chemical finishing processes

Treatments with alkalies, acids, bleaches, starch, resins, and the like.

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finishing

"An overall term that usually refers to all processes, with the exception of coloring, to make fabric more acceptable (some experts also include coloring). Much of the look, feel, and behavior of a fab ric is determined by the finishing steps taken. Finishing can be mechanical (as in calendering) or chemical, or both. Special treatments are applied to fabrics during finishing to make them perform better, shrink less, resist flarnes, and repel water. Calendering refers to a process in which the fabric is passed through heated cylinders. This gives the fabric a lustrous surface and can also emboss it. Another important step in finishing, and usually the final process, is tentering
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bleaching

A basic finishing process to whiten fabrics. Different chemicals are used for different fabrics. Sun, air, and moisture are good bleaches for some materials, although bleaching by this method is slower.

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bulking

A yarn finishing process in which the yarn is made thicker or “bulkier” by heat setting crimp into the filaments or by looping individual fibers with an air jet. Bulking gives yarn and fabrics a less shiny, fluffier appearance. Bulking is often used in making sweater yarns.

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calendering

Calendering is a term for the finishing process for fabrics that produces a shiny and smooth surface. The cloth is passed through recessed and heated cylinder rolls by running it through a friction or glazing calender.

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cire

An extremely shiny, glossy surface given to fabrics as part of the finishing process. Cire fabrics have a much higher shine than glazed fabrics and are usually somewhat slippery.

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conditioning

A finishing process of sizing a fabric after dyeing to give it a hand.

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finishing

"An overall term that usually refers to all processes, with the exception of coloring, to make fabric more acceptable (some experts also include coloring). Much of the look, feel, and behavior of a fab ric is determined by the finishing steps taken. Finishing can be mechanical (as in calendering) or chemical, or both. Special treatments are applied to fabrics during finishing to make them perform better, shrink less, resist flarnes, and repel water. Calendering refers to a process in which the fabric is passed through heated cylinders. This gives the fabric a lustrous surface and can also emboss it. Another important step in finishing, and usually the final process, is tentering
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glazing

A finishing process consisting of treating the fabric with glue, starch, paraffin, shellac, or resin, then moving it through hot fric­tion rollers.

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heat setting

Although practices similar to heat setting are used in the finishing of almost all fabrics, the term heat setting, strictly speak­ing, refers only to thermoplastic man-made fibers. Because of the thermoplastic nature of most man-made fibers (they change their shape when heat is applied), certain features, such as pleats, can be made permanent by treating them under very high heat. Heat set­ting usually gives a smooth appearance to a fabric and sets its final measurements. Boarding, a process in the rnanufacture of stockings, is a type of heat setting.

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limp fabric

A fabric that is too soft because of inadequate amounts or improper application of finishing materials.

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linsey-woolsey

When linen and wool were woven to­gether in the 18th century, the resulting coarse, loosely woven, and rather scratchy fabric, was called linsey-woolsey. Although linen and wool blends are occasionally made today, the use of finer finishing techniques makes them extremely comfortable and the name linsey-woolsey is limited to historical references.

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loom finished

A term referring to certain fabrics soid without most of the steps mentioned in the entry under finishing. Loom finished fabrics are relatively rare because the consumer has grown accustomed to finished fabrics. See finishing.

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matelasse

A soft double or compound fabric with a quilted appearance. One of the fabrics that, like cloque, has a blistered or quilted look to the design. Officially, the word matelasse implies the use of two different yarns that, when finished, react differently to the finishing resulting in a puckered effect in the fabric. In practice, the term matelasse is usually applied to luxury fabrics for evening wear, while a word such as cloque is used for a similar fabric made from cotton. The heavier type is used in draperies and upholstery, whereas crepe matelasse is popular in dresses, semiformal and formal suits and wraps, and trimmings.

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matte

A dull surface on a fabric. Since one of the characteristics of fabrics made from man-made fibers is a shiny surface, mattefinished fabrics have become popular and matte looks for man-made fabrics are achieved in yarn processing or finishing. See finishing.

