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Canton crepe

Canton crepe is heavier than crepe de Chine with a slightly ribbed crepe filling. It was originally made of silk in Canton, China. Today it is as well made of rayon or acetate.

crepe

A lightweight fabric of silk, rayon, cotton, wool, man-made, or blended fibers, and characterized by a crinkled surface. This surface is obtained through the use of crepe yarns (yarns that have such a high twist that the yarn kinks), and by chemical treatment with caustic soda, embossing, or weaving (usually with thicker warp yarns and thinner filling yarns). Although crepe is traditionally woven, crepe yarns are now used to produce knit crepes.

crepe-backed satin

A two-faced fabric that can be used on either side. One is satin whereas the reverse, made of twisted yarns, is crepe.

crepe de Chine

Traditionally, a very sheer, pebbly, washable silk with the fabric degummed to produce crinkle. Today, it is a sheer, flat crepe in silk or man-made fibers. It is used for lingerie, dresses, and blouses.

crepe georgette

A sheer fabric, similar to chiffon, made with a crepe yarn that gives the fabric a crepe appearance. See chiffon and crepe

crinkle crepe

A fabric with an taneven surface, created by use of caustic soda that causes it to shrink unevenly. Plisse is an example of a crinkle crepe fabric. Crinkle crepe and plisse usually have a larger pattern to surface irregularities than crepe.

faille crepe

A silk, rayon, acetate, or other man-made fiber dress fabric with a decided wavy (crepe) cord fillingwise. It is used for negligees, blouses, daytime and evening dresses, handbags, and trims.

fireproof

Fireproof means that a fabric literally will not burn. To be labeled fireproof, the Federal Trade Commission requires that a fabric must be 100% fireproof. If the fiber or fabric has been treated to prevent flames from spreading, it must be labeled as fire resistant. See fire resistant and lame-retardant-fabric/180/flame-retardant-fabric.html" title="flame retardant fabric" class="normal">flame retardant fabric.

flat crepe

A firm, medium-weight silk crepe with a soft, almost imperceptible crinkle. It has creped fillings alternating with two S and two Z twists. The surface is fairly flat. Flat crepe may also be made of man-made fibers. It is used for dresses, negligees, and blouses. See crepe de chine,

lingerie crepe

Pormerly called French crepe because it was originally made in France. The creped surface was made by embossing (pressing cloth over a fleece blanket). Because it is no longer pressed, it is not a crepe and it is used for lingerie and spring and summer dresses.

mock crepe

A term for fabrics that have the appearance of crepe, but are not made from crepe yarns. See crepe.

moss crepe

Officially, moss crepe is made in a plain or dobby weave with rayon yarns that produce the moss-like effect. In practice, however, the term refers to any crepe, including polyester, considered to have a moss-like surface. See weaving.

moth repellency

An example of the desirable quaIities that can be given to fabrics in the finishing process. Some fabrics are treated with colorless chemicals, similar to dyestuffs, added to the dye bath. Another method atomizes the fabric with mothproofing chemicals. Fabrics that attract moths, such as woolens, can be treated for repellency. The treatment also repels other insects, such as carpet beetles. Wool rugs are almost always treated for moth repellency today.

rep or repp

Heavy filling-wise corded fabric, heavier than poplin. It may be silk, rayon, man-made fibers, cotton, wool, or a mixture. The fabric may be solid or striped. It is used for ties, robes, draperies, and upholstery, and in lighter weights for blouses and trimmings.

reprocessed fibers

Fibers obtained from scraps and clips of woven and felted fabrics made of previously urmsed woot that have been shredded back into fiber form and then remade into new yarns. Reprocessed fibers are usually wool fibers and must be relabeled as reprocessed wool according to Federal Trade Commission standards. Reprocessed fibers are less desirable than new or virgin fibers. See virgin Fiber.

romain crepe

A semisheer fabric of abraded yarns in warp and filling. It is made of rayon and acetate ar wool and is used tot street and dressy dresses.

rough crepe

A heavy fabric of rayon, acetate, or mixtures made with alternately twisted fillings, two right and two left (2x2).

crepe-backed satin

Creped-backed satin can be used on either side. While the surface is satin, the back is crepe. It is mainly used for the production of clothing. Connected to: crepe and satin crepe.

satin crepe

A heavy reversible fabric with satin on one side and crepe on the other. It is used in fall and winter dresses and linings.

water repellent fabric

The chemical treatment of a fabric to reduce its affinity for water. Pores of the fabric are open, and the degree of repellency varies. A water repellent fab ric will give protection in a shower, but not in heavy rain. Water repellency is often created with wax or silicone resin finishes that enable the pores of the fabric to stay open so that it is more comfortable to wear than waterproof fabrics. Another name for water repellent is water resistant. See waterproof fabric.

wool crepe

Wool crepe is made of woolen or worsted yarns. The crepe texture is achieved by keeping the warp yarns loose.

