are used as a covering for pillows, mattresses, and box springs, home-furnishings, and for work clothes and sports clothes. lt is a heavy, tightly woven carded cotton fabric usually in a pattern of alternately woven stripes in the warp, Jacquard or dobby designs, or printed patterns. lt is usually twill but may be sateen weave. When ticking is used in clothing, striped ticking with narrow woven stripes is usually most popular. Red and white, black and white, and navy and white are the most popular ticking color combinations.

tie dyeing

A form of resist dyeing. Items to be dyed are tied or knotted so that the folds of the fabric form barriers to the dye to create patterns or designs on the fabric. See dyeing and resist dyeing.

tie-back

A full length (either to the windowsill or to the floor) curtain or drapery looped back at the side of the window with a band of trimming or self-fabric. The curtain or drapery is closed at the top of the window, and almost entirely open at the point of the tie-back. The look is popular in informal houses in such fabrics as organdy and batiste and in formal houses in luxurious fabrics.

tier

One of a series of bands, ruffles, or flounces arranged one above the other.

tissue taffeta

A crisp, lightweight taffeta. See paper taffeta.

toggle

A bar-shaped button fastened to a garment with a loop.

toile

The French word for cloth. Toile is also a woven fabric that has been printed, usually in one color only, with a scenic design. This is occasionally called turle de Jouy. lt is most commonly found in home furnishings fabrics. Toile is also used in the field of expensive designer clothing where the word is used to describe a fabric pattern for a garment.

Toile de Jouy

Cotton fabric printed in pictorial designs. The original toile was printed by Oberkampf in 1759 at Jouy, France. lt is used for draperies and bedspreads. See toile.

topstitching

A decorative stitch that reinforces seams, pocket edges, or collars. lt is often done in a color that contrasts with the background fabric.

tote

A sturdy rectangular bag with an open top and two strap handles.

tow

Short flax fibers, separated by hackling (combing) from the longer fibers. Also, the poorly hackled, uneven linen yarn made from these short fibers. lt may also refer to a continuous loose rope of man made filaments drawn together without twist to be cut in lengths for spun yarn.

tow linen

Fabric made of uneven, irregular yarns composed of the every short fibers.

towel

A rectangular piece of fabric used for drying (people, glasses, dishes).

dish towel

One of the few textile products which is still made of linen (occasionally they are made of cotton or even paper). Dish towels are used for hand-drying dishes after washing. Many linen dish towels are made in Ireland and printed with colorful pictures. llish towels can also be made of terry cloth and huck toweling. See terry cloth and huck.

glass cloth

A towel used to dry drinking glasses, glass plates, and silver. lt is made from linen. Glass towels are often checked red and white and rnay have the word "Glass;" woven into the fabric."

terry cloth

A cotton or cotton and man-made fiber fabric with a looped pile on one or both sides. lt is made into towels for drying after a bath. It may also be used for dish towels.

velour

A knit or woven fabric with a thick, short pile. Every velour cloth has cut loops to produce the velour effect. [t also has a rich look, but is not as effective in drying as conventional terry cloth. lt may also be spelled velours.

toyo straw

See straw.

tracing cloth

A nonwoven, transparent fabric used for tracing designs and especially patterns. Since tracing cloth is fabric, it can be marked and altered more easily than paper used for the same purpose.

tram silk

A low-twist, ply silk yarn formed by combining two or three single strands.

transparent velvet

A sheer-cut pile velvet usually all rayon or with rayon pile, suitable for evening dresses, wraps, and millinery.

trapunto

A form of quilting in which fabric is quilted only in certain areas. The design to be quilted, a monogram for example, is first worked through two layers of fabric. Then, the back ing fabric is slit so that the yuilted areas can be padded with yarn, cord, or a filling such as fiberfill. See fiberfill.

triacetate

A thermoplastic fiber classified under the generic name of acetate, although it is a modification of acetate. Triacetate fabrics resist shrinkage, wrinkles, and fading. They do not dissolve in acetone, can be washed at higher temperatures than those made of acetate, and can be ironed with the heat set for linen. See acetate.

