pillow cover

A fabric cover which is placed over the bed pillow be­fore the pillowcase. Pillow covers are designed to give more protec­tion to pillows than is provided by pillowcases alone. See pillowcase.

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loose cover

Another term for slipcover. See slipcover.[1]The gloss, sheen, or shine of a fiber, yarn, or fabric.

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recovery

The ability of a fabric to return to its original shape after being stretched. This term is used most often in reference to stretch fabrics. A quality stretch fabric will recover promptly. Recovery may also be used in reference to knit fabrics because they have varying amounts of stretchability.

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slipcover

An unattached covering for a sofa or chair. Slipcovers are made with openings so they can be removed for cleaning. They are also called loose covers.

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asbestos

A mineral fiber that is nonmetallic. Its greatest virtue is that it is nonflammable. It is used in combination with other fibers for theater curtains and in industrial clothing where flameproofing is essential. Asbestos is often used to make ironing board covers and potholders..

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baize

Loosely woven fabric, normally made of cotton or wool, which nowadays also can contain other fibers. Originally used for school bags or as covers for the doors leading to servants’ quarters in England. Baize is used for industrial purposes as well.

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Barkcloth

Originally, the term referred to a fabric found throughout the South Pacific and is made from the inner bark of certain trees. The bark is beaten into a paper-like fabric, then dyed or otherwise colored. Tapa cloth is one of the best known types of true barkcloth. Barkcloth is a term that also refers to a fabric, often cotton or rayon, with a somewhat crepe-like feel that is designed to resemble true barkcloth. This fabric is used extensively for draperies, slipcovers, and other home furnishings. See crepe and tapa cloth

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boxing

A term describing the straight strip of fabric that covers the sides of a three-dimensional round or square pillow. The boxing is joined to the rest of the cover with seams and occasionally includes a decorative trimming such as welting.

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chintz

Any closely woven, plain-weave, glazed cotton and blends of polyestercotton fabric, often printed in bright designs, which are most often floral. It is used for draperies, slipcovers, bedspreads, upholstery, and now mens’ and boys’ shirts, and ladies’ and girls’ dresses.

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cretonne

A plain-weave, carded cotton fabric, usually printed with large designs. Cretonne is unglazed, and is used for draperies, slipcovers, and other home furnishings.

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decorative fabrics

A term used to describe fabrics for upholstery, slipcovers, curtains, and draperies. These fabrics are usually of heavier weights than the fashion fabrics used in clothing. Also called decorator fabrics and home furnishing fabrics.

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frieze

A heavy pile fabric used primarily for upholstery, slipcovers, and draperies. Frieze is looped, and the loops are often sheared to varying heights to form the pattern. Originally made of cotton (and still often referred to as cotton frieze), the fabric is now usually made of mohair, wool, cotton, and blends of cotton and man-made fibers. Also called frise.

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homespun

Originally, fabrics made from yarns spun by hand. Today, homespun is used for fabrics that imitate this look. It is a very coarse, rough, plain-weave fabric, loosely woven with irregular, tightly twisted, and nubby, unevenly spun yarns. It is made from linen, wool, cotton, or man-made fiber, or blends in varied colors and is used for coats, suits, sportswear, draperies, upholstery, and slipcovers.

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kilim

Near Eastern oriental fabric woven with a shuttle or nee­dle, with no pile. Kilims are used by the Orientals as portieres, couch covers, and table covers.

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allover lace

Lace in which the pattern covers the entire fabric, rather than being isolated on one section of background net.

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lambrequin

A structure at the top and sides of a window that frames it and is usually part of the window decoration. I,ambre­quins are often covered with fabric and trimmed. They are usually made of wood and may be simply painted.

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pillow cover

A fabric cover which is placed over the bed pillow be­fore the pillowcase. Pillow covers are designed to give more protec­tion to pillows than is provided by pillowcases alone. See pillowcase.

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pillowcase

Pillowcases are washable covers for bed pillows that usually match the sheets and protect the pillow from soil. Most American pillowcases are made in a rectangular form with one open, hemmed edge. They occasionally are decorated on one of the narrower ends.

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tablecloth

Thetraditional table covering for protection and deco­ration. Tablecloths range from informal ones made, for example, of checked fabrics, to formal, such as double damask. Napkins are usu­ally rnatched to the tablecloth. See double damask and napkin.

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linters

Very short fibers that cover the cotton seeds after the I long fibers have been removed by ginning. These short, fuzzy fibers, after removal from the cotton seeds, are a source of cellulose for rayon and acetate.

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loose cover

Another term for slipcover. See slipcover.[1]The gloss, sheen, or shine of a fiber, yarn, or fabric.

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metallic

A generic name for a manufactured fiber that may be metal, metal coated with a synthetic, or a man-made fiber core covered with metal. When the metal is coated with a man-made film, the metal does not tarnish.

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mohair rug

Floor covering with mohair pile and jute back.

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muff

A tube of fur, wool, or velvet covering used to warm the hands outdoors. It is occasionally supplied as a matching accessory with an outerwear costume.

