brushed rayon

Brushed rayon is a rayon fabric that has been heavily napped. Brushed rayon is highly flammable.

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butcher rayon

A coarse rayon, or rayon and acetate blend, mediumweight fabric woven in a plain weave and originally intended as a substitute for butcher linen.
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modified rayon fibers

Chemical treatment while fibers are in the plastic state to give them high tenacity (high strength). Changes in the molecular structure of the fiber have been made.

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rayon

The first successful man-rnade fiber, rayon was originally called artificial silk. It is made from ceilulose and is weak when wet. Rayon is soft and comfortable and dyes well, but is weakened by exposure to sunlight. ßecause of its low wet strength, rayon may shrink or stretch unless treated. fwo main processes are used in this country to produce rryon: viscose process and cuprammonium process. Several different rnodificatiorrs of these types of rayon are being made and consist of the following. See cellulose.

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euprammonium rayon

Rayon niade by a process that allows very fine filament fibers to be fornred. The fineness of its filaments is its best known characteristic.

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high wet modulus rayon

Rayon made by a modified viscose process. The resulting rayon is rnuch stronger when wet than ordinary rayon. Zantrel and Avril are examples of high wet modulus rayon. See viscose rayon.

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poeynosie rayon

Rayon less likely to shrink or stretch when wet because of the way in which it is made. Regular rayon shrinks and stretches when wet and is said to have poor wet strength.

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saponified rayon

A type of rayon made from cellulose acetate filaments, sirnilar to the kind used in making acetate. These fibers are treated in a special way to prodtrce a rayorr that is very strong. Fortisan is an examplc of saponified rayon.

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spun rayon

See spun fiber yarn.

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viscose rayon

Viscose rayon is a Rayon fabric. While processing the viscose process is used. Most of today´s rayons are viscose rayons.

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abraded yarn

A two-ply combination yarn. One is an abraded ply, the other is filament viscose rayon.

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barathea

Barathea is mixed fabric which contains silk, rayon, cotton or wool and is closely woven. It has a typical pebbly surface. Barathea is used for dresses, neckties, trimmings, and suits.

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Barkcloth

Originally, the term referred to a fabric found throughout the South Pacific and is made from the inner bark of certain trees. The bark is beaten into a paper-like fabric, then dyed or otherwise colored. Tapa cloth is one of the best known types of true barkcloth. Barkcloth is a term that also refers to a fabric, often cotton or rayon, with a somewhat crepe-like feel that is designed to resemble true barkcloth. This fabric is used extensively for draperies, slipcovers, and other home furnishings. See crepe and tapa cloth

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batiste

A fabric named for Jean Baptiste, a French linen weaver. (1) In cotton, a sheer, fine muslin, woven of combed yarns and given a mercerized finish. It is used for blouses, summer shirts, dresses, lingerie, infants’ dresses, bonnets, and handkerchiefs. (2) A rayon, polyester, or cotton-blend fabric with the same characteristics. (3) A smooth, fine wool fabric that is lighter than challis, and similar to fine nun’s veiling. It is used for dresses and negligees. (4) A sheer silk fabric either plain or figured, similar to silk mull. It is often called “batiste de soie” and is made into summer dresses.

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Bedford cord

Bedford cord is a durable cloth with lengthwise ribs made of cotton, wool, silk, rayon, or combination fibers. Mainly used for outer garments or Sportswear.

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belting

A heavy cotton, rayon, silk, or mixed fabric with large fillingwise ribs. lt may be knit. Any heavyweight, fairly stiff fabric used to support the top of a skirt, a pair of pants, or line a belt to give additional support. Beltings come in various widths.

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Bengaline

Bengaline is a ribbed fabric similar to faille, but heavier and with a coarser rib in the filling direction. lt can be made of silk, wool, acetate, or rayon warp, with wool or cotton filling. The fabric was first made in Bengal, India, and is used for dresses, coats, trimmings, and draperies.

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bright yarns

Bright yarns are high luster yarns made of rayon or acetate fibers.

