rib knit

A knit that consists of groups of alternate plain and purl stitches (the reverse of a plain knit with loops showing). Rib knit fabrics are stretchier and have a snugger fit than plain knits. Rib knit is frequently used at wrists, waists, and necklines of plain or pat­terned knit garments where it is called ribbing.

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rib

A straight, ridged, or corded effect that usually moves vertically or horizontally on a fabric.

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rib stitch

A weft knit identified by vertical ribs on both sides of the fabric. A very resilient stitch. Combined with the tuck stitch, it is called rib-and-tuck stitch.

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rib weave

A plain weave that forms ridges in a fabric through the way in which it is woven or by the use of thicker yarns for the filling than those used tot the warp. See weaving, filling, and warp.

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ribbed cuff

A close-fitted knit finish in ribbed pattern tot the open end of a sleeve.

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ribbing

Rib knit that is used at wrists, waists, and necklines of plain or patterned knit garments. See rib-knit/250/rib-knit.html" title="rib knit" class="normal">rib knit.

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ribbon

A narrow, woven fabric with two finished edges. Both natural and man-made fibers are used in making ribbon. lt is available in many patterns and colors and in such fabric constructions as velvet, satin, and grosgrain. See velvet, satin, and grosgrain.

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alpaca

The Alpaca is a domesticated member of the lama family, the so called “South American camel”. Alpaca fabric is one of the luxury fabrics for its silky, soft and fairly lightweight attributes. Today, the term alpaca is also used for fabrics made from a blend including some wools that have a similar appearance to true alpaca.

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astrakhan

The term was used to name the wool from karakul lambs. Nowadays, it is also used to describe a fabric woven or knitted to similar to this wool. It is curly and heavy. Connected to: karakul

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azlon

This term describes manufactured fibers made from regenerated natural proteins, such as casein, zein, soybean, and peanut. In a mixture with other fibers it gives the fabric a soft feeling.

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Barre

The term "Barre" describes a fabric, either knit or woven, in which stripes run in crosswise directions. Barre also refers to flaws in fabric that appear as unwanted crosswise stripes of texture or color.

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batik

Batik describes a special technique of resist dyeing which was first used in Indonesia. Before dyeing the fabric is pile-spread with wax. The waxed areas remain in the original color while the rest of the fabric adopts the dyeing color. To get the typical veined effect to the design the wax is cracked. Today, it is largely produced in an industrial way. Connected to: resist dyeing

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Bedford cloth

Bedford cloth is a strong woven fabric with lengthwise ribs. Normally used for upholstery and riding breeches and may be made of any fiber.

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Bedford cord

Bedford cord is a durable cloth with lengthwise ribs made of cotton, wool, silk, rayon, or combination fibers. Mainly used for outer garments or Sportswear.

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Belgian lace

Belgium lace is a term used for any lace made in Belgium. Originally the term described a bobbin lace worked on a machine-made net. Connected to: bobbin lace

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belting

A heavy cotton, rayon, silk, or mixed fabric with large fillingwise ribs. lt may be knit. Any heavyweight, fairly stiff fabric used to support the top of a skirt, a pair of pants, or line a belt to give additional support. Beltings come in various widths.

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Bengaline

Bengaline is a ribbed fabric similar to faille, but heavier and with a coarser rib in the filling direction. lt can be made of silk, wool, acetate, or rayon warp, with wool or cotton filling. The fabric was first made in Bengal, India, and is used for dresses, coats, trimmings, and draperies.

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boxing

A term describing the straight strip of fabric that covers the sides of a three-dimensional round or square pillow. The boxing is joined to the rest of the cover with seams and occasionally includes a decorative trimming such as welting.

