bast fiber

Bast fiber is the name for a Fiber between the pithy center of the stem and the skin. Examples are flax, jute, hemp, and ramie.

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bicomponent fiber

A bicomponent fiber consists of two filaments of the same generic class but different composition which have been extruded simultaneously. This results in a continuous-filament man-made fiber composed of two related components, each having a different degree of shrinkage.

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biconstituent fiber

Biconstituent fiber is made by mixing two different man-made generic fiber materials together in their fluid stage. Afterwards they are forced through a spinneret.

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cellulosic fibers

Cellulosic fibers are fibers consisting of cellulose.

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fiber

The basic unit used in the fabrication of textile yarns and fabrics. Fibers are much longer than they are wide. The term at one time was limited to materials that could be spun into yarn, but now is used to include filaments that do not require spinning, such as silk and man-made fibers.

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glass fiber

Very fine flexible fiber made from glass. It. is used extensively for curtains and draperies. Glass fiber fabrics are very strong and wash well, but care should be taken to avoid getting small splinters of the glass yarns in the hands. Glass fiber is stiff and has poor resis­tance to wear and abrasion. It is also fireproof. See fireproof.

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man-made fibers

An overall term referring to all fibers not found naturally. This includes rayon and acetate made from cellulose, a natural product. The term synthetic fibers also ap plies only to man-made fibers made entirely in the laboratory from such things as petroleum (polyester).

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mineral fibers

Textile raw material obtained from minerals in the earth, such as asbestos, silver, gold, copper, and the like.

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modified acetate fibers

Fibers that are stretched and then treated with alkali.

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modified cellulose fibers

Cotton fibers treated with caustic soda to give strength, increased luster, and improved affinity for dye. Modification of a fiber changes its physical and chemical properties within the limits of a generic family.

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modified fibers

Fibers that are treated to eliminate charactetistics considered undesirable and to add characteristics considered desirable. Some treatments improve a fiber’s ability to take dye, whereas others give a fiber stretch it does not naturally have.

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modified rayon fibers

Chemical treatment while fibers are in the plastic state to give them high tenacity (high strength). Changes in the molecular structure of the fiber have been made.

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redaimed textile fibers

Fibers made into fabric (whether sold comrnercially or not) and then converted back into fiber. Most reclaimed textile fibers are wool and other natural fibers because it is extremely difficult to reclaim man-made fibers. See reprocessed fibers and reused fibers.

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recycled fiber

See reclaimed textile fibers, reprocessed fiber, and reused fiber.

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reprocessed fibers

Fibers obtained from scraps and clips of woven and felted fabrics made of previously urmsed woot that have been shredded back into fiber form and then remade into new yarns. Reprocessed fibers are usually wool fibers and must be relabeled as reprocessed wool according to Federal Trade Commission standards. Reprocessed fibers are less desirable than new or virgin fibers. See virgin Fiber.

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specialty fibers

Hair fibers from various breeds of goats and camels. Also included are cow- and horsehair, fur from rabbits, and feathers of the duck, goose, and ostrich.

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spun fiber yarn

(1) A yarn twisted by spinning. (2) Yarn made from staple lengths of man-made fibers instead of the long fiIaments in which man-made fibers are formed. To accomplish this, long filament fibers are chopped into staple lengths and spun to imitate natural fiber yarns. See filament arrd staple.

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stretch fibers

Rubber or man-made plastik fibers (such as spandex and anidex) that are naturally elastic or man-rnade fibers, highly twisted, heat-set, and untwisted to leave a strong crimp. Polyester has a certain degree ol natural streich and more can iue given to the yarn in the processing or in the finishing of the fabric. Occasionally, polyester woven fabrics are described as stretch fabrics. Usually, stretch implies a degree of visible give in a fiber or fabric that stretches and then returns quickly to its original shape. Stretch fabrics are sometirnes described as elastic. Sec elastic, crimp, and recovery. See also spandex and anidex.

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synthetic fiber

A man-made textile fiber derived from natural bases or produced by chemical synthesis. These chemicals were never fibrous in form.
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virgin fibers

Fibers never made into fabric before. The term is used primarily for wool fibers to differentiate between these and reclaimed, repro cessed, and reused fibers. See reprocessed fibers, reclaimed fibers, and reused fibers.

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acetate

A organic and chemical fiber. Acetate is a blend of cellulose and acetic acid that has been hardened. Solution and spun-dyed acetates are colorfast against sunlight, perspiration, and air pollution. Acetate is often used for luxurious fabrics because its appearance is similar to silk. It is mixed occasionally with other fibers to give additional gloss and lower the cost.

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acrylic

The generic name of fibers made from acrylic granulate, which comes from coal, air, water, petroleum, and limestone. The quota of acrylonitrile units has to be at least 85% for a fiber to be called acrylic. Acrylic is light in weight for the warmth it gives and is very popular for blankets or as a substitute for wool.

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acrylonitrile

The chemical composition from which acrylic fiber is made. It results from the reaction of ethylene oxide and hydrocyanic acid.

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aloe lace

A bobbin or tatted lace made from aloe plant (i.e. agave) fibers.

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aramid

A chemical man-made fiber. A class of aromatic polyamide fiber that differs from nylon’s polyamide fiber.

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asbestos

A mineral fiber that is nonmetallic. Its greatest virtue is that it is nonflammable. It is used in combination with other fibers for theater curtains and in industrial clothing where flameproofing is essential. Asbestos is often used to make ironing board covers and potholders..

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azlon

This term describes manufactured fibers made from regenerated natural proteins, such as casein, zein, soybean, and peanut. In a mixture with other fibers it gives the fabric a soft feeling.

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baize

Loosely woven fabric, normally made of cotton or wool, which nowadays also can contain other fibers. Originally used for school bags or as covers for the doors leading to servants’ quarters in England. Baize is used for industrial purposes as well.

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bast fiber

Bast fiber is the name for a Fiber between the pithy center of the stem and the skin. Examples are flax, jute, hemp, and ramie.

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Bedford cloth

Bedford cloth is a strong woven fabric with lengthwise ribs. Normally used for upholstery and riding breeches and may be made of any fiber.

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Bedford cord

Bedford cord is a durable cloth with lengthwise ribs made of cotton, wool, silk, rayon, or combination fibers. Mainly used for outer garments or Sportswear.

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bicomponent fiber

A bicomponent fiber consists of two filaments of the same generic class but different composition which have been extruded simultaneously. This results in a continuous-filament man-made fiber composed of two related components, each having a different degree of shrinkage.

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biconstituent fiber

Biconstituent fiber is made by mixing two different man-made generic fiber materials together in their fluid stage. Afterwards they are forced through a spinneret.

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billiard doth

Billiard cloth is the cloth used on billiard tables. It is always dyed green. This is traditionally a very fine twilled fabric consisting of quality wool. Nowadays also other fibers are used for billiard cloth.

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blended yarn

A strand of fibers produced from two or more constituent fibers that have been thoroughly mixed (blended) before spinning.