Barkcloth

Originally, the term referred to a fabric found throughout the South Pacific and is made from the inner bark of certain trees. The bark is beaten into a paper-like fabric, then dyed or otherwise colored. Tapa cloth is one of the best known types of true barkcloth. Barkcloth is a term that also refers to a fabric, often cotton or rayon, with a somewhat crepe-like feel that is designed to resemble true barkcloth. This fabric is used extensively for draperies, slipcovers, and other home furnishings. See crepe and tapa cloth

Canton crepe

Canton crepe is heavier than crepe de Chine with a slightly ribbed crepe filling. It was originally made of silk in Canton, China. Today it is as well made of rayon or acetate.

chiffon

Chiffon is an extraordinary lightweight and thin crepe fabric. Originally, chiffon was made of silk, but today also wool, rayon, nylon and other fibers are used for the production of chiffon. It is an open weave with slightly twisted yarns and can have both, a soft or stiff finish. Chiffon is often used for dresses and scarves.

China silk

China silk is a lightweight and soft fabric. This plain-weave silk fabric is used for lingerie and soft suits. Nowadays, China silk has been replaced almost completly with lining fabrics of man-made fibers.

crepe

A lightweight fabric of silk, rayon, cotton, wool, man-made, or blended fibers, and characterized by a crinkled surface. This surface is obtained through the use of crepe yarns (yarns that have such a high twist that the yarn kinks), and by chemical treatment with caustic soda, embossing, or weaving (usually with thicker warp yarns and thinner filling yarns). Although crepe is traditionally woven, crepe yarns are now used to produce knit crepes.

crepe-backed satin

A two-faced fabric that can be used on either side. One is satin whereas the reverse, made of twisted yarns, is crepe.

crepe de Chine

Traditionally, a very sheer, pebbly, washable silk with the fabric degummed to produce crinkle. Today, it is a sheer, flat crepe in silk or man-made fibers. It is used for lingerie, dresses, and blouses.

crepe georgette

A sheer fabric, similar to chiffon, made with a crepe yarn that gives the fabric a crepe appearance. See chiffon and crepe

crinkle crepe

A fabric with an taneven surface, created by use of caustic soda that causes it to shrink unevenly. Plisse is an example of a crinkle crepe fabric. Crinkle crepe and plisse usually have a larger pattern to surface irregularities than crepe.

faille crepe

A silk, rayon, acetate, or other man-made fiber dress fabric with a decided wavy (crepe) cord fillingwise. It is used for negligees, blouses, daytime and evening dresses, handbags, and trims.

finishing

"An overall term that usually refers to all processes, with the exception of coloring, to make fabric more acceptable (some experts also include coloring). Much of the look, feel, and behavior of a fab ric is determined by the finishing steps taken. Finishing can be mechanical (as in calendering) or chemical, or both. Special treatments are applied to fabrics during finishing to make them perform better, shrink less, resist flarnes, and repel water. Calendering refers to a process in which the fabric is passed through heated cylinders. This gives the fabric a lustrous surface and can also emboss it. Another important step in finishing, and usually the final process, is tentering

fireproof

Fireproof means that a fabric literally will not burn. To be labeled fireproof, the Federal Trade Commission requires that a fabric must be 100% fireproof. If the fiber or fabric has been treated to prevent flames from spreading, it must be labeled as fire resistant. See fire resistant and lame-retardant-fabric/180/flame-retardant-fabric.html" title="flame retardant fabric" class="normal">flame retardant fabric.

flat crepe

A firm, medium-weight silk crepe with a soft, almost imperceptible crinkle. It has creped fillings alternating with two S and two Z twists. The surface is fairly flat. Flat crepe may also be made of man-made fibers. It is used for dresses, negligees, and blouses. See crepe de chine,

functional finish

A special finish added to a fabric as une of the final steps in its manufacture that alters the performance and contributes a specific attribute to the fabric in some way. A water repellent finish, for example, is a functional finish because it prevents water from penetrating the fabric, thereby changing the function of the fabric. Other examples of special finishes are soil release and crease resistant.

georgette

A soft, sheer dull-textured silk fabric, similar to chiffon, made with a crepe yarn to give the fabric a crepe appearance. The crepy surface is obtained by alternating right-hand and left hand twist yarns in warp and filling. It is used for summer and evening dresses. See chiffon and crepe.