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broadcloth

Although the term broadcloth originally meant any fabric made on a loom of a certain width, it now means a fine, tightly woven fabric with a faint rib. Originally, it was made of mercerized cotton, but today the term is used to describe several dissimilar fabrics made with different fibers, weaves, and finishes. (1) Originally, a silk shirting fabric so named because it was woven in widths exceeding the usual twenty-nine inches. (2) A plainweave, tightly woven, high-count cotton fabric, with fillingwise rib finer than poplin. Best grades are made of combed pima or Egyptian cotton, usually with high thread counts (136x60 or 144x76). The fabrics are usually mercerized, sanforized, and given a soft lustrous finish, and are used for women’s blouses, tailored summer dresses, and men’s shirts. (3) A closely woven, medium-weight wool cloth with a smooth nap, velvety feel, and lustrous appearance. Wool broadcloth can be made with a two-up-and-two-down twill weave or plain weave. In setting up a loom to make the fabric, the loom is threaded wide to allow for a large amount of shrinkage during the filling process. The fabric takes its name from this wide threading. High-quality wool broadcloth is fine enough for garments that are closely molded to the figure or draped. Its high-luster finish makes it an elegant cloth. Wool broadcloth is ten to sixteen ounces per yard and is now being made in chiffon weights. (4) A fabric made from silk or man-made filament fiber yarns and woven in a plain weave with a fine crosswise rib obtained by using a heavier filling than warp yarn.

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bunting

A loosely woven fabric used primarily for flags and draping. Bunting used in public places must be flameproof. Bunting is also a term used to describe a simple rectangular square of material in which a baby is wrapped for warmth.

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burn-out printing

Burn-out printing describes a process in which a fabric consisting of two different fibers is treated with chemicals partly take away one fiber to create a structure on the surface of the fabric. For example, sculptured velvet is produced with this method.

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Canton crepe

Canton crepe is heavier than crepe de Chine with a slightly ribbed crepe filling. It was originally made of silk in Canton, China. Today it is as well made of rayon or acetate.

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cloque

Term used to describe a fabric with a raised effect Jacquard, usually knitted from two colors, and often used interchangeably with matelasse and blister. Cotton cloque is frequently popular for summer dress and jacket or coat costumes.

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Coating

A term used to describe a fabric suitable for outerwear, such as coats, as in coating fabric. Also, something applied to a finished fiber or fabric, such as a rubber coating to make a fabric impervious to water. Coating suggests a thicker layer of the substance than does the word finish. A rubber-coated fabric is probably more resistant to water than one that has been treated with a water-resistant finish.

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corded fabric

The term corded fabric (often shortened to cord) refers to fabrics with a lengthwise rib, often woven in stripes. Any fabric with a lengthwise rib.

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corduroy

A ribbed, high-luster, cut-pile fabric with extra filling threads that form lengthwise ribs or wales. The rib has been sheared or woven to produce a smooth, velvet-like nap. The thread count varies from 46 x 116 to 70 x 250. Traditionally made of cotton, corduroy can be made of many different fibers, such as rayon and polyester blends. lt is used for dresses, coats, sports jackets, sports shirts, bathrobes, slacks, and draperies.

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decorative fabrics

A term used to describe fabrics for upholstery, slipcovers, curtains, and draperies. These fabrics are usually of heavier weights than the fashion fabrics used in clothing. Also called decorator fabrics and home furnishing fabrics.

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double face

A double cloth which can be used on either side. Also used to describe any fabric with two right sides.

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eyelash

Term used to describe clipped yarns that lie on the surface of a fabric, giving the effect of eyelashes.

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faille

A soft, slightly glossy silk, rayon, acetate, cotton, wool, or a mixture of these, in a rib weave, that has a light, flat, narrow crosswise rib or cord. It is made by using heavier yarns in the filling than in the warp, and has more ribs to the inch than bengaline. Ottoman is similar to faille but has a wider rib. Faille is considered a dressy fabric, and is used for evening clathes, tailored dresses, coats, suits, ties, handbags, shoes, and draperies. See ottoman.

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fleece

from animals, usually a sheep. Fleece is also used to describe certain coating fabrics that have a deep, thick pile that imitats this wool.

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foulard

A lightweight, soft, plain- or twill-weave fabric made of silk, mercerized cotton, rayon, acetate, or thin worsted wool. Foulard has a high luster on the face and dull on the reverse side. It is often printed, and the patterns range from simple polka dots to small, allover elaborate designs on light or dark grounds. It is also made in plain and solid colors. Foulard has a characteristic hand that can be described as light, firm, and supple. It is used for spring and summer dresses, scarves, robes, and neckties, and frequently sold as surah.