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bonding

A process of joining two or more layers of cloth with a layer of adhesive, or pressing fibers into thin webs or mats held together by adhesive, plastic, or self-bonding that melts when heat is applied.Nonwoven fabrics are made in this way. The term occasionally is used as a synonym for laminating, but this is technically incorrect

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boucle yarn

Boucle yarn is a rough, quite thick and slubby linen yarn that is characterized by tight loops projecting from the body of the yarn with regular intervals. It is a novelty yarn often mixed with yarns of other fibers for textural interest. Boucle yarn is very popular because there are many varieties and weights.

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bright yarns

Bright yarns are high luster yarns made of rayon or acetate fibers.

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broadcloth

Although the term broadcloth originally meant any fabric made on a loom of a certain width, it now means a fine, tightly woven fabric with a faint rib. Originally, it was made of mercerized cotton, but today the term is used to describe several dissimilar fabrics made with different fibers, weaves, and finishes. (1) Originally, a silk shirting fabric so named because it was woven in widths exceeding the usual twenty-nine inches. (2) A plainweave, tightly woven, high-count cotton fabric, with fillingwise rib finer than poplin. Best grades are made of combed pima or Egyptian cotton, usually with high thread counts (136x60 or 144x76). The fabrics are usually mercerized, sanforized, and given a soft lustrous finish, and are used for women’s blouses, tailored summer dresses, and men’s shirts. (3) A closely woven, medium-weight wool cloth with a smooth nap, velvety feel, and lustrous appearance. Wool broadcloth can be made with a two-up-and-two-down twill weave or plain weave. In setting up a loom to make the fabric, the loom is threaded wide to allow for a large amount of shrinkage during the filling process. The fabric takes its name from this wide threading. High-quality wool broadcloth is fine enough for garments that are closely molded to the figure or draped. Its high-luster finish makes it an elegant cloth. Wool broadcloth is ten to sixteen ounces per yard and is now being made in chiffon weights. (4) A fabric made from silk or man-made filament fiber yarns and woven in a plain weave with a fine crosswise rib obtained by using a heavier filling than warp yarn.

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brocatelle

Brocatelle is a fabric similar to brocade but made of a Jacquard loom. It is used as drapery and upholstery fabric and made in double-cloth construction with a silk- or rayon-fibered face.

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bulking

A yarn finishing process in which the yarn is made thicker or “bulkier” by heat setting crimp into the filaments or by looping individual fibers with an air jet. Bulking gives yarn and fabrics a less shiny, fluffier appearance. Bulking is often used in making sweater yarns.

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burn-out printing

Burn-out printing describes a process in which a fabric consisting of two different fibers is treated with chemicals partly take away one fiber to create a structure on the surface of the fabric. For example, sculptured velvet is produced with this method.

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butcher’s linen

Strong, heavy, plain weave fabric, originally of linen (and originally worn by butchers), now made of any fiber.

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cambric

A closely woven, plain weave, white fabric that is finished with a slightly glossy surface. The fabric is traditionally made from cotton or linen, but can be made from any fiber. It was formerly used in underwear and handkerchiefs, but today its major uses are to reinforce book bindings and to upholster the underside of chairs and sofas. Very low count, heavily sized glazed cambric is used for costuming.

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camel’s hair

Camel’s hair comes from the soft lustrous underhair of the Bactrian, a two humped, pack-carrying species of camel. The fabric is fawn to brown in color. Because it is a luxury fabric and therefor very expensive, camel’s hair is nowadays very often blended with other fibers, sometimes sheep’s wool, sometime manmade acrylic fibers.

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canvas

A heavy, strong, usually plain weave fabric that historically was made of flax, hemp, or cotton. Today, it is usually made of cotton, but some fabrics made of man-made fibers or blends are also called canvas. Canvas is, roughly speaking, heavier than duck or sailcloth although the three names are often used interchangeably. The unbleached fabric is used for coat fronts, lapels, and linings of men’s suits. Hair canvas for interlinings is made of goat’s hair and wool. See duck and sailcloth.

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cashmere

Cashmere is the fine and soft undercoat hair of the cashmere goat which exists in Iran, India, Tibet, Mongolia, China and Iraq. Cashmere is one of the luxury fibers and today is usually blended with normal sheep’s wool or man-made fibers to reduce the cost. Another reason for the widespread blending is the fact that it makes the finished fabric more durable for original cashmere fabrics are quite sensible. It is mainly used for clothing.

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cellulose

The naturally occurring polymer (giant molecule) that forms the solid framework of plants. Cellulose from wood pulp is the base for rayon and acetate, both of which are man-made fibers. Cotton is more than ninety percent cellulose before it is cleaned (scoured). See cotton, rayon, and acetate.

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cellulosic fibers

Cellulosic fibers are fibers consisting of cellulose.

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chalfis

One of the softest fabrics made, it is named for the AngloIndian term shalee, meaning soft. lt is a fine, light-weight, plain-weave fabric, usually made of wool, cotton, or man-made fibers. Challis was traditionally printed with vivid floral patterns on dark grounds or with paisley designs, but now is produced in darker tones of allover prints and solid colors, in the finest quality fabrics. lt is normally used for neckties, dresses, blouses, scarves, bed jackets, and infants’ sacques.

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chenille

Chenille is a fabric consisting of wool, cotton, silk or artifical fibers. It is woven from blurry yarns or tufts. Usually it is a mix from chenille and normal textile yarns. While chenille is the filling, the other yarn is the warp. Chenille is a pile yarn originally made by weaving a pile fabric and subsequently cutting it into strips. Its main use is for draperies and bedspreads.

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chiffon

Chiffon is an extraordinary lightweight and thin crepe fabric. Originally, chiffon was made of silk, but today also wool, rayon, nylon and other fibers are used for the production of chiffon. It is an open weave with slightly twisted yarns and can have both, a soft or stiff finish. Chiffon is often used for dresses and scarves.

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China silk

China silk is a lightweight and soft fabric. This plain-weave silk fabric is used for lingerie and soft suits. Nowadays, China silk has been replaced almost completly with lining fabrics of man-made fibers.

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Coating

A term used to describe a fabric suitable for outerwear, such as coats, as in coating fabric. Also, something applied to a finished fiber or fabric, such as a rubber coating to make a fabric impervious to water. Coating suggests a thicker layer of the substance than does the word finish. A rubber-coated fabric is probably more resistant to water than one that has been treated with a water-resistant finish.

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corduroy

A ribbed, high-luster, cut-pile fabric with extra filling threads that form lengthwise ribs or wales. The rib has been sheared or woven to produce a smooth, velvet-like nap. The thread count varies from 46 x 116 to 70 x 250. Traditionally made of cotton, corduroy can be made of many different fibers, such as rayon and polyester blends. lt is used for dresses, coats, sports jackets, sports shirts, bathrobes, slacks, and draperies.

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cortex

Cortical cells in the wool fiber consisting of bundles of fibrils.

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cotton

A white or yellowish white vegetable fiber from a plant related to the hollyhock, and grown in the United States, Russia, China, India, and other countries. Cotton is the name of the fiber and also the fabric made from the fiber. Different types of cotton plants produce cotton of higher or lower quality, usually associated with staple length and fineness of the fiber. Certain names for these plants are occasionally seen in advertising-Sea Island, Egyptian, and Pima-to indicate quality of the fiber.

