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basic dye

A way of dyeing without a mordant that colors wool and silk. To use it for cotton a mordant is needed.

cross-dyeing

A method of coloring fabrics made from more than one kind of fiber, for example, a wool and cotton blend. Each fiber in a fabric designed for cross-dyeing takes a specific dye in a different color or in variations of a color. A fabric that is crossdyed is more than one color. Cross-dyeing is often used to create heather effects (soft, misty colorings), but strongly patterned fabrics can also be achieved, depending on the fibers used in the fabric.

fast dyes

Those dyes that are fast for the purpose for which the fabric is intended.

metal complex dyes

A class of dyestuffs that is ionic and premetallized (chemically coupled with nickel, copper, and cobalt salts to make the dye on the fiber).

raw-stock dyeing

dyeing of fibers before spinning into yarn. It is synonymous with fiber-dyed. See fiber-dyed.

solution dyeing

The solution for man-made fiber is colored before making it into fiber. Dyestuff is put into ttre spinning solution and the color is locked in as the fiber is coagulated. Synonytnous with spun dycing and dope dyeing. See dyeing, spun dyeing, and dope dyeing.

space dyeing

A method of dyeing yarn by dipping in dye or spotting in various places along the yarn. This causes different sections of the yarn to appear in different colors. The resulting fabric often has unusual, rainbow-like effects.

spun dyeing

See solution dyeing, dyeing, and dope dyeing.

sulfur dye

A dye derived from chemicals containing sulphur. It is used mostly for vegetable fibers. It has fair resistance to washing and poor resistance to sunlight.

tie dyeing

A form of resist dyeing. Items to be dyed are tied or knotted so that the folds of the fabric form barriers to the dye to create patterns or designs on the fabric. See dyeing and resist dyeing.

union dyeing

Dyeing different fibers in the same cloth in one shade. See dyeing.

vat dyeing

Vat dyeing refers to the type of dye rather than to the way in which the dyeing is done. This process uses an insoluble dye made soluble in its application. lt is put on the fiber and oxidized to its original insoluble form. Exeellent colorfastness to washing and sunlight.

yarn dyed

Yarn dyed fabrics are dyed before the finishing of the fabric. Yarn dyed fabrics are considered more colorfast than piece dyed or printed fabrics.

acetate

A organic and chemical fiber. Acetate is a blend of cellulose and acetic acid that has been hardened. Solution and spun-dyed acetates are colorfast against sunlight, perspiration, and air pollution. Acetate is often used for luxurious fabrics because its appearance is similar to silk. It is mixed occasionally with other fibers to give additional gloss and lower the cost.

antique taffeta

As it was originally a pure silk fabric nowadays normally contains a mixture of polyester and silk (predominantly dupion silk). Often yarn-dyed with two colors to give it an iridescent effect. Connected to: shantung

Barkcloth

Originally, the term referred to a fabric found throughout the South Pacific and is made from the inner bark of certain trees. The bark is beaten into a paper-like fabric, then dyed or otherwise colored. Tapa cloth is one of the best known types of true barkcloth. Barkcloth is a term that also refers to a fabric, often cotton or rayon, with a somewhat crepe-like feel that is designed to resemble true barkcloth. This fabric is used extensively for draperies, slipcovers, and other home furnishings. See crepe and tapa cloth

basic dye

A way of dyeing without a mordant that colors wool and silk. To use it for cotton a mordant is needed.

batik

Batik describes a special technique of resist dyeing which was first used in Indonesia. Before dyeing the fabric is pile-spread with wax. The waxed areas remain in the original color while the rest of the fabric adopts the dyeing color. To get the typical veined effect to the design the wax is cracked. Today, it is largely produced in an industrial way. Connected to: resist dyeing

billiard doth

Billiard cloth is the cloth used on billiard tables. It is always dyed green. This is traditionally a very fine twilled fabric consisting of quality wool. Nowadays also other fibers are used for billiard cloth.

bleach

A chemical that removes color from an item. Fabrics are often bleached after manufacture and before dyeing to ensure the dyed colors are true. Household bleach is used to disinfect clothing and remove soil from whites and colorfast colors. Chlorine bleaches are the most common household bleaches, but are too strong for some colors and fabrics.

block printing

A hand-printing process in which a design is carved on a block of wood or linoleum. Dye is placed on the surface and the block is placed on the fabric, thereby transferring the dye. Every color requires a different block, making this type of printing tedious and expensive. It is now almost entirely limited to the craft field. See printing.