glass fiber

Very fine flexible fiber made from glass. It. is used extensively for curtains and draperies. Glass fiber fabrics are very strong and wash well, but care should be taken to avoid getting small splinters of the glass yarns in the hands. Glass fiber is stiff and has poor resistance to wear and abrasion. It is also fireproof. See fireproof.

hackling

A combing process that prepares the flax fibers for spinning by removing short lengths of fiber, leaving only longer ones and laying them parallel. It may be done by hand or by machine.

interlining

A tayer of fabric placed between the outer fabric and the lining of the garment to add warmth. lt is most commonly found in coats and jackets. Interlinings are offen made of reprocessed wool, but other materials such as polyester fiberfill may be used. See fiberfill, reprocessed wool.

jacquard

A term used to describe fabrics with a woven or knitted pattern, whether or not they are made with a Jacquard attachment on the loom. The Jacquard attachment for weaving and knitting machines makes possible the manufacture of complicated, repeated geometrical designs in knits and wovens. See dobby.

kapok

A fluffy fiber that comes from the seed pods of the kapok tree found in the tropics. Kapok at one tirne was extremely popular for stuffing pillows and was also used in life preservers as it is naturally buoyant. Today, rnan-made fibers have replaced kapok in many cases.

latex

The name for the liquid form of natural or man-made rubber. It can be formed into thread for use as an elastic yarn. Latex is also used extensively as part of the backing in the manufacture of rugs and at one time, was used extensively in corsets and brassieres. Now, however, although some latex foundation garments are still made, it has been largely replaced by spandex. Solid latex is sometimes referred to as rubber. See spandex.

leather

The hide of an animal with the fur removed_ lt has been used throughout history for clothing and other purposes. Today, manmade fabrics that imitate leather are widely available. Common leather names include alligator, buckskin, calfskin, chamois, cordovan, cowhide, crocodile, doeskin, grain leather, kid, lambskin, morocco, nappa, patent, peccary, pigskin, pin seal, reptile, reversed leather, Russian, shearling, skiver, snakeskin, and suede.

lingerie crepe

Pormerly called French crepe because it was originally made in France. The creped surface was made by embossing (pressing cloth over a fleece blanket). Because it is no longer pressed, it is not a crepe and it is used for lingerie and spring and summer dresses.

loden cloth

A thick, heavy, napped fleecy coating fabric woven of coarse grade wool in Austria and the German Tyrol. It is similar to duffel cloth if made of wool or the occasional man-made fibers. Since the wool has some grease, it is naturally water-repellent. lt is usually a light forest green color, called loden, from which it (gets its name. Loden cloth moves in and out of fashion everywhere except in those parts of Germany and Austria where loden jackets, suits, and coats are considered basic dress. Loden cloth is sometimes gray in color. See duffel cloth.

Mackinaw

A thick, heavy, usually coarse fabric with a certain degree of natural water repellency. It was originally made of wool, but other fibers such as acrylics are being used today. It was named for the blankets made by the Mackinaw Indians in Michigan. Mackinaw and similar fabrics are extremely popular for hunting jaekets and are usually plaid or checked. Mackinaw is also spelled Mackinac.

matelasse

A soft double or compound fabric with a quilted appearance. One of the fabrics that, like cloque, has a blistered or quilted look to the design. Officially, the word matelasse implies the use of two different yarns that, when finished, react differently to the finishing resulting in a puckered effect in the fabric. In practice, the term matelasse is usually applied to luxury fabrics for evening wear, while a word such as cloque is used for a similar fabric made from cotton. The heavier type is used in draperies and upholstery, whereas crepe matelasse is popular in dresses, semiformal and formal suits and wraps, and trimmings.

mock crepe

A term for fabrics that have the appearance of crepe, but are not made from crepe yarns. See crepe.

momie cloth

A fabric made with a weave that produces a pebbled effect, similar to crepe.

moss crepe

Officially, moss crepe is made in a plain or dobby weave with rayon yarns that produce the moss-like effect. In practice, however, the term refers to any crepe, including polyester, considered to have a moss-like surface. See weaving.

moth repellency

An example of the desirable quaIities that can be given to fabrics in the finishing process. Some fabrics are treated with colorless chemicals, similar to dyestuffs, added to the dye bath. Another method atomizes the fabric with mothproofing chemicals. Fabrics that attract moths, such as woolens, can be treated for repellency. The treatment also repels other insects, such as carpet beetles. Wool rugs are almost always treated for moth repellency today.

motif

A design or color used alone or repeated on a fabric.