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cotton knits

Cotton knits are made by the same methods as other knits, although they often are of finer gauge than wool and man-made fiber knits. They are the traditional underwear fabric, but recently have become popular for shirts, dresses, and sportswear. Many cotton knits today include some man-made fiber to reduce shrinkage and give the knit greater stability.

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cotton linters

Cotton fibers that are too short for yarn or fabric manufacturing.

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crepe

A lightweight fabric of silk, rayon, cotton, wool, man-made, or blended fibers, and characterized by a crinkled surface. This surface is obtained through the use of crepe yarns (yarns that have such a high twist that the yarn kinks), and by chemical treatment with caustic soda, embossing, or weaving (usually with thicker warp yarns and thinner filling yarns). Although crepe is traditionally woven, crepe yarns are now used to produce knit crepes.

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crepe de Chine

Traditionally, a very sheer, pebbly, washable silk with the fabric degummed to produce crinkle. Today, it is a sheer, flat crepe in silk or man-made fibers. It is used for lingerie, dresses, and blouses.

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cross-dyeing

A method of coloring fabrics made from more than one kind of fiber, for example, a wool and cotton blend. Each fiber in a fabric designed for cross-dyeing takes a specific dye in a different color or in variations of a color. A fabric that is crossdyed is more than one color. Cross-dyeing is often used to create heather effects (soft, misty colorings), but strongly patterned fabrics can also be achieved, depending on the fibers used in the fabric.

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cultivated silk

Fibers from a silkworm that have had scientific care.

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damask

A glossy, heavy, firm-textured Jacquard weave fabric, similar to brocade, but lighter, with flat and reversible patterns. It is made of silk, linen, cotton, rayon or a combination of fibers in double or single damask. It is used for tablecloths, napkins, home furnishings, draperies and upholsteries, and occasionally clothing, such as afternoon and evening dresses.

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doupion

Silk that comes from the fiber formed by two silk worms who spun their cocoons together in an interlocking manner. The yarn is uneven, irregular, and larger than regular filaments. It is used to make shantung and doupioni. Also called douppioni, dupion, and dupioni.

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drill

A heavy, strong, durable twilled fabric of cotton or man-made fibers, similar to denim, that has a diagonal 2x1 weave running up to the left selvage. When strength of fabric is essential, drill is suitable for slacks, uniforms, overalls, and work shirts. See twill

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Egyptian cotton

A fine, long, staple cotton generally grown in Egypt along the Nile Delta. Egyptian cotton fibers average more than 1112 inches in length and produce a strong, lustrous yarn. See cotton.

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faille crepe

A silk, rayon, acetate, or other man-made fiber dress fabric with a decided wavy (crepe) cord fillingwise. It is used for negligees, blouses, daytime and evening dresses, handbags, and trims.

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fake fur

A slang term for pile fabrics and garments that imitate animal pelts. The most popular fake furs are probably those made from modacrylic fiber. See modacrylic and pile.

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felt

A nonwoven fabric or interlocked fiber made from wool, fur, and hair fibers that mesh together when heat, moisture, and mechanical action are applied. Processes of spinning, weaving, or knitting are not employed. The fibers develop a tight bond and will not ravel. Some percentage of wool is necessary in the manufacture of true felt to achieve the felted effect. It is used for coats, hats, and many industrial purposes.

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fiber

The basic unit used in the fabrication of textile yarns and fabrics. Fibers are much longer than they are wide. The term at one time was limited to materials that could be spun into yarn, but now is used to include filaments that do not require spinning, such as silk and man-made fibers.

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filament

Extremely long continuous fibers that can be measured in meters or yards, or in the case of man-made fibers, in kilometers or miles. Filaments do not require spinning to form yarn. Examples are rayon, nylon, acrylic, polyester, and other man-made fibers. Silk is the only natural filament
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fire resistant

Fire resistant refers to a fabric or fiber that has been treatedto discourage the spreading of flames. See lame-retardant-fabric/180/flame-retardant-fabric.html" title="flame retardant fabric" class="normal">flame retardant fabric.

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fireproof

Fireproof means that a fabric literally will not burn. To be labeled fireproof, the Federal Trade Commission requires that a fabric must be 100’% fireproof. If the fiber or fabric has been treated to prevent flames from spreading, it must be labeled as fire resistant. See fire resistant and lame-retardant-fabric/180/flame-retardant-fabric.html" title="flame retardant fabric" class="normal">flame retardant fabric.

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flame retardant fabric

A fabric that resists or retards the spreading of flames. A flame retardant fabric can be made by using fibers that are themselves flame retardant, or by using special finishes on fabrics. Selow is a list of some flame retardant fabrics. Many companies produce similar items but have not given them names referring specifically to their flame retardant nature.

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flat crepe

A firm, medium-weight silk crepe with a soft, almost imperceptible crinkle. It has creped fillings alternating with two S and two Z twists. The surface is fairly flat. Flat crepe may also be made of man-made fibers. It is used for dresses, negligees, and blouses. See crepe de chine,

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flax

Fibers of the flax plant that are spun into linen yarns and woven into linen cloth. The word linen is derived from “linum,” part of the scientific name for the flax plant. See linen.

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frieze

A heavy pile fabric used primarily for upholstery, slipcovers, and draperies. Frieze is looped, and the loops are often sheared to varying heights to form the pattern. Originally made of cotton (and still often referred to as cotton frieze), the fabric is now usually made of mohair, wool, cotton, and blends of cotton and man-made fibers. Also called frise.

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gas fading

The loss of colar some fabrics suffer because of nitrogen in the atmosphere rather than exposure to sunlight. Certain dyes (blues and greens, for example) are often more susceptible to gas fading than others, as are certain fibers (acetate). Special dyes can be used on these fabrics and colors to reduce or eliminate this problem. Also ealled atmospherie and pollution fading.

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gauze

A thin, sheer, open, loosely woven, plain-weave cotton fabric with widely spaced yarns, used for diapers and surgical dress­ings. It can also be made of wool, silk, rayon, or other man-made fibers. Some weights are stiffened for curtains, trimmings of dresses, and other decorative or apparel purposes.

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glass fiber

Very fine flexible fiber made from glass. It. is used extensively for curtains and draperies. Glass fiber fabrics are very strong and wash well, but care should be taken to avoid getting small splinters of the glass yarns in the hands. Glass fiber is stiff and has poor resis­tance to wear and abrasion. It is also fireproof. See fireproof.

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glitter

The name, sometimes used in place of lame, for any fabric woven or knitted with all metallic yarns or with a combination of metallic and other fiber yarns. Today, most glitter is made from one of the nontarnishable metallic fibers, a great improvement over lame of the past that tended to darken with age.

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grading

Determining, by touch, the fineness of the diameters of indi­vidual fibers. Wool tops are graded in this fashion. Efforts are now being made to grade wool in the grease by this method.

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grass cloth

A plain-weave, loosely woven fabric made from such fibers as hemp, ramie, and even nettle. Today, true grass cloth is relatively rare, but the appearance of grass cloth is copied in wallpaper and fabrics of man-made fibers.

