bonded-face fabricThe side of a bonded fabric used as the face (right side) of the cloth in a garment or other end use.
double faceA double cloth which can be used on either side. Also used to describe any fabric with two right sides.
Lace made by using a pillow to hold pins around which thread
is arranged. See bobbin lace
fabric with a satin
appearance on both sides unlike ordinary satin
, which has a definite right and wrong side.
abrasionRubbing, scraping off or scuffing of the surface of a fabric. Some permanent press finishes lessen abrasion resistance. Draperies that are frequently in use should be made of abrasion resistant fabrics.
Name for an uncut pile velvet
clothing fabric with a rough surface. Extraordinary restistant. Connected to: pile, velvet
Barathea is mixed fabric which contains silk
and is closely woven. It has a typical pebbly surface. Barathea is used for dresses, neckties, trimmings, and suits.
A finish primarily applied to linen
whereby the cloth is beaten with large wooden blocks in order to produce a hard, flat surface with a sheen. lt gives a linen
-like appearance to cotton
block printingA hand-printing process in which a design is carved on a block of wood or linoleum. Dye is placed on the surface and the block is placed on the fabric, thereby transferring the dye. Every color requires a different block, making this type of printing tedious and expensive. It is now almost entirely limited to the craft field. See printing.
bonded-face fabricThe side of a bonded fabric used as the face (right side) of the cloth in a garment or other end use.
Boucle is a fabric woven with boucle yarns with looped appearance on the surface. The fabric has a abrasive surface. Boucle fabrics are woven or knitted by both, hand and machine
Brocade is used as a drapery or upholstery fabric. It has a Jacquard weave with an allover interwoven design, normally figures or flowers. The name is derived from the French word meaning “to ornament”. The brocade pattern is accentuated with varying surfaces or colors and often has gold, silver, or other metallic
threads running through it. Although true brocades still are produced, nowadays the term is also used for knits with a similar luxurious look. A brocade rug, in carpeting, is one in which different yarns of the same color create a subtle pattern.
Brocatelle is a fabric similar to brocade
but made of a Jacquard loom
. It is used as drapery and upholstery fabric and made in double-cloth construction with a silk
- or rayon
A fairly inexpensive leather
from deer and elk skins. Also, a fabric made in a form of satin
weave with a napped finish. Originally wool
, the term buckskin is now applied to various synthetic fabrics with smooth surfaces, with or without the napped finish. See leather
Burn-out printing describes a process in which a fabric consisting of two different fiber
s is treated with chemicals partly take away one fiber
to create a structure on the surface of the fabric. For example, sculptured velvet
is produced with this method.
Calendering is a term for the finishing
process for fabrics that produces a shiny and smooth surface. The cloth is passed through recessed and heated cylinder rolls by running it through a friction or glazing
A smooth-surfaced, plain weave
cloth. Today, the term is almost always applied to fabric with bright, sharply contrasting, usually small-print designs. Calico is usually woven, although calico prints may appear on knits. Calico is a traditionally popular fabric for patchwork. It is also used for dresses, sportswear
, and aprons.
A closely woven, plain weave
, white fabric that is finished
with a slightly glossy surface. The fabric is traditionally made from cotton
, but can be made from any fiber
. It was formerly used in underwear and handkerchiefs, but today its major uses are to reinforce book bindings and to upholster the underside of chairs and sofas. Very low count, heavily sized glazed cambric is used for costuming.
Canton flanell is a heavy and warm cotton material
. While it has a twilled surface there is a long soft nap on the back. It is named for Canton because that´s where it was first made. Canton flanell is strong and absorbent.
(1) A plain-woven fabric with an almost square count (80x76), a colored warp
, and a white filling, that gives a mottled, colored surface. The fabric is named for Cambrai, France, where it was first made for sunbonnets. Although chambray is traditionally woven, the look itself is so popular it is imitated in knitting
. It is similar in appearance to denim
but much lighter in weight. It is used for women’s and children’s summer dresses and men’s shirts. (2) A cotton
print cloth made of yarn
s that can also be woven in patterns and woven in stripes. (3) A similar but carded-yarn
fabric used for work clothes and children’s play clothes. See denim
Soft, pliable leather
from the skin of the chamois goat, although other animal skins may be substituted. It is used for gloves and as a cloth for washing autos. Chamois cloth is woven to imitate the leather
, usually has a slightly napped surface, and is usually yellow, as is the goat skin. It is also used in clothing.
An extremely shiny, glossy surface given to fabrics as part of the finishing
process. Cire fabrics have a much higher shine than glazed fabrics and are usually somewhat slippery.
A lightweight fabric of silk
, man-made, or blended fibers, and characterized by a crinkled surface. This surface is obtained through the use of crepe yarn
s that have such a high twist
that the yarn
kinks), and by chemical treatment with caustic soda, embossing, or weaving (usually with thicker warp yarn
s and thinner filling yarn
s). Although crepe is traditionally woven, crepe yarn
s are now used to produce knit crepes.