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quilt

A fabric construction, usually thinner and less resilient than a comforter, most often used as a bed covering for added warmth. It consists of a layer of printed cotton muslin fabric, known as the quitt top, and backing fabric, also made of printed or solid cotton muslin fabric, with a layer of cotton, wool, or synthetic batting between. All three layers are sewn together with fine quilting (running) stitches that usually create a design of its own. Quilted bed coverings filled with down feathers are called eiderdowns or comforters. A patchwork quitt has a patchwork quitt top. See quilting, patchwark, and batting.

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rag rug

A floor covering woven with strips of twisted rags made of cotton, wool, ür synthetic fabrics braided, crocheted, or bound and used as the filling on a cotton or synthetic yarn warp. Rag rugs are made by hand or machine, and with the exception of some handmade antique rags, usually are the most inexpensive rugs.

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ramie

A strong, lustrous, natural bast fiber from a nettle-Iike East Indian shrub, also produced in China, Egypt, and the United States. it is used for shirts, suitings, automobile seat covers, and in blends with wool for carpets,

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recovery

The ability of a fabric to return to its original shape after being stretched. This term is used most often in reference to stretch fabrics. A quality stretch fabric will recover promptly. Recovery may also be used in reference to knit fabrics because they have varying amounts of stretchability.

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drugget

A coarse, felted floor covering made from mixtures of such fibers as cotton, jute, and wool. Drugget is usually napped on one side and is a traditionally inexpensive floor covering used by institutions.

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sailcloth

Originally, a firmly woven cotton canvas used for making sails. Today, sailcloth is a very heavy, strong, plain-weave fabric made of cotton, linen, jute, nylon, or palyester. It comes in many qualities and weights. In common usage, the terms duck, sailcloth, and canvas often are used interchangeably. Sailcloth can be used for sportswear, slipcovers and upholstery, and curtains and draperies. See canvas and duck.

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sari

A piece of fabric twelve to sixteen feet long used by Hindu women to drape and cover the body. The fabric is often silk with silver or gold threads forming a border design.
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scales

Protective covering of the wool fiber.

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sculptured rug

A floor covering in which the pile is cut in different lengths to form a Jacquard design made with different heights.

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scutching

The separation of the outer covering of the flax stalk from the usable fibers.

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sequin

A shiny, usually metallic, decoration or spangle. Sequins are sewn to clothing, especially evening dresses because they shimmer and sparkle in the light. Sequins usually have a sin gle, central hole for fastening to the garment or fabric. Sequins are also known as paillettes. Fabric covered with sequins is available by the yard.

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shades

A window covering that plays a double role. Shades provide: both light control and privacy and can also lend a decorative accent. Shades range from the traditional roller blinds, available in versions that exclude light completely to those that permit some light to come in, to some with a more decorative purpose such as Austrian shades. Following is a listing of some of the popular types of shades. The term blind is a synonym for shade.

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accordion shades

Shades made of accordion pleats sharply creased at regular intervals horizontally across their width. Accordion shades take up relatively little room when drawn up to uncover the window. See pleats and accordion pleats.

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Roman shades

Shades similar to Austrian shades. When the window is exposed, the fabric of Roman shades hangs in graceful folds at the top of the window. Austrian shades are shirred throughout when they cover the window, but Roman shades hang straight and only form folds when drawn up to uncover the window.

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Venetian blinds

One of the most popular window coverings to control light and privacy. Venetian blinds are made of strips of fabric, metal, or plastic. These strips can be tipped to shut out light completely or opened to varying degrees to filter light to the desired intensity. They can also be raised to the top of the window to bare it completely. Conventional Venetians hang with the slats or strips horizontal to the windowsill, but vertical Venetians are also available and often are used as room dividers as well as window coverings. Venetians are available in various colors and widths.

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shag

A floor covering with relatively long, loose wool or man-made fibered plie.

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sheath-core yarn

A bulky yarn of synthetic fibers consisting of a core of fine denier fibers with considerable shrinkage and a cover or wrapping of coarse denier relaxed fibers.

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sheet

A rectangular piece of fabric used to cover and protect the top and sides of a mattress. This is usually referred to as a bottom sheet. A top sheet is placed on top of a bottom sheet to protect the skin from a sometimes scratchy blanket and to protect the blanket from soil. Traditionally, sheets were made of linen or cotton.
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slipcover

An unattached covering for a sofa or chair. Slipcovers are made with openings so they can be removed for cleaning. They are also called loose covers.

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soft fabrics

Fabrics that tend to drape in soft folds and to cling instead of standing away from the figure or item being covered. Soft fabrics is usually used as the opposite of crisp fabrics. Single knits usually are considered soft fabrics.

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spandex

The generic name of man-made fibers derived from a chemical substance called segmented polyurethane (resin). This man-made elastic fiber has a good deal of stretch and recovery for its weight. Spandex is used extensively in foundation garments and is much more comfortable than rubber because it is lighter in weight. Spandex is also found in some fabrics where stretch is considered desirable, such as in ski clothes. See polyurethane.