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hackling

A combing process that prepares the flax fibers for spinning by removing short lengths of fiber, leaving only longer ones and laying them parallel. It may be done by hand or by machine.

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haircloth

A stiff, wiry fabric made from a combination of natural or man-made fibers with animal hair filling, usually mohair (goat) or horsehair. It is used in upholstery and as interfacing and stiffening because of its strength.

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heat setting

Although practices similar to heat setting are used in the finishing of almost all fabrics, the term heat setting, strictly speak­ing, refers only to thermoplastic man-made fibers. Because of the thermoplastic nature of most man-made fibers (they change their shape when heat is applied), certain features, such as pleats, can be made permanent by treating them under very high heat. Heat set­ting usually gives a smooth appearance to a fabric and sets its final measurements. Boarding, a process in the rnanufacture of stockings, is a type of heat setting.

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hemp

A plant grown in the Philippines, Mexico, Central America, the West Indies, and India. Outer fibers are used for cordage, inner fibers for cables and canvas.

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high tenacity

High strength of modified rayon and acetate fibers as a result of chemical treatment while the fibers are in the plastic state.

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homespun

Originally, fabrics made from yarns spun by hand. Today, homespun is used for fabrics that imitate this look. It is a very coarse, rough, plain-weave fabric, loosely woven with irregular, tightly twisted, and nubby, unevenly spun yarns. It is made from linen, wool, cotton, or man-made fiber, or blends in varied colors and is used for coats, suits, sportswear, draperies, upholstery, and slipcovers.

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Honan

A heavy silk, pongee-type, but a finer weave, originally the product of wild silkworms of Honan, China. A fabric of the best grade of Chinese silk, it is sometimes woven with blue edges. It is now made to resemble a heavy pongee, with slub yarns in both warp and filling. Honan is manufactured from silk or from man-made fibers. It is used for women’s dresses. See silk, pongee, and wild silk.

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horsehair

Fibers that are hair from the mane and tail, for the most part, of Canadian and Argentine horses. It is occasionally used for uphol­stery, but is more commonly used in interfacings for stiffening and strength. It is always combined with other fibers. True horsehair is rare and fabrics loosely called horsehair are often made from other hairs (such as goat) or man-made fibers.

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huck

A type of toweling fabric with a honeycombed surface made by using heavy filling yarns in a dobby weave. It has excellent ab­sorbent qualities. It is woven with a pattern, most often with a dobby attachment on the loom and may have Jacquard borders. Huck is traditionally made of cotton, linen, or rayon, or a mixture of these, although today, other fibers may be used. In a mixture it is called a union fabric. Face or hand towels are made in white or col­ors and are used for drying dishes, glasses, and kitchen utensils. Huck is also called huckaback. Embroidery enthusiasts often use huck as a ground for their work. See dobby.

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interfacing

A stiffening fabric made of horsehair (often goat hair, wool, man-made fibers, or combinations of these fibers). Interfacing is used to give additional body and strength to certain parts of garments. Areas that usually require interfacing in­clude the front opening edges, collars, pocket flaps, and any piece where stretching or a loss of crispness would be a disadvantage.

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interlining

A tayer of fabric placed between the outer fabric and the lin­ing of the garment to add warmth. lt is most commonly found in coats and jackets. Interlinings are offen made of reprocessed wool, but other materials such as polyester fiberfill may be used. See fiber­fill, reprocessed wool.

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jute

One of the natural fibers still used extensively for fabrics. It is a bast fiber that comes from jute plants grown primarily in India, 1’akistan, and Bangladesh. Jute is used for many purposes, including the manufacture of burlap, gunny sacks, bags, cordage (twine and rope), trimmings, binding threads, and backings for rugs and carpets.

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kapok

A fluffy fiber that comes from the seed pods of the kapok tree found in the tropics. Kapok at one tirne was extremely popular for stuffing pillows and was also used in life preservers as it is naturally buoyant. Today, rnan-made fibers have replaced kapok in many cases.

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khaki

A term used for both an earth color or olive green color (yellow-brown color with a greenish tint) and for fabrics made in these colors, whether of wool, cotton, linen, or man-made fibers. Khaki is a classic uniform color and material. It is also used for sportswear and leisure clothes.

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knit terry cloth

Terry cloth is a soft, absorbent fabric with loops on one or both sides. When this fabric is knit rather than woven, it is called knit terry. Knit terry is especially popular for bathrobes and beach wear because of its absorbency. Stretch knit terry (usually made stretchable by the addition of a synthetic elastic fiber) is popular for baby clothes because of its absorbency and comfort.

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Cluny lace

A heavy lace, often made of thick cot­ton or man-made fibers using the bobbin method. It is the tradi­tional lace for doilies and place mats, but is also used in apparel. See bobbin lace.

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lame

Brocade, damask, or brocatelle fabrics in which flat metal­lic yarns (or with a combination of metallic and other fiber yarns) are woven or knitted in warp and filling for a luxurious effect. Today, most lame is made from one of the nontarnishable metallic fibers, a great improvement over lame of the past that tended to darken with age. Lame is also a trademark terrn for a nontarnishable metallic yarn. Glitter is sometimes used to describe this type of fabric and is used for evening dresses, blouses, and trimmings.

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lansdowne

A lightweight twill fabric made from natural or man-made fibers and usually used for dresses.

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lastrile

Generic name for a made-made elastic fiber. There is not now, and has never been, any commercial production of this fiber in the United States. See generic name.

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line

Longest flax fibers used for fine, even linen yarns. Shortest flax fibers are called tow.

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line yarn

Well-hackled, even linen yarn made of long fibers.

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linen

A vegetable fiber obtained from the inside of the woody stalk of the flax plant. It is one of the oldest fabrics known. It is strong, and today’s man-made fibers are often blended with it to improve its wrinkle resistance and give the fabric other desirable quali­ties. Linen is woven in various weights for different purposes and is occasionally used in knit blends. The following entries are common linen names.

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linens and domestics

The term used in stores to describe various household items which, at one time, were made of linen. Today, most linens and domestics are made of cot ton and man-made fibers. The following entries are some of the items found in the linens and domestics sections of stores. See blan­kets, towels, and bedding.

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linters

Very short fibers that cover the cotton seeds after the I long fibers have been removed by ginning. These short, fuzzy fibers, after removal from the cotton seeds, are a source of cellulose for rayon and acetate.

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loden cloth

A thick, heavy, napped fleecy coating fabric woven of coarse grade wool in Austria and the German Tyrol. It is similar to duffel cloth if made of wool or the occasional man-made fibers. Since the wool has some grease, it is naturally water-repellent. lt is usually a light forest green color, called loden, from which it (gets its name. Loden cloth moves in and out of fashion everywhere except in those parts of Germany and Austria where loden jackets, suits, and coats are considered basic dress. Loden cloth is sometimes gray in color. See duffel cloth.

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loft

The springiness or fluffiness of a fiber.

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loose cover

Another term for slipcover. See slipcover.[1]The gloss, sheen, or shine of a fiber, yarn, or fabric.

