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block printing

A hand-printing process in which a design is carved on a block of wood or linoleum. Dye is placed on the surface and the block is placed on the fabric, thereby transferring the dye. Every color requires a different block, making this type of printing tedious and expensive. It is now almost entirely limited to the craft field. See printing.

burn-out printing

Burn-out printing describes a process in which a fabric consisting of two different fibers is treated with chemicals partly take away one fiber to create a structure on the surface of the fabric. For example, sculptured velvet is produced with this method.

discharge printing

A method of obtaining light designs on a very dark ground. The fabric is piece dyed first, then the color is discharged or bleached in spots, leaving white designs in a pattern. An additional step is often the roller printing of these design areas with patterns and colors. See dyeing.

duplex printing

A method of printing the same design on both sides of the fabric to give the design additional definition and clarity of color. Also called register printing.

hand-blocked print

Fabrics printed by hand with blocks made of wood or linoleum.

register printing

A method of printing the same design on both sides of the fabric to give it additional definition and clarity of color. Also called duplex printing.

resist printing

Printing similar to resist dyeing. In resist printing, the fabric is coated with a paste that protects it from colors in certain areas.

roller printing

Roller printing may be the most important method of printing today. The design is etched onto a toller through which the fabric is passed. For each color in the design a different toller is used. High speed can be obtained in toller printing.

screen printing

In screen printing, a sheer fabric, such as silk or nylon gauze, is stretched over a wood or metal frame to form a screen. The entire screen, except for the design area to be printed, is coated with a substance that closes the pores of the fabric screen. The dye is poured onto the screen and forced through the uncoated design areas onto the fabric below. A different screen must be used for each cotor in the print.

shadow printing

A printing method in which only the warp yarns are printed with a design before the fabric is woven. ""fhe resulting fabric has a wavy, shadowy effect. It is also called warp printing.

stencil printing

A type of resist printing where portions of the design are covered with metal or wood so the covered parts do not take the dye. See printing and resist printing.

sublistatic printing

A technique in which the design, printed on rolls of paper, is pressed against the fabric. When heat is applied, the design is transferred to the fabric.

warp printing

A printing method in which only the warp yarns are printed with a design before the fabric is woven. A hazy, grayed effect is produced. The resulting fabric has a wavy, shadowy effect. lt is also called shadow printing.

block printing

A hand-printing process in which a design is carved on a block of wood or linoleum. Dye is placed on the surface and the block is placed on the fabric, thereby transferring the dye. Every color requires a different block, making this type of printing tedious and expensive. It is now almost entirely limited to the craft field. See printing.

burn-out printing

Burn-out printing describes a process in which a fabric consisting of two different fibers is treated with chemicals partly take away one fiber to create a structure on the surface of the fabric. For example, sculptured velvet is produced with this method.

calico

A smooth-surfaced, plain weave cloth. Today, the term is almost always applied to fabric with bright, sharply contrasting, usually small-print designs. Calico is usually woven, although calico prints may appear on knits. Calico is a traditionally popular fabric for patchwork. It is also used for dresses, sportswear, and aprons.

chalfis

One of the softest fabrics made, it is named for the AngloIndian term shalee, meaning soft. lt is a fine, light-weight, plain-weave fabric, usually made of wool, cotton, or man-made fibers. Challis was traditionally printed with vivid floral patterns on dark grounds or with paisley designs, but now is produced in darker tones of allover prints and solid colors, in the finest quality fabrics. lt is normally used for neckties, dresses, blouses, scarves, bed jackets, and infants sacques.

chambray

(1) A plain-woven fabric with an almost square count (80x76), a colored warp, and a white filling, that gives a mottled, colored surface. The fabric is named for Cambrai, France, where it was first made for sunbonnets. Although chambray is traditionally woven, the look itself is so popular it is imitated in knitting. It is similar in appearance to denim but much lighter in weight. It is used for womens and childrens summer dresses and mens shirts. (2) A cotton print cloth made of yarn-dyed yarns that can also be woven in patterns and woven in stripes. (3) A similar but carded-yarn fabric used for work clothes and childrens play clothes. See denim.