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spread

Any kind of covering. A bedspread is usually a decorative covering that covers the bianket and pillows on a bed during the day. Bedspreads are available in many styles from simple throws ar ranged casuaily over the bed to tailored box spreads. A box spread is a shaped and fitted bedspread with a tailored appearance. The corners are square, giving the spread its name. See throw.

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stencil printing

A type of resist printing where portions of the design are covered with metal or wood so the covered parts do not take the dye. See printing and resist printing.

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stretch fibers

Rubber or man-made plastik fibers (such as spandex and anidex) that are naturally elastic or man-rnade fibers, highly twisted, heat-set, and untwisted to leave a strong crimp. Polyester has a certain degree ol natural streich and more can iue given to the yarn in the processing or in the finishing of the fabric. Occasionally, polyester woven fabrics are described as stretch fabrics. Usually, stretch implies a degree of visible give in a fiber or fabric that stretches and then returns quickly to its original shape. Stretch fabrics are sometirnes described as elastic. Sec elastic, crimp, and recovery. See also spandex and anidex.

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stretch yarn

A textured yarn that has good stretch and recovery. It can also refer to yarns made of fibers that have elastic properties or to those yarns whose elastic properties are obtained by alterations of the basic fiber.

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Roman stripes

Narrow, multicolored stripes that cover an entire fabric. The colors may be as vivid as those of blazer stripes or as subtle as soft ombre shadings. See blazer stripes and ombre.

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table linen

Any fabric, regardless of fiber content, suitable for a table covering.

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tapestry

A Jaquard woven fabric in cotton, wool, or man-made fibers. Traditionally, a decorative wall hanging woven to depict a scene. The filling threads are changed in color to fit the design. On the back, shaded stripes identify this fabric. It is used extensively for wall hangings, table covers, draperies, and upholstery. Some rugs are made in tapestry weaves. The word is also used for needlepoint, but this use is generally considered incorrect. Machine-made fabrics, also called tapestry, have regular designs on the surface and a slightly looped pile. They are used for such things as coats and handbags.

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throw

Any piece of fabric such as an afghan or bedspread-that does not fit closely to the item it is covering, but instead is arranged on or over it casually. See afghan and spread.

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ticking

A broad term for extremely strong woven fabrics which are used as a covering for pillows, mattresses, and box springs, home-furnishings, and for work clothes and sports clothes. lt is a heavy, tightly woven carded cotton fabric usually in a pattern of alternately woven stripes in the warp, Jacquard or dobby designs, or printed patterns. lt is usually twill but may be sateen weave. When ticking is used in clothing, striped ticking with narrow woven stripes is usually most popular. Red and white, black and white, and navy and white are the most popular ticking color combinations.

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cording

A round decorative edging. The term is also used to describe white cord covered with bias strips of fabric to form welting or piping. See welting.

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ruffle

A piece of fabric gathered along one edge. Ruffles are narrow and are used to trim necklines, sleeves, hems, and the edges of home furnishings items such as pillows and slipcovers.

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seam binding

A flat, narrow twilled ribbon, used to cover raw edges of seams to protect them from ravelling.

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twill tape

A narrow, twill-weave ribbon, fairly heavy in weight. lt is stitched into garment areas such as collar lapels, shoulders, and facing edges for strength and to prevent stretching. lt is also used in the seams of slip covers and other home furnishing items for added strength. Twill tape is usually available only in white and black. See weaving and twill.

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welting

Welting is a decorative edging. It gives strength to the area in which it is sewn. Welting is made by covering cord with bias strips of matching or contrasting fabric. lt is a popular finish for seams on upholstery. Occasionally is used on clothing, too. Welting is the same as piping.
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twill

(1) A weave with a diagonal rib (twill line) that runs from the upper left to the lower right, or from upper right to lower left. In a twill weave, each filling thread passes over or under at least two warp threads, to a point where the filling thread goes under moving up and over by at least one thread in each row. Herringbone weave is a broken twill weave and forms ""V""s in the weave pattern. (2) A narrow ribbon, fairly heavy in weight. It is stitched into garment areas such as collar lapels, shoulders, and facing edges for strength and to prevent stretching. It is also used in the seams of slipcovers and other home furnishings items for added strength. Twill tape usually is available only in white or black.

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unbleached muslin

A cotton plain-weave printcloth fabric in grey goods and lightweight sheetings, used for ironing board covers, dust covers, and dust cloths.

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velvet rug

A floor covering woven on a plain harness loom with Cut pile. It has solid color or printed pile.

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wool rug

A wool rug is a wool floor covering made of carded yarn.

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zipper

A garment closure made of interlocking teeth attached to strips of fabric known as the zipper tape. Zippers were originally made of metal, but are now available with polyester or nylon molded teeth on a woven or knit polyester tape. Most zippers are attached to garments by stitching the zipper tape to the garment seam. Invisible zippers do not show once they are attached to the garment because the teeth of an invisible zipper are covered by the zipper tape and hidden in the seam of the garment. Zippers come in every size and color and can be used functionally or decoratively.

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