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luster

The gloss, sheen, or shine of a fiber, yarn, or fabric.

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Mackinaw

A thick, heavy, usually coarse fabric with a cer­tain degree of natural water repellency. It was originally made of wool, but other fibers such as acrylics are being used today. It was named for the blankets made by the Mackinaw Indians in Michigan. Mackinaw and similar fabrics are extremely popular for hunting jaekets and are usually plaid or checked. Mackinaw is also spelled Mackinac.

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man-made fibers

An overall term referring to all fibers not found naturally. This includes rayon and acetate made from cellulose, a natural product. The term synthetic fibers also ap plies only to man-made fibers made entirely in the laboratory from such things as petroleum (polyester).

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marl

A technical term that refers to a yarn made of different col­ored fibers. The word is used descriptively for fabrics to indicate randomly or uniformly colored slubs that appear on the surface giving added textural and design interest to the fabric.

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Marseilles

A firmly woven reversible fabric with raised geometric designs. Marseilles was originally made of cotton, but is now usually made from man-made fibers or blends.

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material

Another word for fabric. See fabric.Fibers 1” to 11” long

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matte

A dull surface on a fabric. Since one of the characteristics of fabrics made from man-made fibers is a shiny surface, mattefinished fabrics have become popular and matte looks for man-made fabrics are achieved in yarn processing or finishing. See finishing.

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melamine resins

Finishes used to give wrinkle resistance and other desirable qualities (including a degree of shrinkage resistance) to fabrics, primarily those made from natural fibers. Melamine resins are chlorine retentive which means that if fabrics with these finishes are bleached with a chlorine bleach, they will keep both the color and the odor of the chlorine.

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melton

Melton, usually called melton cloth, is a thick, heavily felted or fulled wool fabric in a twill or satin weave, with clipped surface nap, felt-like in feeling, and lustrous, similar to a dull broad cloth. The close weave means that the fabric appears to be com­pletely smooth. Melton was originally made of all wool or cotton and wool, but today is made of other fibers. It is used extensively for coats and also for uniforms. See nap.

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mercerization

A finish applied to cotton yarn or fabric or to a blend of cotton and other fibers to make it stronger, more absorbent, and to give the fabric additional luster and increased ability to take dye. Mercerization can be done at the yarn stage or the fabric stage. In common with several other textile processes, mercerization involves the use of caustic soda (sodium hydroxide or lye).

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merino

Wool from the merino sheep that produces a short staple fiber of extremely high quality. Merino sheep are raised in the United States, Australia, South Africa, and South America. Occasionally, the term merino is used as a synonym for Botany. See Botany.

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mesh

A term for a large class of open fabrics made by almost all methods except felting. It can be made of any fiber, mixture, or blend. Mesh fabrics are used for bags, summer sport shirts, under wear, foundation garments, and hosiery. Mesh hosiery is knitted in such a pattern that, when one yarn is snagged, the stocking will not develop a long, vertical run, but a hole instead. Mesh stockings and panty hose are believed to wear better than other constructions.

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metal complex dyes

A class of dyestuffs that is ionic and premetallized (chemically coupled with nickel, copper, and cobalt salts to make the dye on the fiber).

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metallic

A generic name for a manufactured fiber that may be metal, metal coated with a synthetic, or a man-made fiber core covered with metal. When the metal is coated with a man-made film, the metal does not tarnish.

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micronaire fineness

The weight in micrograms of one inch of fiber.

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middy twill

The term middy twill is used for many fabrics that are sturdy and have a twill weave. Traditionally made of cotton, middy twill today is likely to include at least some man-made fibers in its construction. When middy blouses are in fashion (a loasefitting, hip-length overblouse with a sailor collar) the most popular color for this twill is navy blue. It is used also for school uniforms.

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mixture

Although the word mixture is often ignored in favor of the word blend, it should be used to describe fabrics made from a combination of two or more fibers in which one of the fibers is used for the filling thread. See blend and biconstituent fiber.

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modacrylic

A generic name for modified acrylic fibers derived from thirty-five to eighty-five percent of acrylonitrile units. It differs from acrylic in its chemical structure. Modacrylic is used Most commonly to make fake furs and wigs. Modacrylic fibers are naturally flame-retardant (slow-burning). See acrylic.

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modified acetate fibers

Fibers that are stretched and then treated with alkali.

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modified cellulose fibers

Cotton fibers treated with caustic soda to give strength, increased luster, and improved affinity for dye. Modification of a fiber changes its physical and chemical properties within the limits of a generic family.

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modified fibers

Fibers that are treated to eliminate charactetistics considered undesirable and to add characteristics considered desirable. Some treatments improve a fiber’s ability to take dye, whereas others give a fiber stretch it does not naturally have.

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modified rayon fibers

Chemical treatment while fibers are in the plastic state to give them high tenacity (high strength). Changes in the molecular structure of the fiber have been made.

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modified yarns

See modified fibers.

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Mohair

The long, lustrous hair of the Angora goat. It is used, mixed with other fibers, to make mohair fabrics.

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molding

The thermoplastic nature of most of the man-made fibers means that they change their shape under heat, thereby enabling the molding of items instead of knitting them or cutting and sewing them to the desired shape. Although this method of manufacture has great promise, so far it has been successful primarily in brassieres (most seamless brassieres have molded cups) and in upholstery applications.

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molecular orientation

The degree to which fiber molecules are parallel to each other and to the longitudinal axis of the fiber.

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monofilament

A single, fine thread of continuous man-made fiber (as in nylon hosiery). See multifilament, staple, and tow.

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mousseline

The name for a broad category of fabrics, usually fairly sheer and lightweight and made in a variety of fibers, including man-mades, silk, cotton, and wool. Mousseline usually has a crisp hand. The word mousseline is offen used today for a fabric resembling de soie. See mousseline de soie and hand.

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mousseline de soie

Literally, “muslin of silk.” The words de soie mean “of silk” which may explain why the fabric, similar to this made from man-made fibers is usually called mousseline. Mousseline de soie (silk organdy) is a lightweight, sheer, plainweave silk fabric similar to chiffon in its appearance and uses, but a little crisper.

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multifilament yarn

A yarn made of two or more filaments (long threads) of man-made fibers (monofilaments) that are joined together, usually by twistingally by twisting.

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multilobal

A fiber with a modified cross section exhibiting several lobes.

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rabbit hair

"Angora rabbit´s fur. The hair of rabbits often is mixed with ""normal"" fibers to give softness or an more illustrious texture to the finished fabric."

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ramie

A strong, lustrous, natural bast fiber from a nettle-Iike East Indian shrub, also produced in China, Egypt, and the United States. it is used for shirts, suitings, automobile seat covers, and in blends with wool for carpets,

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raw-stock dyeing

dyeing of fibers before spinning into yarn. It is syn­onymous with fiber-dyed. See fiber-dyed.

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rayon

The first successful man-rnade fiber, rayon was originally called artificial silk. It is made from ceilulose and is weak when wet. Rayon is soft and comfortable and dyes well, but is weakened by exposure to sunlight. ßecause of its low wet strength, rayon may shrink or stretch unless treated. fwo main processes are used in this country to produce rryon: viscose process and cuprammonium process. Several different rnodificatiorrs of these types of rayon are being made and consist of the following. See cellulose.