tricot

A term originating from the French tricoter, meaning to knit. lt is a fabric made by a warp-knitting (tricot) machine, a machine in which parallel yarns run lengthwise and are locked into a series of loops. Warp knits have a good deal of crosswise stretch. See two-bar tricot.

trilobal

A fiber with a modified cross section having three lobes.

trimming

Anything used to decorate clothing or home furnishings.

ball fringe

A trimming that consists of round fluffy balls (pompons) attached by threads to a band of fabric by which it is sewn to fabric. lt is often used on curtains and upholstery.

banding

A narrow, flat fabric that is woven, knitted, or braided, and is used as is to trim an edge or folded over to bind an edge.

bias tape

A strip of fabric cut on the diagonal between the lengthwise and crosswise grain of the fabric. Because bias tape has considerable stretch, it is used to bind edges where a certain degree of stretch is necessary for a smooth finish. Curved areas are often finished with bias tape. Bias tape can also be used for purely decorative trimming. lt is available precut and packaged in a wide range of colors.

binding

Any narrow fabric used to enclose (bind) edges, usually raw edges. lt also can be used for purely decorative purposes. Bias tape often is used as binding. See bias tape.

braid

A term used to describe narrow trimmings with multicolored designs woven into them. Various types of braid, such as peasant braid, are popular during certain fashion periods.

bullion

A twisted, shiny, cord-like fringe used primarily in upholstery.

chainette fringe

A yarn fringe designed to resemble chain. lt is used as a trimming or window shades.

cord

A heavy, round string consisting of several strands of thread or yarn twisted or braided together. See cording.

cord gimp

Cord gimp combines cord with gimp. See cording and gimp.

cording

A round decorative edging. The term is also used to describe white cord covered with bias strips of fabric to form welting or piping. See welting.

festoon

A decorative cord accented by tassels. lt forms a decoration for the edge of such items as table cloths.

fringe

A trimming made of hanging yarns, cords, or tassels. lt may be made in loop form or with the loops cut.

frog

A decorative fastening for clothing consisting of twisted cord wound into a design that looks like three petals joined to a similar design on the opposite edge of an opening with a loop of the cord.

galloon

A closely woven, flat braid used for accenting draperies and furniture. Also called braid. The term galloon is also used for any narrow fabric with decorative edges, such as scallops finished the same on each side. Lace made in this way is called galloon lace.

gimp

An edging often with small scallops of fine cord along its edges. Gimp was originally designed to hide upholstery tacks on chairs and sofas, but now is used for other decorative purposes.

knotted fringe

Fringe in which the hanging sections are knotted to form a pattern, and the ends are allowed to hang like regular fringe. See fringe.

military braid

A flat and ribbed braid. It is usually used for decorating uniforms.

moss fringe

A short and thick fringe made of fluffy of woolen or acrylic yarns.

picot trimming

A narrow band edged with a series of delicate loops.

piping

Another name for welting. See welting.

pompon

A fluffy ball, usually made from yarn and used as a decorative accent.

rattail

A narrow, round cord used for trimming and for macrame. See macrame.

rattait fringe

A decorative edging made of rattail in which the rattail forms loops across the edging. See rattail.

ribbon

A narrow, woven fabric with two finished edges. Both natural and man-made fibers are used in making ribbon. lt is available in many patterns and colors and in such fabric constructions as velvet, satin, and grosgrain. See velvet, satin, and grosgrain.

rick-rack

A flat braid woven in a zigzag, serpentine shape. lt is available in several widths and is an extremely popular and inexpensive trimming.

ruche

A ruche is a ruffle

ruffle

A piece of fabric gathered along one edge. Ruffles are narrow and are used to trim necklines, sleeves, hems, and the edges of home furnishings items such as pillows and slipcovers.

seam binding

A flat, narrow twilled ribbon, used to cover raw edges of seams to protect them from ravelling.

