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placemat

A piece of cloth or other material (often foam-backed plastic) placed on a table between the table and the place setting to protect the table and to decorate it during meals. Placemats are available in a variety of sizes, shapes, and colors.

mat

Another spelling for matte. See matte.

matelasse

A soft double or compound fabric with a quilted appearance. One of the fabrics that, like cloque, has a blistered or quilted look to the design. Officially, the word matelasse implies the use of two different yarns that, when finished, react differently to the finishing resulting in a puckered effect in the fabric. In practice, the term matelasse is usually applied to luxury fabrics for evening wear, while a word such as cloque is used for a similar fabric made from cotton. The heavier type is used in draperies and upholstery, whereas crepe matelasse is popular in dresses, semiformal and formal suits and wraps, and trimmings.

material

Another word for fabric. See fabric.Fibers 1 to 11 long

matte

A dull surface on a fabric. Since one of the characteristics of fabrics made from man-made fibers is a shiny surface, mattefinished fabrics have become popular and matte looks for man-made fabrics are achieved in yarn processing or finishing. See finishing.

monochromatic scheme

The use of a combination of different shades of one color.

aramid

A chemical man-made fiber. A class of aromatic polyamide fiber that differs from nylons polyamide fiber.

batting

Batting is usually stocked in linens and domestics departments although it is used today primarily for crafts. Batting is a filling material used to stuff pillows, toys, and quilts. At one time, batting was made of cotton

biconstituent fiber

Biconstituent fiber is made by mixing two different man-made generic fiber materials together in their fluid stage. Afterwards they are forced through a spinneret.

bleaching

A basic finishing process to whiten fabrics. Different chemicals are used for different fabrics. Sun, air, and moisture are good bleaches for some materials, although bleaching by this method is slower.

bonding

A process of joining two or more layers of cloth with a layer of adhesive, or pressing fibers into thin webs or mats held together by adhesive, plastic, or self-bonding that melts when heat is applied.Nonwoven fabrics are made in this way. The term occasionally is used as a synonym for laminating, but this is technically incorrect

bunting

A loosely woven fabric used primarily for flags and draping. Bunting used in public places must be flameproof. Bunting is also a term used to describe a simple rectangular square of material in which a baby is wrapped for warmth.

Canton flannel

Canton flanell is a heavy and warm cotton material. While it has a twilled surface there is a long soft nap on the back. It is named for Canton because thats where it was first made. Canton flanell is strong and absorbent.

cloque

Term used to describe a fabric with a raised effect Jacquard, usually knitted from two colors, and often used interchangeably with matelasse and blister. Cotton cloque is frequently popular for summer dress and jacket or coat costumes.

fiber

The basic unit used in the fabrication of textile yarns and fabrics. Fibers are much longer than they are wide. The term at one time was limited to materials that could be spun into yarn, but now is used to include filaments that do not require spinning, such as silk and man-made fibers.

interlining

A tayer of fabric placed between the outer fabric and the lining of the garment to add warmth. lt is most commonly found in coats and jackets. Interlinings are offen made of reprocessed wool, but other materials such as polyester fiberfill may be used. See fiberfill, reprocessed wool.

khaki

A term used for both an earth color or olive green color (yellow-brown color with a greenish tint) and for fabrics made in these colors, whether of wool, cotton, linen, or man-made fibers. Khaki is a classic uniform color and material. It is also used for sportswear and leisure clothes.