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euprammonium rayon

Rayon niade by a process that allows very fine filament fibers to be fornred. The fineness of its filaments is its best known characteristic.

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saponified rayon

A type of rayon made from cellulose acetate filaments, sirnilar to the kind used in making acetate. These fibers are treated in a special way to prodtrce a rayorr that is very strong. Fortisan is an examplc of saponified rayon.

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redaimed textile fibers

Fibers made into fabric (whether sold comrnercially or not) and then converted back into fiber. Most reclaimed textile fibers are wool and other natural fibers because it is extremely difficult to reclaim man-made fibers. See reprocessed fibers and reused fibers.

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recycled fiber

See reclaimed textile fibers, reprocessed fiber, and reused fiber.

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rep or repp

Heavy filling-wise corded fabric, heavier than poplin. It may be silk, rayon, man-made fibers, cotton, wool, or a mixture. The fabric may be solid or striped. It is used for ties, robes, draperies, and upholstery, and in lighter weights for blouses and trimmings.

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reprocessed fibers

Fibers obtained from scraps and clips of woven and felted fabrics made of previously urmsed woot that have been shredded back into fiber form and then remade into new yarns. Reprocessed fibers are usually wool fibers and must be relabeled as reprocessed wool according to Federal Trade Commission standards. Reprocessed fibers are less desirable than new or virgin fibers. See virgin Fiber.

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retting

The removal, usually by soaking, of the outer woody portion of the flax plant to gain access to the fibers. This may be done by several methods: pool, dew, tank, and chemical.

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reused wool

Old wool that has been made into a wool product and used by consumers, then cleanecl, garnetted, and remade into merchandise. It must be labeled reused wool. See reused fibers.

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rubber

The generic name of man-made fibers in which the fiber-forming substance is natural or synthetic rubber.

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drugget

A coarse, felted floor covering made from mixtures of such fibers as cotton, jute, and wool. Drugget is usually napped on one side and is a traditionally inexpensive floor covering used by institutions.

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saran

The generic name for a man-made fiber derived from vinylidene chloride. Saran is strong, resists common chemicals, sunlight, and weather. It is used primarily in the fabric field for upholstery on public transportation vehicles and for garden furniture.

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sateen

A strong, lustrous, mercerized, satin-weave fabric made of cotton, blends of cotton with polyester, or spun-yarn fabrie characterized by floats running in the filling direction. Sateen Is also used to distinguish between cotton satin-weave fabrics and satin-weave fabrics made of sük or man-made fibers. It is used for linings, draperies, and comforters. See weaving and satin weave.

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satin

One of the basic weaves. A shiny, smooth silk, acetate, rayon, or other man-made fiber combination woven in satin weave made with a cotton filling. It has a smooth, lustrous surface because the warp floats. It is used for linings of coats, jackets, facings, and ties. It is also used for draperies, upholstery, bedspreads, and sheets. Satin weave has proved so popular that various types of satin-weave fabrics have developed. Following i.s a listing of many of the types of satin fabrics. See weaving and sateen.

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scales

Protective covering of the wool fiber.

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scrim

An open, plain-weave, mesh fabric used for curtains, bunting, and as a supporting fabric for some laminated fabrics. Scrim was traditionally made of cotton, but today usually is made of nylon or other man-made fibers. See bunting.

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scutching

The separation of the outer covering of the flax stalk from the usable fibers.

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seed yarn

A very small nub often made of dyed man-made fibers applied to a dyed or natural-base yarn.

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shag

A floor covering with relatively long, loose wool or man-made fibered plie.

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sharkskin

(1) A heavy weight, fairly lustrous cotton, linen, silk, or man-made fiber fabric with a sleek, hard-finished, crisp, and pebbly surface and a chalky luster. Today, it is almost always made of acetate or triacetate. Filament yarns, when used, are twisted and woven tightly in a plain-weave or basket-weave construction, depending on the effect desired. Staple fiber yarns are handled in the same manner, except for wool. Sharkskin is best known in its stark white color especially popular for tennis outfits and for permanently pleated white skirts when they are in fashion. (2) A wool fabric in twill weave, originally made of yarns of two colors.
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sheath-core yarn

A bulky yarn of synthetic fibers consisting of a core of fine denier fibers with considerable shrinkage and a cover or wrapping of coarse denier relaxed fibers.

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shoddy

Originally, a fabric made from reprocessed wool. Today, the word is used for a fabric - or anything else, for that matter - that is poorly made or made of inferior materials. See reprocessed fibers and reused wool.

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silk

The product of the silk worm and the only natural filament fiber (it is produced in a long thread). Silk was the leading luxury fiber for thousands of years. There were many types of silk and many ways of making it into cloth. foday, man-made fibers have to a very large extent replaced silk, but the traditional names for certain silk fabrics are still used and include the following:

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raw silk

A term used incorrectly for wild silk. Raw silk is the silk fiber before it has been processed in any way. Kaw silk is coated with a glue-like substance called sericin. The sericin is removed in later processing and is not silk.

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shantung

A silk similar to pongee in that it, too, is made with slubbed yarns, but in shantung the unevenness of the yarns is even greater. Shantung is one of the fabrics that originated in silk and has been imitated extensively in the man-made fibers.

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surah

A silk recognized by its sheen and its fine twill weave. Surah is popular for dresses and neckties and is also imitated in man-made fibers.

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tussah

Silk fabric woven from silk made by wild, uncultivated silkworms. Tussah is naturally tan in color, cannot be bleached, and has a rougher texture than cultivated silk. Wild silkworms eat leaves other than mulberry leaves which cultivated silkworms eat exclusively. The difference in diet accounts for the different fiber and fabric characteristics. Tussah is also used to describe fabrics designed to imitate this kind of silk. See wild silk.

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silk culture

The care of the worm that produces silk fiber, from the egg to the moth.

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silk noil

Short ends of silk fibers used in making rough, textured, spun yarns or in blends with cotton or wool.
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singeing

Removing surface fibers and lint from a cloth with hot copper plates or gas flames.

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single yarn

One strand of fibers or filaments grouped or twisted together. See singles.

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sliver

A filmy sheet of fibers resulting from carding.

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soil release

A special finish applied to some man-made fiber fabrics in an attempt to overcome one of their disadvantages: the tendency to retain dirt, especially water-borne and/or oil-based stains, once it has penetrated the fibers. Polyester is one of the fibers that retains oil-based stains.

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solution dyeing

The solution for man-made fiber is colored before making it into fiber. Dyestuff is put into ttre spinning solution and the color is locked in as the fiber is coagulated. Synonytnous with spun dycing and dope dyeing. See dyeing, spun dyeing, and dope dyeing.

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spandex

The generic name of man-made fibers derived from a chemical substance called segmented polyurethane (resin). This man-made elastic fiber has a good deal of stretch and recovery for its weight. Spandex is used extensively in foundation garments and is much more comfortable than rubber because it is lighter in weight. Spandex is also found in some fabrics where stretch is considered desirable, such as in ski clothes. See polyurethane.