twill tape

A narrow, twill-weave ribbon, fairly heavy in weight. lt is stitched into garment areas such as collar lapels, shoulders, and facing edges for strength and to prevent stretching. lt is also used in the seams of slip covers and other home furnishing items for added strength. Twill tape is usually available only in white and black. See weaving and twill.

welting

Welting is a decorative edging. It gives strength to the area in which it is sewn. Welting is made by covering cord with bias strips of matching or contrasting fabric. lt is a popular finish for seams on upholstery. Occasionally is used on clothing, too. Welting is the same as piping.

t-shirt

A knitted cotton undershirt with short sleeves that may be worn for sports or work without an outer garment.

tuck stitch

A variation of a basic stitch in weft knitting to make a knobby, bumpy, knitted texture. Unknitted loops are slipped from one needle to another. On the following row, the unknitted loops are knitted as regular stitches.

tuft

A bunch of yarns or threads forced through a quilt, mattress, or upholstery to secure the stuffing. See quilt.

tufted carpet

Made by needling pile yarns into a previously woven backing of jute or cotton.

tufted fabric

"A fabric ornamented with soft, fluffy, slackly twisted ply yarns (usually cotton). Most tufts are inserted by needles into a woven fabric, such as unbleached muslin, textured cotton, and rayon plain-weave cloth. When tufts are spaced (as coin dots), a bedspread is called candlewick

tufting

A brush-like button of clipped cotton yarn that appears at regular intervals on mattresses. Also, the most common method for making rugs. Groups of yarns are forced through a backing fabric. The yarns are held in place permanently when the underside of the rug is coated, often with liquid latex.

tulle

A soft, fine, transparent silk net. Formerly made only of silk, tulle is now made of nylon or rayon, and is a favorite for evening dresses and bridal veils. See net.

tunic

A blouse-like garment that falls to the hips or below and often is gathered at the waist or belted.

turban

Fabric that is twisted and draped around the head to form a hat. lt is an adaptation of an oriental headdress.

turtleneck collar

A high, close-fitting collar rolled or turned down on itself.

tuscan straw

See straw.

tussah silk

Silk fabric woven from silk made by wild, uncultivated silkworms. Tussah is strong, but coarse and uneven. lt is naturally tau in color, cannot be bleached, and has a rougher texture than cultivated silk. lt is used in shantung and pongee. Wild silkworms eat leaves other than mulberry leaves eaten exclusively by silkworms. The difference in diet accounts for the different fiber and fabric characteristics. Tussah is also used to describe fabrics designed to imitate this kind of silk. See wild silk.

tussore

Tussore is another term for tussah.

tuxedo collar

A shawl collar cut in one width and which extends the full length of the front edge of a jacket.

Donegal tweed

Originally, a fabric woven by hand in County Donegal, Ireland. Today, the word is used to refer to any tweed with thick, usually colored slubs as part of the fabric.

Harris tweed

Tweed hand-woven from yarns spun by hand or machine on the islands of the Outer Hebrides off the coast of Scotland. Harris is one of these islands.

Irish tweed

Tweed made in Ireland, Northern Ireland, or Eire. These tweeds generally can be distinguished by a white warp and colored filling threads.

Scottish tweed

Scottish tweed is a term often used for tweed originally made in Scotland and woven with very nubby yarns, often with white warp and colored filling. Similar to Irish tweed.

tweed-textured

An exaggerated chevron or tweed-like structural design with accentuated nubs.

twill

(1) A weave with a diagonal rib (twill line) that runs from the upper left to the lower right, or from upper right to lower left. In a twill weave, each filling thread passes over or under at least two warp threads, to a point where the filling thread goes under moving up and over by at least one thread in each row. Herringbone weave is a broken twill weave and forms ""V""s in the weave pattern. (2) A narrow ribbon, fairly heavy in weight. It is stitched into garment areas such as collar lapels, shoulders, and facing edges for strength and to prevent stretching. It is also used in the seams of slipcovers and other home furnishings items for added strength. Twill tape usually is available only in white or black.

twist

A technical term referring to the way in which yam is turned during the course of its manufacture. It is the number of times (turns) one inch of yarn is twisted. In carpeting, twist is a corkserew-like, uncut pile. Yarns of different colors may be twisted together to form pile loops causing a pebbly appearance. It resists footmarks and is good for high traffic areas.

two-bar (double-bar) tricot

A warp knit in which two sets of yarns are required, one knitted in one direction and the othcr in the opposite direction. A ribbed surface results. It is synonymous with doublewarp tricot knit.