chambray

(1) A plain-woven fabric with an almost square count (80x76), a colored warp, and a white filling, that gives a mottled, colored surface. The fabric is named for Cambrai, France, where it was first made for sunbonnets. Although chambray is traditionally woven, the look itself is so popular it is imitated in knitting. It is similar in appearance to denim but much lighter in weight. It is used for womens and childrens summer dresses and mens shirts. (2) A cotton print cloth made of yarn-dyed yarns that can also be woven in patterns and woven in stripes. (3) A similar but carded-yarn fabric used for work clothes and childrens play clothes. See denim.

chino

A twill-weave cotton originally used for slacks, sport shirts, and summer military uniforms. It is made of two-ply cotton combed yarns, vat-dyed, and is mercerized and Sanforized. Today, the name is given to any medium-weight, sturdy fabric with a slight sheen. Khaki green and military tan are common chino colors, but the fabric is also made in other colors.

chlorinated wool

Woolens chemically treated to decrease shrinkage and to increase affinity for dyes.

conditioning

A finishing process of sizing a fabric after dyeing to give it a hand.

cross-dyeing

A method of coloring fabrics made from more than one kind of fiber, for example, a wool and cotton blend. Each fiber in a fabric designed for cross-dyeing takes a specific dye in a different color or in variations of a color. A fabric that is crossdyed is more than one color. Cross-dyeing is often used to create heather effects (soft, misty colorings), but strongly patterned fabrics can also be achieved, depending on the fibers used in the fabric.

denim

A cotton twill weave fabric made of single hard-twisted yarns. The staple type has colored warp and white or undyed filling thread. When the fabric (and the look) became popular, the name denim was given to many other types of fabric, including cross-dyed fabrics and brushed fabrics, both knit and woven, that resemble true denim. Most jeans are made of denim and the most popular and traditional denim color is blue. Sports denim is softer and lighter in weight. It is now available in many colors, and in plaids and stripes. Woven-in stripes and plaids are popular for draperies, upholstery, and bedspreads.

discharge printing

A method of obtaining light designs on a very dark ground. The fabric is piece dyed first, then the color is discharged or bleached in spots, leaving white designs in a pattern. An additional step is often the roller printing of these design areas with patterns and colors. See dyeing.

fast dyes

Those dyes that are fast for the purpose for which the fabric is intended.

gas fading

The loss of colar some fabrics suffer because of nitrogen in the atmosphere rather than exposure to sunlight. Certain dyes (blues and greens, for example) are often more susceptible to gas fading than others, as are certain fibers (acetate). Special dyes can be used on these fabrics and colors to reduce or eliminate this problem. Also ealled atmospherie and pollution fading.

indigo

A type of dyestuff, originally obtained from the indigo plant, now produced synthetically. Blues are brilliant. It Is colorfast to washing and light.

ingrain

A knitted or woven fabric made of yarns dyed before knitting or weaving.

Macclesfield silk

Hand-woven silk or rayon fabric with small overall Jacquard patterns. Macclesfield, England, is the town of origin. Today, the name applies to small, yarn dyed, dobby designs used in mens neckties. See Spitalfields.

madder

A root from which a vegetable dye called Alizarin was obtained originally. It is now produced synthetically. See Alizarin dye.

Madras

1) Called Indian Madras. A fine, hand-loomed cotton imported from Madras, India. The Federal Trade Commission has ruled that it is deceptive to apply this term to a fabric that does not meet this description. In addition, the FTC definition requires that any dyes.used on this fabric must be vegetable dyes that will bleed (the col:ors run into each other). The fact that the FTC felt called upon to make such a definition is some indication of the popularity of Madras and imitation Madras fabrics in recent years. The authentic Madras and its imitations usually have checked or plaid designs

marabou

Short, fluffy feathers now taken from domesticated fowl, usually dyed to match the garments on which they are used as trimming. They were originally taken from the stork.

mercerization

A finish applied to cotton yarn or fabric or to a blend of cotton and other fibers to make it stronger, more absorbent, and to give the fabric additional luster and increased ability to take dye. Mercerization can be done at the yarn stage or the fabric stage. In common with several other textile processes, mercerization involves the use of caustic soda (sodium hydroxide or lye).

metal complex dyes

A class of dyestuffs that is ionic and premetallized (chemically coupled with nickel, copper, and cobalt salts to make the dye on the fiber).