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brocatelle

Brocatelle is a fabric similar to brocade but made of a Jacquard loom. It is used as drapery and upholstery fabric and made in double-cloth construction with a silk- or rayon-fibered face.

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brushed rayon

Brushed rayon is a rayon fabric that has been heavily napped. Brushed rayon is highly flammable.

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butcher rayon

A coarse rayon, or rayon and acetate blend, mediumweight fabric woven in a plain weave and originally intended as a substitute for butcher linen.
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Canton crepe

Canton crepe is heavier than crepe de Chine with a slightly ribbed crepe filling. It was originally made of silk in Canton, China. Today it is as well made of rayon or acetate.

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cellulose

The naturally occurring polymer (giant molecule) that forms the solid framework of plants. Cellulose from wood pulp is the base for rayon and acetate, both of which are man-made fibers. Cotton is more than ninety percent cellulose before it is cleaned (scoured). See cotton, rayon, and acetate.

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chiffon

Chiffon is an extraordinary lightweight and thin crepe fabric. Originally, chiffon was made of silk, but today also wool, rayon, nylon and other fibers are used for the production of chiffon. It is an open weave with slightly twisted yarns and can have both, a soft or stiff finish. Chiffon is often used for dresses and scarves.

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corduroy

A ribbed, high-luster, cut-pile fabric with extra filling threads that form lengthwise ribs or wales. The rib has been sheared or woven to produce a smooth, velvet-like nap. The thread count varies from 46 x 116 to 70 x 250. Traditionally made of cotton, corduroy can be made of many different fibers, such as rayon and polyester blends. lt is used for dresses, coats, sports jackets, sports shirts, bathrobes, slacks, and draperies.

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crepe

A lightweight fabric of silk, rayon, cotton, wool, man-made, or blended fibers, and characterized by a crinkled surface. This surface is obtained through the use of crepe yarns (yarns that have such a high twist that the yarn kinks), and by chemical treatment with caustic soda, embossing, or weaving (usually with thicker warp yarns and thinner filling yarns). Although crepe is traditionally woven, crepe yarns are now used to produce knit crepes.

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damask

A glossy, heavy, firm-textured Jacquard weave fabric, similar to brocade, but lighter, with flat and reversible patterns. It is made of silk, linen, cotton, rayon or a combination of fibers in double or single damask. It is used for tablecloths, napkins, home furnishings, draperies and upholsteries, and occasionally clothing, such as afternoon and evening dresses.

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decating

A process for setting the luster on wool, silk, spun silk, and rayons.

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faille

A soft, slightly glossy silk, rayon, acetate, cotton, wool, or a mixture of these, in a rib weave, that has a light, flat, narrow crosswise rib or cord. It is made by using heavier yarns in the filling than in the warp, and has more ribs to the inch than bengaline. Ottoman is similar to faille but has a wider rib. Faille is considered a dressy fabric, and is used for evening clathes, tailored dresses, coats, suits, ties, handbags, shoes, and draperies. See ottoman.

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faille crepe

A silk, rayon, acetate, or other man-made fiber dress fabric with a decided wavy (crepe) cord fillingwise. It is used for negligees, blouses, daytime and evening dresses, handbags, and trims.

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filament

Extremely long continuous fibers that can be measured in meters or yards, or in the case of man-made fibers, in kilometers or miles. Filaments do not require spinning to form yarn. Examples are rayon, nylon, acrylic, polyester, and other man-made fibers. Silk is the only natural filament
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foulard

A lightweight, soft, plain- or twill-weave fabric made of silk, mercerized cotton, rayon, acetate, or thin worsted wool. Foulard has a high luster on the face and dull on the reverse side. It is often printed, and the patterns range from simple polka dots to small, allover elaborate designs on light or dark grounds. It is also made in plain and solid colors. Foulard has a characteristic hand that can be described as light, firm, and supple. It is used for spring and summer dresses, scarves, robes, and neckties, and frequently sold as surah.