Ulster

Originally, the name for a frieze overcoating fabric made in Ulster, Ireland. Today, the word is usually used as a synonym for overcoat. See frieze.

unbalanced plaid

An unbalanced plaid is one in which the arrangement of the stripes is different on the crosswise and lengthwise grain of the fabric. In constructing a garment of this type special care must be taken in matching the plaid design.

unbalanced yarns

Yarns in which there is sufficient twist to set up a torque effect, so that the yarn will untwist and retwist in the opposite direction.

unbleached muslin

A cotton plain-weave printcloth fabric in grey goods and lightweight sheetings, used for ironing board covers, dust covers, and dust cloths.

uncut velvet

Uncut velvet is a type of velvet in which the pile is left in loop form. For production, the wire method is used. Occasionally called terry velvet.

underlay

A synonym for padding or rug cushion. It usually describes the layer of fabric of sponge rubber or hair placed underneath a carpet or rug to provide it with longer life, to give it a more luxurious appearance and feeling, to prevent the rug from slipping, and to make the rug softer and more cushiony. Carpet padding is made of cattle hair, rubberized hair, rubber, and combinations of jute and cattle hair, as well as some man-made fibers. Sec: rugs and carpets, padding, and rug cushion.

uneven plaid

A synonym for unbalanced plaid. See unbalanced plaid.

uneven twill weave

The filling passes under more yarns than ones it passes over.

unfinished worsted

A suiting fabric: in twill weave, finished with a nap longer than those of other worsteds.

union cloth

A traditional name for fabric made from two or more different fibers, such as a fabric woven with a wool worsted warp and a cotton filling. The term "union cloth" was used primarily when this fabric was used for underwear, perhaps because a union suit was another name for shoulder-to-ankle, one-piece underwear. See union suit.

union dyeing

Dyeing different fibers in the same cloth in one shade. See dyeing.

union suit

A one-piece knitted undergarment extending from the neck to the knee or longer.

unpressed pleat

A pleat (folds) the edges of which have not been set by pressing. The rounded edges create a look that is softer than pressed pleats. The term unpressed pleats is usually used for wide unpressed pleats, whereas cartridge pleats, also unpressed, describe narrower, decorative pleats.

unravel

The term unravel means the same as ravel. lt is the tendency of fabric to come unwoven or unknitted at unfinished edges. Loosely woven fabrics tend to unravel more than those made of tight weaves. Occasionally, the tendency to unravel is desirable in order to create a fringed edge.

unstructured apparel

Apparel with little, if any, detail in tailoring. lt takes its shape from the person wearing it. For example, a jacket that does not have padding, lining, or insets.

unwashable fabric

A fabric that should not be washed by hand or by machine. Such fabrics are usually labeled "dry clean only".

valance

A decorative fabric or board installed across the top of a window or a top for curtains or draperies. lt is usually hung from a rod and made of fahric or fabric over a stiffening material, such as buckram. A valance differs from a ruffle in that it is absolutely flat. See buckram, trimming, and ruffle.

vafenciennes lace

A flat bobbin lace worked with one thread forming both the background and the design for lace.

vat dyeing

Vat dyeing refers to the type of dye rather than to the way in which the dyeing is done. This process uses an insoluble dye made soluble in its application. lt is put on the fiber and oxidized to its original insoluble form. Exeellent colorfastness to washing and sunlight.