check

A check is any small, regular pattern of squares woven or knitted into, or printed on, a fabric. See types of checks following.

gingham check

Regular check in which the design is woven so that, in a red and white checked gingham, for example, there are squares of solid red, squares of solid white, and squares of white warp and red filling, as well as squares with red warp and white filling. Gingham checks are also printed on woven and knitted fabrics, and are knitted into some fabrics by means of a Jacquard attachment.

overcheck

A design in which one check is woven or printed over another of a different size. Glen checks are overchecks.

chine

This French word, meaning speckled, is used for fabrics in which the warp threads are printed before weaving whereas the filling threads are left plain, giving a shadowy effect to the finished fabric.

chintz

Any closely woven, plain-weave, glazed cotton and blends of polyestercotton fabric, often printed in bright designs, which are most often floral. It is used for draperies, slipcovers, bedspreads, upholstery, and now mens and boys shirts, and ladies and girls dresses.

cretonne

A plain-weave, carded cotton fabric, usually printed with large designs. Cretonne is unglazed, and is used for draperies, slipcovers, and other home furnishings.

discharge printing

A method of obtaining light designs on a very dark ground. The fabric is piece dyed first, then the color is discharged or bleached in spots, leaving white designs in a pattern. An additional step is often the roller printing of these design areas with patterns and colors. See dyeing.

duplex printing

A method of printing the same design on both sides of the fabric to give the design additional definition and clarity of color. Also called register printing.

foulard

A lightweight, soft, plain- or twill-weave fabric made of silk, mercerized cotton, rayon, acetate, or thin worsted wool. Foulard has a high luster on the face and dull on the reverse side. It is often printed, and the patterns range from simple polka dots to small, allover elaborate designs on light or dark grounds. It is also made in plain and solid colors. Foulard has a characteristic hand that can be described as light, firm, and supple. It is used for spring and summer dresses, scarves, robes, and neckties, and frequently sold as surah.

hand-blocked print

Fabrics printed by hand with blocks made of wood or linoleum.

heat transfer

A form of printing in which elaborate colors and designs are printed onto a special type of paper. The paper is placed over the fabric and the designs and colors are transferred to the fabric through the application of heat.

Indian muslin

Muslin is the name for a very large group of plain-weave fabrics originally made of cotton. Most muslin used for purposes other than sheets is unbleached, which means that bits of trash, usually appearing as brown flecks, add color to the fabric. Occasionally, unbleached muslin becomes popular in fashion, even for wedding gowns. Indian muslin is a very fine muslin from India, often printed with gold and silver and is an expensive luxury fabric. See muslin, trash, and flecks

lawn

A light, well-hackled linen fabric first made in haon, France. Now, it is a lightweight, fairly sheer, fine, plain-weave cotton or linen muslin fabric generally more sheer and with a higher count than nainsook. It can be given a soft or crisp finish and is sized and calendered to produce a soft, lustrous appearance. Linen lawn is synonymous with handkerchief linen. Cotton lawn is a similar type of fabric. Lawn is slightly stiffer than batiste, but can be used for similar purposes. [t is white, solid colored, or printed and is used tot dresses, blouses, curtains, lingerie, and as a base for embroidered items. See batiste, nainsook, and handkerchief linen.

loom-figured fabrics

Fabrics that have the design or pattern woven or knitted in as opposed to those which, for instance, have patterns printed on finished cloth.

quilt

A fabric construction, usually thinner and less resilient than a comforter, most often used as a bed covering for added warmth. It consists of a layer of printed cotton muslin fabric, known as the quitt top, and backing fabric, also made of printed or solid cotton muslin fabric, with a layer of cotton, wool, or synthetic batting between. All three layers are sewn together with fine quilting (running) stitches that usually create a design of its own. Quilted bed coverings filled with down feathers are called eiderdowns or comforters. A patchwork quitt has a patchwork quitt top. See quilting, patchwark, and batting.

register printing

A method of printing the same design on both sides of the fabric to give it additional definition and clarity of color. Also called duplex printing.

resist printing

Printing similar to resist dyeing. In resist printing, the fabric is coated with a paste that protects it from colors in certain areas.