Cluny lace

A heavy lace, often made of thick cotton or man-made fibers using the bobbin method. It is the traditional lace for doilies and place mats, but is also used in apparel. See bobbin lace.

limp fabric

A fabric that is too soft because of inadequate amounts or improper application of finishing materials.

napkin

A rectangular piece of fabric or paper used to wipe the mouth and hands in the course of eating. Napkins are often matched to the tablecloth or placernats.

pillowcase

Pillowcases are washable covers for bed pillows that usually match the sheets and protect the pillow from soil. Most American pillowcases are made in a rectangular form with one open, hemmed edge. They occasionally are decorated on one of the narrower ends.

placemat

A piece of cloth or other material (often foam-backed plastic) placed on a table between the table and the place setting to protect the table and to decorate it during meals. Placemats are available in a variety of sizes, shapes, and colors.

runner

A rectangular piece of fabric used with placemats to decorate and protect the dining table. It is placed in the center of the table under condiments (salt, pepper, mustard) and any decorations such as flowers or candles. Runners frequently match the placemats and are also used on chests of drawers to protect the top from spills.

loop

Any material (braid, fabric, and so forth) that is shaped into an oval and topstitched to a garment or encased into a seam and used as a buttonhole.

lounge wear

Intimate apparel that includes robes, housecoats, and bed jackets.

marabou

Short, fluffy feathers now taken from domesticated fowl, usually dyed to match the garments on which they are used as trimming. They were originally taken from the stork.

mat

Another spelling for matte. See matte.

matelasse

A soft double or compound fabric with a quilted appearance. One of the fabrics that, like cloque, has a blistered or quilted look to the design. Officially, the word matelasse implies the use of two different yarns that, when finished, react differently to the finishing resulting in a puckered effect in the fabric. In practice, the term matelasse is usually applied to luxury fabrics for evening wear, while a word such as cloque is used for a similar fabric made from cotton. The heavier type is used in draperies and upholstery, whereas crepe matelasse is popular in dresses, semiformal and formal suits and wraps, and trimmings.

matte

A dull surface on a fabric. Since one of the characteristics of fabrics made from man-made fibers is a shiny surface, mattefinished fabrics have become popular and matte looks for man-made fabrics are achieved in yarn processing or finishing. See finishing.

mineral fibers

Textile raw material obtained from minerals in the earth, such as asbestos, silver, gold, copper, and the like.

moisture regain

The moisture in a material determined under prescribed conditions and expressed as a percentage of the weight of the moisture-free specimen.

moleskin finish

A cotton fleece lined with close, soft, thick nap that is used in underwear for cold climates.

muff

A tube of fur, wool, or velvet covering used to warm the hands outdoors. It is occasionally supplied as a matching accessory with an outerwear costume.

multicomponent fabric

A fabric in which at least two layers of material are sealed together by an adhesive.

resiliency

The ability of a fabric to return to its original shape after compressing, bending, or other deformation

roller blinds

Shades wound around a toller or dowel when the window is exposed. Originally made only in neutral colors, today these shades often are made in colors or matched and coordinated with the draperies in a room.

rya rug

A Scandinavian shag rug. Rya rugs are popular in the United States as area rugs because of their dramatic color combinations. The highest quality rya rugs, also quite expensive, are hand-knotted.

saturation regain

The moisture in a material at 95% or % relative humidity.

Koller blinds

Koller blinds are shades wound around a roller or dowel when the window is exposed. Originally made only in neutral colors, today these shades often are made in colors or matched and coordinated with the draperies in a room.

sheet

A rectangular piece of fabric used to cover and protect the top and sides of a mattress. This is usually referred to as a bottom sheet. A top sheet is placed on top of a bottom sheet to protect the skin from a sometimes scratchy blanket and to protect the blanket from soil. Traditionally, sheets were made of linen or cotton.

shoddy

Originally, a fabric made from reprocessed wool. Today, the word is used for a fabric - or anything else, for that matter - that is poorly made or made of inferior materials. See reprocessed fibers and reused wool.

spinneret

A spinneret, which looks very much like a showerhead (a jet or nozzle containing very fine holes), is used in the manufacture of man-made fibers. The material from which the fibers are forrned is forced through holes in the spinneret (extruded) while it is in a syrupy or melted state. The resulting long strands harden into filament fibers. See filament and fiber.