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functional finish

A special finish added to a fabric as une of the final steps in its manufacture that alters the performance and contributes a specific attribute to the fabric in some way. A water repellent finish, for example, is a functional finish because it prevents water from penetrating the fabric, thereby changing the function of the fabric. Other examples of special finishes are soil release and crease resistant.

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gossamer

Any sheer, fine fabric may be given the name gossamer, although the term was traditionally used to describe silk fabrics.

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grosgrain

A fairly heavy, closely woven, firm, corded or ribbed fabric, made in silk or rayon warp with cotton cords. The cords are round and firm, heavier than in poplin, rounder than in faille. Grosgrain is often made in narrow widths for use as trimming. The most common use of grosgrain is for ribbons in which the ribs are usually narrow, but it can be made with larger ribs for academic gowns. It is really a bengaline in narrow goods and is used for rib­bons, neckties, and lapel facings.

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interlock

A fine gauge, compound knit fabric with a smooth surface on both front and back, composed of two separate 1 x 1 rib fabrics interknitted to form one cloth, made on an inter­lock machine. The fabric was traditionally used for underwear, but today is being used for apparel. Despite the name of the fabric, poorly made interlock develops runs at the edges and all interlock knits should be reinforced or finished in some way at these edges.

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jacquard

A term used to describe fabrics with a woven or knitted pattern, whether or not they are made with a Jacquard attachment on the loom. The Jacquard attachment for weaving and knitting machines makes possible the manufacture of complicated, repeated geometrical designs in knits and wovens. See dobby.

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rib knit

A knit that consists of groups of alternate plain and purl stitches (the reverse of a plain knit with loops showing). Rib knit fabrics are stretchier and have a snugger fit than plain knits. Rib knit is frequently used at wrists, waists, and necklines of plain or pat­terned knit garments where it is called ribbing.

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lacing

String, cord, or ribbon strung through eyelets or over hooks in order to bring together and fasten parts of an item such as a blouse, belt, or shoe.

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beading

A type of lace made by the bobbin lace method. Also, an openwork lace or embroidery containing holes designed for the in­sertion of decorative ribbon. See bobbin lace.

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lame

Brocade, damask, or brocatelle fabrics in which flat metal­lic yarns (or with a combination of metallic and other fiber yarns) are woven or knitted in warp and filling for a luxurious effect. Today, most lame is made from one of the nontarnishable metallic fibers, a great improvement over lame of the past that tended to darken with age. Lame is also a trademark terrn for a nontarnishable metallic yarn. Glitter is sometimes used to describe this type of fabric and is used for evening dresses, blouses, and trimmings.

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leatherette

A term used for imitation leathers. More cor­rectly, these should be described by their actual construction, such as vinyl-coated fabric.

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linens and domestics

The term used in stores to describe various household items which, at one time, were made of linen. Today, most linens and domestics are made of cot ton and man-made fibers. The following entries are some of the items found in the linens and domestics sections of stores. See blan­kets, towels, and bedding.

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mixture

Although the word mixture is often ignored in favor of the word blend, it should be used to describe fabrics made from a combination of two or more fibers in which one of the fibers is used for the filling thread. See blend and biconstituent fiber.

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moire

A wavy, rippling pattern similar to a watermark produced in the finishing of certain fabrics by calendering, usually on a ribbed tex tile fabric. On acetate, moire made this way is permanent.
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moisture regain

The moisture in a material determined under prescribed conditions and expressed as a percentage of the weight of the moisture-free specimen.

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rib stitch

A weft knit identified by vertical ribs on both sides of the fabric. A very resilient stitch. Combined with the tuck stitch, it is called rib-and-tuck stitch.

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ribbed cuff

A close-fitted knit finish in ribbed pattern tot the open end of a sleeve.

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ribbing

Rib knit that is used at wrists, waists, and necklines of plain or patterned knit garments. See rib-knit/250/rib-knit.html" title="rib knit" class="normal">rib knit.

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salt and pepper

A fabric made of a combination of white and black yarns. The term usually is used to describe tweed fabrics. See tweed.