Velcro

A burr-like fastening device with one side made of a velvet-like material and the other of small stiff hooks. This fastening can be used for clothing and home furnishing items.

velvet

Velvet is a fabric with a short and closely woven nap. The production of velvet varies between two methods. One uses a double-cloth construction in which two shifts of fabric are woven with long threads joining them together. After the double fabric is woven, the center threads are cut, producing two pieces of velvet. The second method of producing velvet uses wires. During the weaving the yarn is lifted over the wires to form the pile. After removing the wires the yarn is cut to form the velvet surface. While velvet was originally made of silk, today many other fibers are used to manufacure velvet (e.g. rayon or nylon).

beaded velvet

Beaded velvet is another name for cut velvet.

cisele velvet

Cisele velvet is a satin weave fabric. A velvet pattern is woven in.

cut velvet

Cut velvet has a pattern of velvet on a bare ground.

faconne velvet

A cut velvet made by the burnout method of printing. See cut velvet, printing, and burn-out printing.

Lyons velvet

Velvet originally made of silk in Lyons, France. Lyons is a thick, stiff velvet with a very short pile. Today, this type of velvet (often called Lyons-type) is made of man-made fibers. It is used for home furnishings as well as for evening wear.

mirror velvet

Velvet with the pile pressed flat to impart a shimmering appearance.

nacre velvet

A velvet with a changeable appearance created by using one color for the pile and another for the backing.

panne velvet

Velvet with the pile flattened in one direction. See mirror velvet.

velvet rug

A floor covering woven on a plain harness loom with Cut pile. It has solid color or printed pile.

vinal

The generic name for a man-made fiber derived from polyvinal alcohol. Vinal fibers soften at low temperatures, but resist chemicals. Although vinal is no longer made in the United States, it is made in Japan and is found in tires, some home furnishings, and industrial products.

vinyl

Any fabric made with a base of vinyl, including those listed as vinal and vinyon. The term usually is used to refer to thick fabrics coated with a vinyl-based coating used for such purposes as upholstery and raincoats.

vinyon

The generic name for a man-made fiber derived from polyvinyl chloride, a derivative of natural salt, water, and petroleum. Vinyon fibers soften at low temperatures and resist chemicals. Vinyon is often referred to as polyvinyl chloride. Its primary use is in commercial products.

virgin fibers

Fibers never made into fabric before. The term is used primarily for wool fibers to differentiate between these and reclaimed, repro cessed, and reused fibers. See reprocessed fibers, reclaimed fibers, and reused fibers.

virgin wool

A term applicable to fabrics or products that do not use wastes from preliminary processing of new wool. lt is new wool made into yarns and fabrics for the first time.

viscose process

Viscose process describes the production of rayon fibers from purified cellulose.

viscose rayon

Viscose rayon is a Rayon fabric. While processing the viscose process is used. Most of todays rayons are viscose rayons.

visor

An eyeshade with a deep front brim attached to an elastic or buckled head strap.

v-neck

A neckline cut in the shape of the letter V.

voile

A sheer, transparent, low-count, crisp or soft, lightweight, plain-weave muslin with a thready feel, made of highly twisted yarns. lt can be comprised of wool, cotton, silk, rayon, polyester, or other man-made fibers. Voile is especially popular when made of cotton or blends for summer wear and is often printed to match heavier fabrics. Voile is used for clothing, especially for blouses and summer dresses, and for curtains and similar items.

waffle cloth

A fabric with a characteristic honeycomb weave. When made in cotton it is called waffle pique. It is used for coatings, draperies, dresses, and toweling.

waffle weave

Identical to honeycomb and thermal weaves. A weave resulting in fabrics with diamonds or rather geometric shapes resembling a waffle. See thermal.

warp

The group of yarns placed first on a loom in weaving. Warp runs parallel to the selvage, forming the length of the fabric. The filling threads are interlaced over and under the warp threads in a pattern or weave. See weaving and selvage.

warp beam

A cylindrical spool at the back of the loom on which warp yarns are wound.

warp knit

A warp knit is made on a machine in which parallel yarns run lengthwise and are locked into the series of loops. It is a process that makes a more dimensionally stable fabric than weft knitting. Warp knits have a good deal of crosswise stretch. It is frequently run-resistant. Examples are tricot and Raschel.