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mechanical finishes

Those finishing processes done by copper plates, roller brushes, perforated cylinders, tenter frames, or any type of mechanical equipment.

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mildew resistant

Among the many properties that can be given to fabrics in the finishing is resistance to traditional enemies. Waterproofed fabrics and fabrics treated with metallic com pounds and certain organic compounds will resist mildew. Fabrics such as canvas, that are exposed to the damp conditions that encourage the growth of mildew fungus, can be treated with finishes to resist this fungus, making them mildew resistant. See finishing.

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moire

A wavy, rippling pattern similar to a watermark produced in the finishing of certain fabrics by calendering, usually on a ribbed tex tile fabric. On acetate, moire made this way is permanent.
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moireing

A finishing process by engraved rollers that produces a waved or watered effect on a textile fabric. Design is permanent when heat-set.

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moth repellency

An example of the desirable quaIities that can be given to fabrics in the finishing process. Some fabrics are treated with colorless chemicals, similar to dyestuffs, added to the dye bath. Another method atomizes the fabric with mothproofing chemicals. Fabrics that attract moths, such as woolens, can be treated for repellency. The treatment also repels other insects, such as carpet beetles. Wool rugs are almost always treated for moth repellency today.

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resin finish

A finish made of synthetic awsins applied to fabrics to irnpart certain characteristics such as wrinkle and crease resistance. See finishing.

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scouring

A finishing process for removing oil, sizing, dirt, grease, and swint from wool and other fabrics.

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shrinkage-controlled fabric

Fabric treated in some way to prevent it from shrinking more than a specified amount. Unfortunately, the term shrinkage-controlled is an arbitrary standard and varies from rnanufacturer to manufacturer and gives the consumer no true measure of quality. Shrinkage-control is usually achieved by shrinking the fabric in the finishing steps or by the addition of finishing agents to the fabric.

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silicone

Generic name for certain compounds obtained, from silicon, a component of sand. Silicones are used in fabric fin­ishing to impart stain and wrinkle resistance. See finishing.

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sizing

Starch, gelatin, glue, wax, casein, or clay added to fabrics in the finishing stages to give fabric additional body, a smoother appearance, and more weight. Cotton fabrics are those most commonly treated in this manner. At one time, sizing had to be replaced after each cleaning. Today, with more advanced finishing techniques, sizing is rarely used and fabrics usually retain their initial appearance through cleaning. A few fabrics such as needlepoint canvas are still sized so that they can be handled more easily. This in no way affects their final performance. Sizing also refers to the starch that is applied to the warp yarns to help prevent abrasion during the weaving process. This sizing is usually removed from the fabric in one of the finishing steps.

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stretch fibers

Rubber or man-made plastik fibers (such as spandex and anidex) that are naturally elastic or man-rnade fibers, highly twisted, heat-set, and untwisted to leave a strong crimp. Polyester has a certain degree ol natural streich and more can iue given to the yarn in the processing or in the finishing of the fabric. Occasionally, polyester woven fabrics are described as stretch fabrics. Usually, stretch implies a degree of visible give in a fiber or fabric that stretches and then returns quickly to its original shape. Stretch fabrics are sometirnes described as elastic. Sec elastic, crimp, and recovery. See also spandex and anidex.

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tentering

A fabric finishing step in which the fabric is stretched on a frame to its finishecf width and final shape, then dried to maintain these dimensions.

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weighted silk

Fabric in which metallic salts have been added in the dyeing and finishing to increase its weight and to give a heavier hand. A ruling requires weighted silk to be marked and the amount of weighting indicated.

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weighting

Finishing materials applied to a fabric to give increased weight.

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wet decating

A finishing process to add luster to wooI fabrics.

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yarn dyed

Yarn dyed fabrics are dyed before the finishing of the fabric. Yarn dyed fabrics are considered more colorfast than piece dyed or printed fabrics.

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