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sash

Soft fabric or a ribbon tied at the waist as a heil.

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scroop

A characteristic rustling or crunching sound acquired by silk that has been immersed in solutions of acetic or tartaric acid and dried without rinsing. It is probably caused by acid microcrys tals in the ribers rubbing against each other. It is also the rustle that certain fabrics such as silk taffeta have. Scroop is considered a desirable characteristic in luxury fabrics.

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showerproof

One of the many terms used to describe varying degrees of imperviousness to water. A showerproof fabric will repel water to a limited extent, but is not waterproof. See waterproof.

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tussah

Silk fabric woven from silk made by wild, uncultivated silkworms. Tussah is naturally tan in color, cannot be bleached, and has a rougher texture than cultivated silk. Wild silkworms eat leaves other than mulberry leaves which cultivated silkworms eat exclusively. The difference in diet accounts for the different fiber and fabric characteristics. Tussah is also used to describe fabrics designed to imitate this kind of silk. See wild silk.

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stitchery

The contemporary approach to traditional embroidery in which the same basic stitches are used, but in a freer, less restricted manner to create their own form and shapes. The yarns used in stitchery go beyond traditional wool and silk embroidery floss. Anything can be used to make the stitches from ribbon and cord to narrow strips of fabric or even fishline. Stitchery may be used to decorate clothing, home furnishings items, and for wall hangings. Sec embroidery.

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stretch fibers

Rubber or man-made plastik fibers (such as spandex and anidex) that are naturally elastic or man-rnade fibers, highly twisted, heat-set, and untwisted to leave a strong crimp. Polyester has a certain degree ol natural streich and more can iue given to the yarn in the processing or in the finishing of the fabric. Occasionally, polyester woven fabrics are described as stretch fabrics. Usually, stretch implies a degree of visible give in a fiber or fabric that stretches and then returns quickly to its original shape. Stretch fabrics are sometirnes described as elastic. Sec elastic, crimp, and recovery. See also spandex and anidex.

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taffeta

A fine, yarn-dyed, closely woven, plain-weave, smooth on both sides, stiffened fabric with a crisp feel and a sheen on its surface. Taffeta was originally made of silk, but is also made of rayon, cotton, acetate, or other man-made fibers. lt is named for the Persian fabric "taftan". The rustle of silk taffeta is called scroop, and it may be a solid color, printed or woven so that the colors appear iridescent. A list of the most common types of taffeta follows. lt is used for dresses, blouses, ribbons, draperies, bedspreads, and curtains. See scroop.

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faille taffeta

Taffeta made with a prominent crosswise rib as in faille. See faille.

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thermal

An adjective used to describe fabrics which are warmer for their weight than other fabries. lt is usually limited to those fabrics woven in a honeycomb pattern leaving small spaces in which an can be trapped. Thermal fabrics are popular for underwear and blankets. See honeycomb.

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thermoplastic

A word used to describe fibers that are heat-sensitive. Most man-made fibers are thermoplastic. A thermoplastic fiber has the property of softening or fusing when heated and of harderring agaln when cooled. With the application of heat and pressure, it can be molded and remolded. This can be both an udvarrtaKe and a disadvantage. lt is advantageous because in fabrics made of thermoplastic fibers, certain features like pleats can be made permanent through heat-setting. However, care must be taken in drying und ironiog fabrics made of thermoplastic fibers because of their sensitivity to heat. See man-made fibers and heat-setting.

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toile

The French word for cloth. Toile is also a woven fabric that has been printed, usually in one color only, with a scenic design. This is occasionally called turle de Jouy. lt is most commonly found in home furnishings fabrics. Toile is also used in the field of expensive designer clothing where the word is used to describe a fabric pattern for a garment.

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braid

A term used to describe narrow trimmings with multicolored designs woven into them. Various types of braid, such as peasant braid, are popular during certain fashion periods.

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cording

A round decorative edging. The term is also used to describe white cord covered with bias strips of fabric to form welting or piping. See welting.

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military braid

A flat and ribbed braid. It is usually used for decorating uniforms.