warp printing

A printing method in which only the warp yarns are printed with a design before the fabric is woven. A hazy, grayed effect is produced. The resulting fabric has a wavy, shadowy effect. lt is also called shadow printing.

warp yarns

Yarns that run parallel to the selvage or long dimension of a fabric.

wash and wear

A term used to describe fabrics and garments that can be washed and then worn with little or no ironing. Originally, the fabrics were chemically treated and cured (baked). There are no standards governing its use. See easy care and durable press.

wash test

A trial washing of an inconspicuous part of a garment to determine if the color is fast to washing.

washable fabric

A fabric that can be washed. The method of washing (by hand or machine) may not be designated.

wash-fast fabric

One that will not fade or shrink excessively during laundering.

waste silk

Another name for silk noil. Short ends of silk fibers used in making rough, textured, spun yarns or in blends with cotton or wool.

water repellent fabric

The chemical treatment of a fabric to reduce its affinity for water. Pores of the fabric are open, and the degree of repellency varies. A water repellent fab ric will give protection in a shower, but not in heavy rain. Water repellency is often created with wax or silicone resin finishes that enable the pores of the fabric to stay open so that it is more comfortable to wear than waterproof fabrics. Another name for water repellent is water resistant. See waterproof fabric.

water softener

A chemical compound added to the rinse water or to the soap and the rinse water if the water is very hard. Its purpose is to prevent the formation of soap film that tends to gray the fabric.

waterproof fabric

A fabric that will not permit water to penetrate it. Among methods of waterproofing are coating the fabric with rubber or plastic. True waterproof fabrics are warm and clammy to wear because their waterproof nature also prevents the evaporation of perspiration and blocks the circulation of air.

basket weave

Basket weave is made with two or more filling threads passing over and under an equal number of warp threads on alternate rows.

plain weave

Plain weave, the best known and most basic form of weaving, is made by passing the filling thread over and under one warp thread in alternating rows.

satin weave

A weave that produces a very smooth surfaced fabric. It is made by passing the filling threads under several warp threads before passing over one warp thread. Satin weave is used to make sateens in which cotton filling thread goes over several cotton warps, then under one warp.

twill weave

A weave with a diagonal rib (twill line) that runs from the upper left to the lower right, or from upper right to lower left. In a twill weave, each filling thread passes over or under at least two warp threads, with the point where the filling thread goes under moving up and over at least one thread in each row. Herringbone weave is a broken twill weave which forms Vs in the weave pattern.

webbing

A strong, narrow fabric made from jute or man-made fibers. It is used for belts and straps that must resist strain. Webbing is usually woven and is used on the underside of upholstered chairs and sofas.

weft

Another name for filling, the crosswise thread that interlaces with the warp threads on a woven fabric. Other names are woof, shoot, and shute.

weft knitting

A process in which the thread runs back and forth crosswise in a fabric. See warp knitting.

weighted silk

Fabric in which metallic salts have been added in the dyeing and finishing to increase its weight and to give a heavier hand. A ruling requires weighted silk to be marked and the amount of weighting indicated.

weighting

Finishing materials applied to a fabric to give increased weight.

welt pockets

"Typical set-in pockets with one or two strips of fabric (varying from 1/4"" to 1"" deep) attached to the opening."

wet decating

A finishing process to add luster to wooI fabrics.

wet took

A descriptive term for extremely shiny fabrics. Fabrics such as vinyl and cire are often described as wet-look fabrics.

whipcord

An extremely strong, twill-weave worsted fabric made in fairly heavy weights of cotton, wool worsted, and fabrics of man-made fibers and blends. It is similar to gabardine, but heavier and with a more pronounced diagonal rib on the right side. lt is so named because it simulates tlre lash of a whip. Cotton whipcotds are often four-harness warp-twill weaves. lt is used for draperies and upholstery, uniforms, riding clothes, and other wearing apparel where a strong fabric is required. See twill under entry for weaving.