A two-faced fabric that can be used on either side. One is satin
whereas the reverse, made of twisted yarns, is crepe
A fabric with an taneven surface, created by use of caustic soda that causes it to shrink unevenly. Plisse is an example of a crinkle crepe
fabric. Crinkle crepe
and plisse usually have a larger pattern to surface irregularities than crepe
eyelashTerm used to describe clipped yarns that lie on the surface of a fabric, giving the effect of eyelashes.
finishing"An overall term that usually refers to all processes, with the exception of coloring, to make fabric more acceptable (some experts also include coloring). Much of the look, feel, and behavior of a fab ric is determined by the finishing steps taken. Finishing can be mechanical (as in calendering) or chemical, or both. Special treatments are applied to fabrics during finishing to make them perform better, shrink less, resist flarnes, and repel water. Calendering refers to a process in which the fabric is passed through heated cylinders. This gives the fabric a lustrous surface and can also emboss it. Another important step in finishing, and usually the final process, is tentering
A firm, medium-weight silk crepe
with a soft, almost imperceptible crinkle. It has crepe
d fillings alternating with two S and two Z twists. The surface is fairly flat. Flat crepe
may also be made of man-made fibers
. It is used for dresses, negligees, and blouses. See crepe
A lightweight, soft, plain- or twill
-weave fabric made of silk
, mercerized cotton
, or thin worsted wool
. Foulard has a high luster
on the face and dull on the reverse side. It is often printed, and the patterns range from simple polka dots to small, allover elaborate designs on light or dark grounds. It is also made in plain and solid colors. Foulard has a characteristic hand that can be described as light, firm, and supple. It is used for spring and summer dresses, scarves, robes, and neckties, and frequently sold as surah
"A strong, hard-finished
, clear-surfaced, mediumto heavy-weight, tightly woven steep-twilled fabric with rounded wales and a flat back. The diagonal wales are fine, close, and steep, and are more pronounced than in serge. The wales cannot be seen on the wrong side of the fabric. Gabardine goes in and out of fashion
A soft, sheer
fabric, similar to chiffon, made with a crepe yarn
to give the fabric a crepe
appearance. The crepy surface is obtained by alternating right-hand and left hand twist yarn
s in warp
and filling. It is used for summer and evening dresses. See chiffon
A type of toweling fabric with a honeycombed surface made by using heavy filling yarns in a dobby
weave. It has excellent absorbent qualities. It is woven with a pattern, most often with a dobby
attachment on the loom
and may have Jacquard borders. Huck is traditionally made of cotton
, or rayon
, or a mixture
of these, although today, other fibers may be used. In a mixture
it is called a union fabric. Face or hand towels are made in white or colors and are used for drying dishes, glasses, and kitchen utensils. Huck is also called huckaback. Embroidery enthusiasts often use huck as a ground for their work. See dobby
A fine gauge, compound knit fabric with a smooth surface on both front and back, composed of two separate 1 x 1 rib
fabrics interknitted to form one cloth, made on an interlock machine
. The fabric was traditionally used for underwear, but today is being used for apparel. Despite the name of the fabric, poorly made interlock develops runs at the edges and all interlock knits should be reinforced or finished
in some way at these edges.
A thick, heavy, pure wool
and cotton twill
-weave fabric similar tonrelton. It is well fulled, with a fine nap and a closesheared surface. Kersey is used for uniforms and overcoats.
Pormerly called French crepe
because it was originally made in France. The crepe
d surface was made by embossing (pressing cloth over a fleece
blanket). Because it is no longer pressed, it is not a crepe
and it is used for lingerie
and spring and summer dresses.
A fine, soft, cotton
cloth woven of softly twisted yarns. It is similar to nainsook but slightly heavier, with a duller surface. Longcloth is so called because it was one of the first fabrics to be woven in Iong rolls. lt is also a synonym for muslin
sheeting af gaod quality. The fabric is used for underwear and linings. See nainsook and muslin
A technical term that refers to a yarn
made of different colored fibers. The word is used descriptively for fabrics to indicate randomly or uniformly colored slubs that appear on the surface giving added textural and design interest to the fabric.
A light, strong, sheer
curtain fabric in leno
weave, often with dots woven into the surface. The thread
count varies from 48 x 22 to 60 x 40. Marquisette, extremely popular for curtains and mosquito netting
, is made of cotton
, nylon, polyester, acrylic
, glass, silk
, or mixtures.
A dull surface on a fabric. Since one of the characteristics of fabrics made from man-made fibers
is a shiny surface, mattefinished
fabrics have become popular and matte looks for man-made fabrics are achieved in yarn
processing or finishing
. See finishing
Melton, usually called melton cloth, is a thick, heavily felt
ed or fulled wool
fabric in a twill
weave, with clipped surface nap, felt
-like in feeling, and lustrous, similar to a dull broad cloth. The close weave means that the fabric appears to be completely smooth. Melton was originally made of all wool
, but today is made of other fibers. It is used extensively for coats and also for uniforms. See nap.