spinning

A method of drawing out and twisting together fibers to make a continuous thread or yarn. Spinning also refers to the manufacture of man-rnade fibers as they are formed by fcucing the material from which they are rnade through a spinneret. In conventional spinning, the tighter the twist, the stronger the yarn, but too tight a twist can weaken the final yarn. Crepe yarns have such an extremely high twist that the yarn actually turns back on itself (kinks), producing the characteristic crepe or corksc_rew look. Pabrics can be given shadow effects by the Lise of two yarns which have been twisted in opposite directions during spinning. This will strike each of these yarns in a different way producing this effect. See spinneret.

straw

A fairly stiff material made from the stems, leaves, bark, or stalks of various plants. It is usually braided or woven to form a fabric. Straw is used in large quantities for hats when they are in style. Most straw today is used for baskets and handbags of various kinds. Chip straw is used almost exclusively for baskets. It is a by-product of the lumber industry and is made from chips and other pieces of wood, including shavings. Leghorn straw is a braided straw popular for hats and is made from wheat grown in Italy. Panarna, another braided hat straw, is made from the screw pine. Other types of straw include Bangkok, linen (straw made to resembie woverr linen), Milan, ramie, sisal (used for rugs and ropes), toyo, and Tuscan.

blazer stripes

Types of stripes originally used on jackets, ultimately calted blazers, because of the bright blaring colors used in the stripes. Blazer stripes are usually at least 1 wide and are vividly colored.

stuff

Another name for fabric. Any braided, felted, woven, knitted, or nonwoven material, including cloth, hosiery, and lace. Stuff is also referred to as cloth, material, and goods.

ticking

A broad term for extremely strong woven fabrics which are used as a covering for pillows, mattresses, and box springs, home-furnishings, and for work clothes and sports clothes. lt is a heavy, tightly woven carded cotton fabric usually in a pattern of alternately woven stripes in the warp, Jacquard or dobby designs, or printed patterns. lt is usually twill but may be sateen weave. When ticking is used in clothing, striped ticking with narrow woven stripes is usually most popular. Red and white, black and white, and navy and white are the most popular ticking color combinations.

welting

Welting is a decorative edging. It gives strength to the area in which it is sewn. Welting is made by covering cord with bias strips of matching or contrasting fabric. lt is a popular finish for seams on upholstery. Occasionally is used on clothing, too. Welting is the same as piping.

tuft

A bunch of yarns or threads forced through a quilt, mattress, or upholstery to secure the stuffing. See quilt.

tufting

A brush-like button of clipped cotton yarn that appears at regular intervals on mattresses. Also, the most common method for making rugs. Groups of yarns are forced through a backing fabric. The yarns are held in place permanently when the underside of the rug is coated, often with liquid latex.

unbalanced plaid

An unbalanced plaid is one in which the arrangement of the stripes is different on the crosswise and lengthwise grain of the fabric. In constructing a garment of this type special care must be taken in matching the plaid design.

valance

A decorative fabric or board installed across the top of a window or a top for curtains or draperies. lt is usually hung from a rod and made of fahric or fabric over a stiffening material, such as buckram. A valance differs from a ruffle in that it is absolutely flat. See buckram, trimming, and ruffle.

Velcro

A burr-like fastening device with one side made of a velvet-like material and the other of small stiff hooks. This fastening can be used for clothing and home furnishing items.

voile

A sheer, transparent, low-count, crisp or soft, lightweight, plain-weave muslin with a thready feel, made of highly twisted yarns. lt can be comprised of wool, cotton, silk, rayon, polyester, or other man-made fibers. Voile is especially popular when made of cotton or blends for summer wear and is often printed to match heavier fabrics. Voile is used for clothing, especially for blouses and summer dresses, and for curtains and similar items.

water softener

A chemical compound added to the rinse water or to the soap and the rinse water if the water is very hard. Its purpose is to prevent the formation of soap film that tends to gray the fabric.

weighting

Finishing materials applied to a fabric to give increased weight.

yarn

A generic term for a continuous strand spun from a group of natural or synthetic staple fibers (short lengths of fibers), filaments (long lengths), or other materials twisted or laid together for use in weaving, knitting, or some other method of intertwining to form textile fabrics.