white-on-white

A fabric in any fiber mixture or blend that has a white woven-in design on a white background. Usually, it is a fabric with a white dobby or Jacquard design on a white ground, common in madras, broadcloth, or nylon. See madras.

wickability

The property of a fiber that allows moisture to move rapidly along the fiber surface and pass quickly through the fabric.

wide wale

In knitted fabrics, the wale is a row of toops lying lengthwise on the fabric. In woven fabrics, wale is a series of ribs or ridges usually running lengthwise on the fabric. Wale describes the pile ribs found on corduroy fabrics. Wide wale describes one of the different types of ribs in corduroy. See corduroy, velveteen, and pile.

windbreaker

A jacket made of a closely woven fabric: or a fabric treated with a finish designed to prevent the passage of air. The fabric used in windbreakers offen has a degree of water repellency because of its tight construction.

Windsor knot

A fairly loose, bulky necktie knot originated by the Duke of Windsor.

wire

Gach row of pile or tufts on the surface of a rug.

woof

Another name for filling, the crosswise thread that interlaces with the warp threads on a woven fabric. Other names are weft, shoot, and shute. See filling.

wool

The term used for the fleece of lambs and sheep, but also applies to similar fibers from such animals as the angora and cashmere goats, the llama, and other animals used for clothing. lt is un like carpet wool, which is much coarser and unsuitable for clothing. Wool refers to fleece wool used for the first time in the complete manufacture of a wool product. Wool differs from hair and fur in that it has a natural felting ability. See felt, woolen, and worsted.

wool crepe

Wool crepe is made of woolen or worsted yarns. The crepe texture is achieved by keeping the warp yarns loose.

wool rug

A wool rug is a wool floor covering made of carded yarn.

woolen

Woolen is a wool fabric made of short-staple carded yarns. Woolens normally have a blurry surface and are not shiny.

woolen yarn

Woolen yarn is a type of carded yarn made of relatively short fibers of varying lengths.

woven seersucker

Woven seersucker is a crinkly and stripy cotton fabric made by weaving some of the yarns in tighter tension than others.

yard goods

See yardage, piece goods, and fashion fabrics.

yardage

Fabrics sold to the consumer by the yard. Yardage is also called piece goods, yard goods, and fashion fabrics.

yarn

A generic term for a continuous strand spun from a group of natural or synthetic staple fibers (short lengths of fibers), filaments (long lengths), or other materials twisted or laid together for use in weaving, knitting, or some other method of intertwining to form textile fabrics.

yarn dyed

Yarn dyed fabrics are dyed before the finishing of the fabric. Yarn dyed fabrics are considered more colorfast than piece dyed or printed fabrics.

yoke

A fitted or shaped piece of fabric fullness principally designed to control fullness from gathers, pleats, or darts. Sometimes a yoke is used strictly as a decorative design element. Yokes are gener ally found in the shoulder area of shirts, blouses, and dresses, but are also used in the waist and hip areas of skirts and slacks.

zein

Cornmeal from which protein is derived for synthetic fibers.

zephyr yarn

A fine, soft yarn with a low twist popular for hand knitting. Originally made from wool, zephyr is usually made of acrylic and often has other fibers such as silk added to it.

zibeline

A heavily napped coating fabric with the long sleek nap brushed, steamed, and pressed in one direction, thus hiding the underlying satin weave. Zibeline is usually made of a combi nation of such fibers as camel hair or mohair with wool, cotton, or a man-made fiber as the largest percentage,

zipper

A garment closure made of interlocking teeth attached to strips of fabric known as the zipper tape. Zippers were originally made of metal, but are now available with polyester or nylon molded teeth on a woven or knit polyester tape. Most zippers are attached to garments by stitching the zipper tape to the garment seam. Invisible zippers do not show once they are attached to the garment because the teeth of an invisible zipper are covered by the zipper tape and hidden in the seam of the garment. Zippers come in every size and color and can be used functionally or decoratively.

z-twist

Z-twist is a right-hand twisted yarn.