Officially, moss crepe
is made in a plain or dobby
weave with rayon
yarns that produce the moss-like effect. In practice, however, the term refers to any crepe
, including polyester, considered to have a moss-like surface. See weaving.
A faceted pie of glass (the glass is cut with faces that reflect light). Rhinestones are used in costume jewelry or as decoration on clothing or trimming
. Rhinestones are also ealled diamante,
One of the basic weaves. A shiny, smooth silk
, or other man-made fiber
combination woven in satin weave
made with a cotton
filling. It has a smooth, lustrous surface because the warp
floats. It is used for linings of coats, jackets, facings, and ties. It is also used for draperies, upholstery, bedspreads, and sheets. Satin weave has proved so popular that various types of satin-weave fabrics have developed. Following i.s a listing of many of the types of satin fabrics. See weaving and sateen
Antique Satin is a satin
-weave fabric which is normally used for draperies. Both sides may be used. The face is a classic lustrous satin
can be used on either side. While the surface is satin
, the back is crepe
. It is mainly used for the production of clothing. Connected to: crepe
and satin crepe
Characterized by a smooth surface caused by floats running warp
(1) A heavy weight, fairly lustrous cotton
, or man-made fiber
fabric with a sleek, hard-finished
, crisp, and pebbly surface and a chalky luster
. Today, it is almost always made of acetate
. Filament yarns, when used, are twisted and woven tightly in a plain-weave or basket-weave construction, depending on the effect desired. Staple fiber
yarns are handled in the same manner, except for wool
. Sharkskin is best known in its stark white color especially popular for tennis outfits and for permanently pleated white skirts when they are in fashion. (2) A wool
fabric in twill
weave, originally made of yarns of two colors.
singeingRemoving surface fibers and lint from a cloth with hot copper plates or gas flames.
In hand weft knitting
, characterized by vertical wales on the face and horizontal courses on the back of the fabric. See plain stitch
A knitted fabric with a smooth face and a fleecy, pile back. Sweatshirts were originally designed for exercise during which perspiration was encouraged, but they are also worn for warmth in cold weather and are available in several styles. They were made of cotton
for its absorbency, but acrylic
versions are also available.
A fine, yarn
-dyed, closely woven, plain-weave, smooth on both sides, stiffened fabric with a crisp feel and a sheen on its surface. Taffeta was originally made of silk
, but is also made of rayon
, or other man-made fibers
. lt is named for the Persian fabric "taftan". The rustle
taffeta is called scroop
, and it may be a solid color, printed or woven so that the colors appear iridescent
. A list of the most common types of taffeta follows. lt is used for dresses, blouses, ribbons, draperies, bedspreads, and curtains. See scroop
A Jaquard woven fabric in cotton
, or man-made fibers
. Traditionally, a decorative wall hanging woven to depict a scene. The filling threads are changed in color to fit the design. On the back, shaded stripes identify this fabric. It is used extensively for wall hangings, table covers, draperies, and upholstery. Some rugs are made in tapestry weaves. The word is also used for needlepoint, but this use is generally considered incorrect. Machine
-made fabrics, also called tapestry, have regular designs on the surface and a slightly looped pile. They are used for such things as coats and handbags.
One of the elements that determines the way in which a finished
fabric looks. lt is the surface effect of a fabric.
A surface woven with a nubby yarn
construction. lt may be made in any liber.
Formerly the most common thread
, but difficult to find today. lt is usually made in two types. A plain thread
with a dull surface is called basting thread
. Mercerized cotton thread
has a shiny surface that enables it to slide smoothly through fabric and is suggested for general purpose sewing. Polyester thread
has replaced cotton thread
to a large extent. See mercerization
two-bar (double-bar) tricot
knit in which two sets of yarns are required, one knitted in one direction and the othcr in the opposite direction. A ribbed surface results. It is synonymous with doublewarp tricot
Velvet is a fabric with a short and closely woven nap. The production of velvet varies between two methods. One uses a double-cloth construction in which two shifts of fabric are woven with long threads joining them together. After the double fabric is woven, the center threads are cut, producing two pieces of velvet. The second method of producing velvet uses wires. During the weaving the yarn
is lifted over the wires to form the pile. After removing the wires the yarn
is cut to form the velvet surface. While velvet was originally made of silk
, today many other fibers are used to manufacure velvet (e.g. rayon
A weave that produces a very smooth surfaced fabric. It is made by passing the filling thread
s under several warp thread
s before passing over one warp thread
. Satin weave is used to make sateens in which cotton
goes over several cotton warp
s, then under one warp
The property of a fiber
that allows moisture to move rapidly along the fiber
surface and pass quickly through the fabric.
wireGach row of pile or tufts on the surface of a rug.
Woolen is a wool
fabric made of short-staple
carded yarns. Woolens normally have a blurry surface and are not shiny.