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ribbon

A narrow, woven fabric with two finished edges. Both natural and man-made fibers are used in making ribbon. lt is available in many patterns and colors and in such fabric constructions as velvet, satin, and grosgrain. See velvet, satin, and grosgrain.

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seam binding

A flat, narrow twilled ribbon, used to cover raw edges of seams to protect them from ravelling.

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twill tape

A narrow, twill-weave ribbon, fairly heavy in weight. lt is stitched into garment areas such as collar lapels, shoulders, and facing edges for strength and to prevent stretching. lt is also used in the seams of slip covers and other home furnishing items for added strength. Twill tape is usually available only in white and black. See weaving and twill.

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tussah silk

Silk fabric woven from silk made by wild, uncultivated silkworms. Tussah is strong, but coarse and uneven. lt is naturally tau in color, cannot be bleached, and has a rougher texture than cultivated silk. lt is used in shantung and pongee. Wild silkworms eat leaves other than mulberry leaves eaten exclusively by silkworms. The difference in diet accounts for the different fiber and fabric characteristics. Tussah is also used to describe fabrics designed to imitate this kind of silk. See wild silk.

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twill

(1) A weave with a diagonal rib (twill line) that runs from the upper left to the lower right, or from upper right to lower left. In a twill weave, each filling thread passes over or under at least two warp threads, to a point where the filling thread goes under moving up and over by at least one thread in each row. Herringbone weave is a broken twill weave and forms ""V""s in the weave pattern. (2) A narrow ribbon, fairly heavy in weight. It is stitched into garment areas such as collar lapels, shoulders, and facing edges for strength and to prevent stretching. It is also used in the seams of slipcovers and other home furnishings items for added strength. Twill tape usually is available only in white or black.

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two-bar (double-bar) tricot

A warp knit in which two sets of yarns are required, one knitted in one direction and the othcr in the opposite direction. A ribbed surface results. It is synonymous with doublewarp tricot knit.

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underlay

A synonym for padding or rug cushion. It usually describes the layer of fabric of sponge rubber or hair placed underneath a carpet or rug to provide it with longer life, to give it a more luxurious appearance and feeling, to prevent the rug from slipping, and to make the rug softer and more cushiony. Carpet padding is made of cattle hair, rubberized hair, rubber, and combinations of jute and cattle hair, as well as some man-made fibers. Sec: rugs and carpets, padding, and rug cushion.

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unpressed pleat

A pleat (folds) the edges of which have not been set by pressing. The rounded edges create a look that is softer than pressed pleats. The term unpressed pleats is usually used for wide unpressed pleats, whereas cartridge pleats, also unpressed, describe narrower, decorative pleats.

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viscose process

Viscose process describes the production of rayon fibers from purified cellulose.

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wash and wear

A term used to describe fabrics and garments that can be washed and then worn with little or no ironing. Originally, the fabrics were chemically treated and cured (baked). There are no standards governing its use. See easy care and durable press.

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twill weave

A weave with a diagonal rib (twill line) that runs from the upper left to the lower right, or from upper right to lower left. In a twill weave, each filling thread passes over or under at least two warp threads, with the point where the filling thread goes under moving up and over at least one thread in each row. Herringbone weave is a broken twill weave which forms Vs in the weave pattern.

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wet took

A descriptive term for extremely shiny fabrics. Fabrics such as vinyl and cire are often described as wet-look fabrics.

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whipcord

An extremely strong, twill-weave worsted fabric made in fairly heavy weights of cotton, wool worsted, and fabrics of man-made fibers and blends. It is similar to gabardine, but heavier and with a more pronounced diagonal rib on the right side. lt is so named because it simulates tlre lash of a whip. Cotton whipcotds are often four-harness warp-twill weaves. lt is used for draperies and upholstery, uniforms, riding clothes, and other wearing apparel where a strong fabric is required. See twill under entry for weaving.

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wide wale

In knitted fabrics, the wale is a row of toops lying lengthwise on the fabric. In woven fabrics, wale is a series of ribs or ridges usually running lengthwise on the fabric. Wale describes the pile ribs found on corduroy fabrics. Wide wale describes one of the different types of ribs in corduroy. See corduroy, velveteen, and pile.

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