Moygashel

A trade name representing excellent quality in imported Irish linen.

redaimed textile fibers

Fibers made into fabric (whether sold comrnercially or not) and then converted back into fiber. Most reclaimed textile fibers are wool and other natural fibers because it is extremely difficult to reclaim man-made fibers. See reprocessed fibers and reused fibers.

recycled fiber

See reclaimed textile fibers, reprocessed fiber, and reused fiber.

reprocessed fibers

Fibers obtained from scraps and clips of woven and felted fabrics made of previously urmsed woot that have been shredded back into fiber form and then remade into new yarns. Reprocessed fibers are usually wool fibers and must be relabeled as reprocessed wool according to Federal Trade Commission standards. Reprocessed fibers are less desirable than new or virgin fibers. See virgin Fiber.

crepe-backed satin

Creped-backed satin can be used on either side. While the surface is satin, the back is crepe. It is mainly used for the production of clothing. Connected to: crepe and satin crepe.

satin crepe

A heavy reversible fabric with satin on one side and crepe on the other. It is used in fall and winter dresses and linings.

shirting

Any lightweight fabric appropriate for shirts or blouses. The term top-weight (its opposite is bottom-weight) is often om-weight) is often used for this type of fabric instead of the word shirting. Some crepes and satins, as well as voile and Oxford cloth, are examples of shirting fabrics although there are many others.

shoddy

Originally, a fabric made from reprocessed wool. Today, the word is used for a fabric - or anything else, for that matter - that is poorly made or made of inferior materials. See reprocessed fibers and reused wool.

showerproof

One of the many terms used to describe varying degrees of imperviousness to water. A showerproof fabric will repel water to a limited extent, but is not waterproof. See waterproof.

silk

The product of the silk worm and the only natural filament fiber (it is produced in a long thread). Silk was the leading luxury fiber for thousands of years. There were many types of silk and many ways of making it into cloth. foday, man-made fibers have to a very large extent replaced silk, but the traditional names for certain silk fabrics are still used and include the following:

sizing

Starch, gelatin, glue, wax, casein, or clay added to fabrics in the finishing stages to give fabric additional body, a smoother appearance, and more weight. Cotton fabrics are those most commonly treated in this manner. At one time, sizing had to be replaced after each cleaning. Today, with more advanced finishing techniques, sizing is rarely used and fabrics usually retain their initial appearance through cleaning. A few fabrics such as needlepoint canvas are still sized so that they can be handled more easily. This in no way affects their final performance. Sizing also refers to the starch that is applied to the warp yarns to help prevent abrasion during the weaving process. This sizing is usually removed from the fabric in one of the finishing steps.

spinning

A method of drawing out and twisting together fibers to make a continuous thread or yarn. Spinning also refers to the manufacture of man-rnade fibers as they are formed by fcucing the material from which they are rnade through a spinneret. In conventional spinning, the tighter the twist, the stronger the yarn, but too tight a twist can weaken the final yarn. Crepe yarns have such an extremely high twist that the yarn actually turns back on itself (kinks), producing the characteristic crepe or corksc_rew look. Pabrics can be given shadow effects by the Lise of two yarns which have been twisted in opposite directions during spinning. This will strike each of these yarns in a different way producing this effect. See spinneret.

substrate

An underlying support or foundation. An example is a fiber substrate prepared with a mordant before dyeing.

carpet thread

A heavy thread used for repairing carpets and for sewing on buttons. Carpet thread was originally made of cotton, but usually is made of polyester today.

cotton thread

Formerly the most common thread, but difficult to find today. lt is usually made in two types. A plain thread with a dull surface is called basting thread. Mercerized cotton thread has a shiny surface that enables it to slide smoothly through fabric and is suggested for general purpose sewing. Polyester thread has replaced cotton thread to a large extent. See mercerization.

virgin fibers

Fibers never made into fabric before. The term is used primarily for wool fibers to differentiate between these and reclaimed, repro cessed, and reused fibers. See reprocessed fibers, reclaimed fibers, and reused fibers.

water repellent fabric

The chemical treatment of a fabric to reduce its affinity for water. Pores of the fabric are open, and the degree of repellency varies. A water repellent fab ric will give protection in a shower, but not in heavy rain. Water repellency is often created with wax or silicone resin finishes that enable the pores of the fabric to stay open so that it is more comfortable to wear than waterproof fabrics. Another name for water repellent is water resistant. See waterproof fabric.

windbreaker

A jacket made of a closely woven fabric: or a fabric treated with a finish designed to prevent the passage of air. The fabric used in windbreakers offen has a degree of water repellency because of its tight construction.

wool crepe

Wool crepe is made of woolen or worsted yarns. The crepe texture is achieved by keeping the warp yarns loose.