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specialty fibers

Hair fibers from various breeds of goats and camels. Also included are cow- and horsehair, fur from rabbits, and feathers of the duck, goose, and ostrich.

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specific gravity

The density of a fiber relative to that of water at 4° centigrade.

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spinneret

A spinneret, which looks very much like a showerhead (a jet or nozzle containing very fine holes), is used in the manufacture of man-made fibers. The material from which the fibers are forrned is forced through holes in the spinneret (extruded) while it is in a syrupy or melted state. The resulting long strands harden into filament fibers. See filament and fiber.

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spinning

A method of drawing out and twisting together fibers to make a continuous thread or yarn. Spinning also refers to the manufacture of man-rnade fibers as they are formed by fcucing the material from which they are rnade through a spinneret. In conventional spinning, the tighter the twist, the stronger the yarn, but too tight a twist can weaken the final yarn. Crepe yarns have such an extremely high twist that the yarn actually turns back on itself (kinks), producing the characteristic crepe or corksc_rew look. Pabrics can be given shadow effects by the Lise of two yarns which have been twisted in opposite directions during spinning. This will strike each of these yarns in a different way producing this effect. See spinneret.

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spinning quality

"The ease with which fibers lend themselves to yarn-manufacturing processes
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spun fiber yarn

(1) A yarn twisted by spinning. (2) Yarn made from staple lengths of man-made fibers instead of the long fiIaments in which man-made fibers are formed. To accomplish this, long filament fibers are chopped into staple lengths and spun to imitate natural fiber yarns. See filament arrd staple.

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spun polyester

See spun fiber yarn.

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spun rayon

See spun fiber yarn.

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spun silk

Yarn or fabric made from short fibers of pierced cocoons or from short ends at the outside and inside edges of the cocoons that cannot be reeled.

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staple

Short lengths of fiber, measured in inches or fractions of inches, like those naturally found in cotton and wool. These short lengths must be spun to obtain a length sufficient for weaving or knitting. Silk is the only natural fiber that does not come in staple lengths, but instead in filament lengths. Man-made fibers often are cut into staple lengths for spinning to imitate natural fibers. See spinning, filament, and spun fiber yarn.

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stretch fibers

Rubber or man-made plastik fibers (such as spandex and anidex) that are naturally elastic or man-rnade fibers, highly twisted, heat-set, and untwisted to leave a strong crimp. Polyester has a certain degree ol natural streich and more can iue given to the yarn in the processing or in the finishing of the fabric. Occasionally, polyester woven fabrics are described as stretch fabrics. Usually, stretch implies a degree of visible give in a fiber or fabric that stretches and then returns quickly to its original shape. Stretch fabrics are sometirnes described as elastic. Sec elastic, crimp, and recovery. See also spandex and anidex.

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stretch yarn

A textured yarn that has good stretch and recovery. It can also refer to yarns made of fibers that have elastic properties or to those yarns whose elastic properties are obtained by alterations of the basic fiber.

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striations

The many fine microscopic lines extending lengthwise on the viscose rayon fiber.
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substrate

An underlying support or foundation. An example is a fiber substrate prepared with a mordant before dyeing.

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suede fabric

A woven or knitted fabric of cotton, man-made fibers, wool, or blends, finished to resemble suede leather. It is used in sport coats, gloves, linings, and cleaning cloths.

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sulfur dye

A dye derived from chemicals containing sulphur. It is used mostly for vegetable fibers. It has fair resistance to washing and poor resistance to sunlight.

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swint

Perspiration on the wool fiber.

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Swiss

A fine, sheer, lightweight, crisp fabric of almost any fiber whose name has been almost forgotten except in the form of dotted (or figured) Swiss. It is used for curtains. See dotted Swiss.

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synthetic fiber

A man-made textile fiber derived from natural bases or produced by chemical synthesis. These chemicals were never fibrous in form.
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table linen

Any fabric, regardless of fiber content, suitable for a table covering.

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taffeta

A fine, yarn-dyed, closely woven, plain-weave, smooth on both sides, stiffened fabric with a crisp feel and a sheen on its surface. Taffeta was originally made of silk, but is also made of rayon, cotton, acetate, or other man-made fibers. lt is named for the Persian fabric "taftan". The rustle of silk taffeta is called scroop, and it may be a solid color, printed or woven so that the colors appear iridescent. A list of the most common types of taffeta follows. lt is used for dresses, blouses, ribbons, draperies, bedspreads, and curtains. See scroop.

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tapestry

A Jaquard woven fabric in cotton, wool, or man-made fibers. Traditionally, a decorative wall hanging woven to depict a scene. The filling threads are changed in color to fit the design. On the back, shaded stripes identify this fabric. It is used extensively for wall hangings, table covers, draperies, and upholstery. Some rugs are made in tapestry weaves. The word is also used for needlepoint, but this use is generally considered incorrect. Machine-made fabrics, also called tapestry, have regular designs on the surface and a slightly looped pile. They are used for such things as coats and handbags.

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tenaeity

The tensile strength of a fiber, expressed as force per unit of linear density of an unstrained specimen. lt is usually expressed in grams per denier or grams per tex. See tex.

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tensile strength

The maximum tensile stress required to rupture a fiber, expressed as pounds per square inch or grams per square centimeter.

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thermoplastic

A word used to describe fibers that are heat-sensitive. Most man-made fibers are thermoplastic. A thermoplastic fiber has the property of softening or fusing when heated and of harderring agaln when cooled. With the application of heat and pressure, it can be molded and remolded. This can be both an udvarrtaKe and a disadvantage. lt is advantageous because in fabrics made of thermoplastic fibers, certain features like pleats can be made permanent through heat-setting. However, care must be taken in drying und ironiog fabrics made of thermoplastic fibers because of their sensitivity to heat. See man-made fibers and heat-setting.

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thermosetting

A process for giving thermoplastic fibers or fabrics certain characteristics, such as erirnp or permanent pleats through the applicativm of heat. Thermosetting is also used to develop certain finishes in a fabric to produce desirable characteristics such as durable press. See heat setting, thermoplastic, and durable press.

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thick and thin yarn

Produced by varying the diameters of man-made fibers.

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cotton-wrapped polyester (core) thread

A type of polyester thread made with a polyester core wrapped with cotton, theoretically giving the thread characteristics of both fibers.

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nylon thread

The thread introduced as an alternative to silk thread that has more give than most natural fiber threads. lt is used extensively for sewing man-made fiber fabrics, especially knits.

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polyester thread

Thread made of 100% polyester. Polyester thread has more give than most natural fiber threads and is used extensively for sewing man-made fiber fabrics, especially knits. lt can be used on almost any fabric. Polyester thread is strong, but tends to knot easily.

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silk thread

A classic sewing thread for fine work and for sewing silks and woolens. lt has more give than other natural fiber threads, but less than polyester or nylon. lt is used primarily for sewing on silk fabrics.