roller printing

Roller printing may be the most important method of printing today. The design is etched onto a toller through which the fabric is passed. For each color in the design a different toller is used. High speed can be obtained in toller printing.

screen printing

In screen printing, a sheer fabric, such as silk or nylon gauze, is stretched over a wood or metal frame to form a screen. The entire screen, except for the design area to be printed, is coated with a substance that closes the pores of the fabric screen. The dye is poured onto the screen and forced through the uncoated design areas onto the fabric below. A different screen must be used for each cotor in the print.

shadow printing

A printing method in which only the warp yarns are printed with a design before the fabric is woven. ""fhe resulting fabric has a wavy, shadowy effect. It is also called warp printing.

stencil printing

A type of resist printing where portions of the design are covered with metal or wood so the covered parts do not take the dye. See printing and resist printing.

structural design

A woven-in pattern as opposed to one printed on a fabric.

sublistatic printing

A technique in which the design, printed on rolls of paper, is pressed against the fabric. When heat is applied, the design is transferred to the fabric.

taffeta

A fine, yarn-dyed, closely woven, plain-weave, smooth on both sides, stiffened fabric with a crisp feel and a sheen on its surface. Taffeta was originally made of silk, but is also made of rayon, cotton, acetate, or other man-made fibers. lt is named for the Persian fabric "taftan". The rustle of silk taffeta is called scroop, and it may be a solid color, printed or woven so that the colors appear iridescent. A list of the most common types of taffeta follows. lt is used for dresses, blouses, ribbons, draperies, bedspreads, and curtains. See scroop.

textiles converter

A business that buys unfinished fabrics, has them bleached, printed, and finished by another business specializing in particular types of finishes, then sells the end product.

ticking

A broad term for extremely strong woven fabrics which are used as a covering for pillows, mattresses, and box springs, home-furnishings, and for work clothes and sports clothes. lt is a heavy, tightly woven carded cotton fabric usually in a pattern of alternately woven stripes in the warp, Jacquard or dobby designs, or printed patterns. lt is usually twill but may be sateen weave. When ticking is used in clothing, striped ticking with narrow woven stripes is usually most popular. Red and white, black and white, and navy and white are the most popular ticking color combinations.

toile

The French word for cloth. Toile is also a woven fabric that has been printed, usually in one color only, with a scenic design. This is occasionally called turle de Jouy. lt is most commonly found in home furnishings fabrics. Toile is also used in the field of expensive designer clothing where the word is used to describe a fabric pattern for a garment.

Toile de Jouy

Cotton fabric printed in pictorial designs. The original toile was printed by Oberkampf in 1759 at Jouy, France. lt is used for draperies and bedspreads. See toile.

dish towel

One of the few textile products which is still made of linen (occasionally they are made of cotton or even paper). Dish towels are used for hand-drying dishes after washing. Many linen dish towels are made in Ireland and printed with colorful pictures. llish towels can also be made of terry cloth and huck toweling. See terry cloth and huck.

unbleached muslin

A cotton plain-weave printcloth fabric in grey goods and lightweight sheetings, used for ironing board covers, dust covers, and dust cloths.

faconne velvet

A cut velvet made by the burnout method of printing. See cut velvet, printing, and burn-out printing.

velvet rug

A floor covering woven on a plain harness loom with Cut pile. It has solid color or printed pile.

voile

A sheer, transparent, low-count, crisp or soft, lightweight, plain-weave muslin with a thready feel, made of highly twisted yarns. lt can be comprised of wool, cotton, silk, rayon, polyester, or other man-made fibers. Voile is especially popular when made of cotton or blends for summer wear and is often printed to match heavier fabrics. Voile is used for clothing, especially for blouses and summer dresses, and for curtains and similar items.

warp printing

A printing method in which only the warp yarns are printed with a design before the fabric is woven. A hazy, grayed effect is produced. The resulting fabric has a wavy, shadowy effect. lt is also called shadow printing.

yarn dyed

Yarn dyed fabrics are dyed before the finishing of the fabric. Yarn dyed fabrics are considered more colorfast than piece dyed or printed fabrics.