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gauze

A thin, sheer, open, loosely woven, plain-weave cotton fabric with widely spaced yarns, used for diapers and surgical dress­ings. It can also be made of wool, silk, rayon, or other man-made fibers. Some weights are stiffened for curtains, trimmings of dresses, and other decorative or apparel purposes.

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grosgrain

A fairly heavy, closely woven, firm, corded or ribbed fabric, made in silk or rayon warp with cotton cords. The cords are round and firm, heavier than in poplin, rounder than in faille. Grosgrain is often made in narrow widths for use as trimming. The most common use of grosgrain is for ribbons in which the ribs are usually narrow, but it can be made with larger ribs for academic gowns. It is really a bengaline in narrow goods and is used for rib­bons, neckties, and lapel facings.

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high tenacity

High strength of modified rayon and acetate fibers as a result of chemical treatment while the fibers are in the plastic state.

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huck

A type of toweling fabric with a honeycombed surface made by using heavy filling yarns in a dobby weave. It has excellent ab­sorbent qualities. It is woven with a pattern, most often with a dobby attachment on the loom and may have Jacquard borders. Huck is traditionally made of cotton, linen, or rayon, or a mixture of these, although today, other fibers may be used. In a mixture it is called a union fabric. Face or hand towels are made in white or col­ors and are used for drying dishes, glasses, and kitchen utensils. Huck is also called huckaback. Embroidery enthusiasts often use huck as a ground for their work. See dobby.

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jersey

A single knit fabric with plain stitches on the right side and purl stitches on the back. A weft-knitted rayon, acetate, or two-bar tricot-knitted rayon or acetate used for slips, gowns, and blouses. Jersey is also made of wool, cotton, silk, nylon, or blends of the newer synthetics. As an elastic knitted wool fabric, usually in stockinette stitch, jersey was first made on the Island of Jersey off the English coast and used for fisherman’s clothing. [t is also used for blouses, dresses, and basque shirts. The word jersey is also occasionally used as a synonym for any knit. See knitting, single knit, and purl knit.

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linters

Very short fibers that cover the cotton seeds after the I long fibers have been removed by ginning. These short, fuzzy fibers, after removal from the cotton seeds, are a source of cellulose for rayon and acetate.

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Macclesfield silk

Hand-woven silk or rayon fabric with small overall Jacquard patterns. Macclesfield, England, is the town of origin. Today, the name applies to small, yarn dyed, dobby designs used in men’s neckties. See Spitalfields.

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man-made fibers

An overall term referring to all fibers not found naturally. This includes rayon and acetate made from cellulose, a natural product. The term synthetic fibers also ap plies only to man-made fibers made entirely in the laboratory from such things as petroleum (polyester).

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marquisette

A light, strong, sheer, open-textured curtain fabric in leno weave, often with dots woven into the surface. The thread count varies from 48 x 22 to 60 x 40. Marquisette, extremely popular for curtains and mosquito netting, is made of cotton, rayon, acetate, nylon, polyester, acrylic, glass, silk, or mixtures.

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mogadore

A corded silk or rayon fabric with wide ridges and often with wide stripes used for ties.

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moss crepe

Officially, moss crepe is made in a plain or dobby weave with rayon yarns that produce the moss-like effect. In practice, however, the term refers to any crepe, including polyester, considered to have a moss-like surface. See weaving.

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rayon

The first successful man-rnade fiber, rayon was originally called artificial silk. It is made from ceilulose and is weak when wet. Rayon is soft and comfortable and dyes well, but is weakened by exposure to sunlight. ßecause of its low wet strength, rayon may shrink or stretch unless treated. fwo main processes are used in this country to produce rryon: viscose process and cuprammonium process. Several different rnodificatiorrs of these types of rayon are being made and consist of the following. See cellulose.

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euprammonium rayon

Rayon niade by a process that allows very fine filament fibers to be fornred. The fineness of its filaments is its best known characteristic.

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high wet modulus rayon

Rayon made by a modified viscose process. The resulting rayon is rnuch stronger when wet than ordinary rayon. Zantrel and Avril are examples of high wet modulus rayon. See viscose rayon.