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tow

Short flax fibers, separated by hackling (combing) from the longer fibers. Also, the poorly hackled, uneven linen yarn made from these short fibers. lt may also refer to a continuous loose rope of man made filaments drawn together without twist to be cut in lengths for spun yarn.

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tow linen

Fabric made of uneven, irregular yarns composed of the every short fibers.

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terry cloth

A cotton or cotton and man-made fiber fabric with a looped pile on one or both sides. lt is made into towels for drying after a bath. It may also be used for dish towels.
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trapunto

A form of quilting in which fabric is quilted only in certain areas. The design to be quilted, a monogram for example, is first worked through two layers of fabric. Then, the back ing fabric is slit so that the yuilted areas can be padded with yarn, cord, or a filling such as fiberfill. See fiberfill.

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triacetate

A thermoplastic fiber classified under the generic name of acetate, although it is a modification of acetate. Triacetate fabrics resist shrinkage, wrinkles, and fading. They do not dissolve in acetone, can be washed at higher temperatures than those made of acetate, and can be ironed with the heat set for linen. See acetate.

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trilobal

A fiber with a modified cross section having three lobes.

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ribbon

A narrow, woven fabric with two finished edges. Both natural and man-made fibers are used in making ribbon. lt is available in many patterns and colors and in such fabric constructions as velvet, satin, and grosgrain. See velvet, satin, and grosgrain.

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tussah silk

Silk fabric woven from silk made by wild, uncultivated silkworms. Tussah is strong, but coarse and uneven. lt is naturally tau in color, cannot be bleached, and has a rougher texture than cultivated silk. lt is used in shantung and pongee. Wild silkworms eat leaves other than mulberry leaves eaten exclusively by silkworms. The difference in diet accounts for the different fiber and fabric characteristics. Tussah is also used to describe fabrics designed to imitate this kind of silk. See wild silk.

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underlay

A synonym for padding or rug cushion. It usually describes the layer of fabric of sponge rubber or hair placed underneath a carpet or rug to provide it with longer life, to give it a more luxurious appearance and feeling, to prevent the rug from slipping, and to make the rug softer and more cushiony. Carpet padding is made of cattle hair, rubberized hair, rubber, and combinations of jute and cattle hair, as well as some man-made fibers. Sec: rugs and carpets, padding, and rug cushion.

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union cloth

A traditional name for fabric made from two or more different fibers, such as a fabric woven with a wool worsted warp and a cotton filling. The term "union cloth" was used primarily when this fabric was used for underwear, perhaps because a union suit was another name for shoulder-to-ankle, one-piece underwear. See union suit.

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union dyeing

Dyeing different fibers in the same cloth in one shade. See dyeing.

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vat dyeing

Vat dyeing refers to the type of dye rather than to the way in which the dyeing is done. This process uses an insoluble dye made soluble in its application. lt is put on the fiber and oxidized to its original insoluble form. Exeellent colorfastness to washing and sunlight.

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velvet

Velvet is a fabric with a short and closely woven nap. The production of velvet varies between two methods. One uses a double-cloth construction in which two shifts of fabric are woven with long threads joining them together. After the double fabric is woven, the center threads are cut, producing two pieces of velvet. The second method of producing velvet uses wires. During the weaving the yarn is lifted over the wires to form the pile. After removing the wires the yarn is cut to form the velvet surface. While velvet was originally made of silk, today many other fibers are used to manufacure velvet (e.g. rayon or nylon).

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Lyons velvet

Velvet originally made of silk in Lyons, France. Lyons is a thick, stiff velvet with a very short pile. Today, this type of velvet (often called Lyons-type) is made of man-made fibers. It is used for home furnishings as well as for evening wear.

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vinal

The generic name for a man-made fiber derived from polyvinal alcohol. Vinal fibers soften at low temperatures, but resist chemicals. Although vinal is no longer made in the United States, it is made in Japan and is found in tires, some home furnishings, and industrial products.

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vinyon

The generic name for a man-made fiber derived from polyvinyl chloride, a derivative of natural salt, water, and petroleum. Vinyon fibers soften at low temperatures and resist chemicals. Vinyon is often referred to as polyvinyl chloride. Its primary use is in commercial products.

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virgin fibers

Fibers never made into fabric before. The term is used primarily for wool fibers to differentiate between these and reclaimed, repro cessed, and reused fibers. See reprocessed fibers, reclaimed fibers, and reused fibers.

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viscose process

Viscose process describes the production of rayon fibers from purified cellulose.

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voile

A sheer, transparent, low-count, crisp or soft, lightweight, plain-weave muslin with a thready feel, made of highly twisted yarns. lt can be comprised of wool, cotton, silk, rayon, polyester, or other man-made fibers. Voile is especially popular when made of cotton or blends for summer wear and is often printed to match heavier fabrics. Voile is used for clothing, especially for blouses and summer dresses, and for curtains and similar items.

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waste silk

Another name for silk noil. Short ends of silk fibers used in making rough, textured, spun yarns or in blends with cotton or wool.

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webbing

A strong, narrow fabric made from jute or man-made fibers. It is used for belts and straps that must resist strain. Webbing is usually woven and is used on the underside of upholstered chairs and sofas.

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whipcord

An extremely strong, twill-weave worsted fabric made in fairly heavy weights of cotton, wool worsted, and fabrics of man-made fibers and blends. It is similar to gabardine, but heavier and with a more pronounced diagonal rib on the right side. lt is so named because it simulates tlre lash of a whip. Cotton whipcotds are often four-harness warp-twill weaves. lt is used for draperies and upholstery, uniforms, riding clothes, and other wearing apparel where a strong fabric is required. See twill under entry for weaving.

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white-on-white

A fabric in any fiber mixture or blend that has a white woven-in design on a white background. Usually, it is a fabric with a white dobby or Jacquard design on a white ground, common in madras, broadcloth, or nylon. See madras.

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wickability

The property of a fiber that allows moisture to move rapidly along the fiber surface and pass quickly through the fabric.

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wool

The term used for the fleece of lambs and sheep, but also applies to similar fibers from such animals as the angora and cashmere goats, the llama, and other animals used for clothing. lt is un like carpet wool, which is much coarser and unsuitable for clothing. Wool refers to fleece wool used for the first time in the complete manufacture of a wool product. Wool differs from hair and fur in that it has a natural felting ability. See felt, woolen, and worsted.

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woolen yarn

Woolen yarn is a type of carded yarn made of relatively short fibers of varying lengths.

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yarn

A generic term for a continuous strand spun from a group of natural or synthetic staple fibers (short lengths of fibers), filaments (long lengths), or other materials twisted or laid together for use in weaving, knitting, or some other method of intertwining to form textile fabrics.

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zein

Cornmeal from which protein is derived for synthetic fibers.

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zephyr yarn

A fine, soft yarn with a low twist popular for hand knitting. Originally made from wool, zephyr is usually made of acrylic and often has other fibers such as silk added to it.

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zibeline

A heavily napped coating fabric with the long sleek nap brushed, steamed, and pressed in one direction, thus hiding the underlying satin weave. Zibeline is usually made of a combi nation of such fibers as camel hair or mohair with wool, cotton, or a man-made fiber as the largest percentage,

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