modified cellulose fibers

Cotton fibers treated with caustic soda to give strength, increased luster, and improved affinity for dye. Modification of a fiber changes its physical and chemical properties within the limits of a generic family.

modified fibers

Fibers that are treated to eliminate charactetistics considered undesirable and to add characteristics considered desirable. Some treatments improve a fibers ability to take dye, whereas others give a fiber stretch it does not naturally have.

mordant

A substance that acts as a binder for the dye. A mordant has an affinity for both the dyestuff and the fabric.

moth repellency

An example of the desirable quaIities that can be given to fabrics in the finishing process. Some fabrics are treated with colorless chemicals, similar to dyestuffs, added to the dye bath. Another method atomizes the fabric with mothproofing chemicals. Fabrics that attract moths, such as woolens, can be treated for repellency. The treatment also repels other insects, such as carpet beetles. Wool rugs are almost always treated for moth repellency today.

rabbit

An inexpensive fur often dyed to resemble other furs or for fashion impact. It is also calted coney and lapin.

raw-stock dyeing

dyeing of fibers before spinning into yarn. It is synonymous with fiber-dyed. See fiber-dyed.

rayon

The first successful man-rnade fiber, rayon was originally called artificial silk. It is made from ceilulose and is weak when wet. Rayon is soft and comfortable and dyes well, but is weakened by exposure to sunlight. ecause of its low wet strength, rayon may shrink or stretch unless treated. fwo main processes are used in this country to produce rryon: viscose process and cuprammonium process. Several different rnodificatiorrs of these types of rayon are being made and consist of the following. See cellulose.

resist printing

Printing similar to resist dyeing. In resist printing, the fabric is coated with a paste that protects it from colors in certain areas.

screen printing

In screen printing, a sheer fabric, such as silk or nylon gauze, is stretched over a wood or metal frame to form a screen. The entire screen, except for the design area to be printed, is coated with a substance that closes the pores of the fabric screen. The dye is poured onto the screen and forced through the uncoated design areas onto the fabric below. A different screen must be used for each cotor in the print.

seed yarn

A very small nub often made of dyed man-made fibers applied to a dyed or natural-base yarn.

solution dyeing

The solution for man-made fiber is colored before making it into fiber. Dyestuff is put into ttre spinning solution and the color is locked in as the fiber is coagulated. Synonytnous with spun dycing and dope dyeing. See dyeing, spun dyeing, and dope dyeing.

space dyeing

A method of dyeing yarn by dipping in dye or spotting in various places along the yarn. This causes different sections of the yarn to appear in different colors. The resulting fabric often has unusual, rainbow-like effects.

spun dyeing

See solution dyeing, dyeing, and dope dyeing.

stencil printing

A type of resist printing where portions of the design are covered with metal or wood so the covered parts do not take the dye. See printing and resist printing.

substrate

An underlying support or foundation. An example is a fiber substrate prepared with a mordant before dyeing.

sulfur dye

A dye derived from chemicals containing sulphur. It is used mostly for vegetable fibers. It has fair resistance to washing and poor resistance to sunlight.

taffeta

A fine, yarn-dyed, closely woven, plain-weave, smooth on both sides, stiffened fabric with a crisp feel and a sheen on its surface. Taffeta was originally made of silk, but is also made of rayon, cotton, acetate, or other man-made fibers. lt is named for the Persian fabric "taftan". The rustle of silk taffeta is called scroop, and it may be a solid color, printed or woven so that the colors appear iridescent. A list of the most common types of taffeta follows. lt is used for dresses, blouses, ribbons, draperies, bedspreads, and curtains. See scroop.

tie dyeing

A form of resist dyeing. Items to be dyed are tied or knotted so that the folds of the fabric form barriers to the dye to create patterns or designs on the fabric. See dyeing and resist dyeing.

union dyeing

Dyeing different fibers in the same cloth in one shade. See dyeing.

vat dyeing

Vat dyeing refers to the type of dye rather than to the way in which the dyeing is done. This process uses an insoluble dye made soluble in its application. lt is put on the fiber and oxidized to its original insoluble form. Exeellent colorfastness to washing and sunlight.

weighted silk

Fabric in which metallic salts have been added in the dyeing and finishing to increase its weight and to give a heavier hand. A ruling requires weighted silk to be marked and the amount of weighting indicated.

yarn dyed

Yarn dyed fabrics are dyed before the finishing of the fabric. Yarn dyed fabrics are considered more colorfast than piece dyed or printed fabrics.