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poeynosie rayon

Rayon less likely to shrink or stretch when wet because of the way in which it is made. Regular rayon shrinks and stretches when wet and is said to have poor wet strength.

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saponified rayon

A type of rayon made from cellulose acetate filaments, sirnilar to the kind used in making acetate. These fibers are treated in a special way to prodtrce a rayorr that is very strong. Fortisan is an examplc of saponified rayon.

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rep or repp

Heavy filling-wise corded fabric, heavier than poplin. It may be silk, rayon, man-made fibers, cotton, wool, or a mixture. The fabric may be solid or striped. It is used for ties, robes, draperies, and upholstery, and in lighter weights for blouses and trimmings.

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romain crepe

A semisheer fabric of abraded yarns in warp and filling. It is made of rayon and acetate ar wool and is used tot street and dressy dresses.

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rough crepe

A heavy fabric of rayon, acetate, or mixtures made with alternately twisted fillings, two right and two left (2x2).

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satin

One of the basic weaves. A shiny, smooth silk, acetate, rayon, or other man-made fiber combination woven in satin weave made with a cotton filling. It has a smooth, lustrous surface because the warp floats. It is used for linings of coats, jackets, facings, and ties. It is also used for draperies, upholstery, bedspreads, and sheets. Satin weave has proved so popular that various types of satin-weave fabrics have developed. Following i.s a listing of many of the types of satin fabrics. See weaving and sateen.

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shiki

Heavy rayon, acetate, and cotton, or other mixtures identified by wavy filling-wise cords. It is used for draperies.

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striations

The many fine microscopic lines extending lengthwise on the viscose rayon fiber.
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taffeta

A fine, yarn-dyed, closely woven, plain-weave, smooth on both sides, stiffened fabric with a crisp feel and a sheen on its surface. Taffeta was originally made of silk, but is also made of rayon, cotton, acetate, or other man-made fibers. lt is named for the Persian fabric "taftan". The rustle of silk taffeta is called scroop, and it may be a solid color, printed or woven so that the colors appear iridescent. A list of the most common types of taffeta follows. lt is used for dresses, blouses, ribbons, draperies, bedspreads, and curtains. See scroop.

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transparent velvet

A sheer-cut pile velvet usually all rayon or with rayon pile, suitable for evening dresses, wraps, and millinery.

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tufted fabric

"A fabric ornamented with soft, fluffy, slackly twisted ply yarns (usually cotton). Most tufts are inserted by needles into a woven fabric, such as unbleached muslin, textured cotton, and rayon plain-weave cloth. When tufts are spaced (as coin dots), a bedspread is called candlewick
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tulle

A soft, fine, transparent silk net. Formerly made only of silk, tulle is now made of nylon or rayon, and is a favorite for evening dresses and bridal veils. See net.

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velvet

Velvet is a fabric with a short and closely woven nap. The production of velvet varies between two methods. One uses a double-cloth construction in which two shifts of fabric are woven with long threads joining them together. After the double fabric is woven, the center threads are cut, producing two pieces of velvet. The second method of producing velvet uses wires. During the weaving the yarn is lifted over the wires to form the pile. After removing the wires the yarn is cut to form the velvet surface. While velvet was originally made of silk, today many other fibers are used to manufacure velvet (e.g. rayon or nylon).

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viscose process

Viscose process describes the production of rayon fibers from purified cellulose.

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viscose rayon

Viscose rayon is a Rayon fabric. While processing the viscose process is used. Most of today´s rayons are viscose rayons.

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voile

A sheer, transparent, low-count, crisp or soft, lightweight, plain-weave muslin with a thready feel, made of highly twisted yarns. lt can be comprised of wool, cotton, silk, rayon, polyester, or other man-made fibers. Voile is especially popular when made of cotton or blends for summer wear and is often printed to match heavier fabrics. Voile is used for clothing, especially for blouses and summer dresses, and for curtains and similar items.

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