backed cloth

A double cloth that has two sets of fillings and one set of warps, or two sets of warps and one set of fillings. See double weave.

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Barkcloth

Originally, the term referred to a fabric found throughout the South Pacific and is made from the inner bark of certain trees. The bark is beaten into a paper-like fabric, then dyed or otherwise colored. Tapa cloth is one of the best known types of true barkcloth. Barkcloth is a term that also refers to a fabric, often cotton or rayon, with a somewhat crepe-like feel that is designed to resemble true barkcloth. This fabric is used extensively for draperies, slipcovers, and other home furnishings. See crepe and tapa cloth

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Bedford cloth

Bedford cloth is a strong woven fabric with lengthwise ribs. Normally used for upholstery and riding breeches and may be made of any fiber.

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blazer cloth

Fabric traditionally used for loosely fitting tailored jackets worn by men and women. The fabric was formerly made of wool with a satin weave.
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broadcloth

Although the term broadcloth originally meant any fabric made on a loom of a certain width, it now means a fine, tightly woven fabric with a faint rib. Originally, it was made of mercerized cotton, but today the term is used to describe several dissimilar fabrics made with different fibers, weaves, and finishes. (1) Originally, a silk shirting fabric so named because it was woven in widths exceeding the usual twenty-nine inches. (2) A plainweave, tightly woven, high-count cotton fabric, with fillingwise rib finer than poplin. Best grades are made of combed pima or Egyptian cotton, usually with high thread counts (136x60 or 144x76). The fabrics are usually mercerized, sanforized, and given a soft lustrous finish, and are used for women’s blouses, tailored summer dresses, and men’s shirts. (3) A closely woven, medium-weight wool cloth with a smooth nap, velvety feel, and lustrous appearance. Wool broadcloth can be made with a two-up-and-two-down twill weave or plain weave. In setting up a loom to make the fabric, the loom is threaded wide to allow for a large amount of shrinkage during the filling process. The fabric takes its name from this wide threading. High-quality wool broadcloth is fine enough for garments that are closely molded to the figure or draped. Its high-luster finish makes it an elegant cloth. Wool broadcloth is ten to sixteen ounces per yard and is now being made in chiffon weights. (4) A fabric made from silk or man-made filament fiber yarns and woven in a plain weave with a fine crosswise rib obtained by using a heavier filling than warp yarn.

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duffel cloth

A thick, heavy, napped coating fabric, usually used for duffel coats, hooded coats with wooden buttons that fasten through rope or leather thongs. Duffel cloth is traditionally tan or green, but can be any color.

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grass cloth

A plain-weave, loosely woven fabric made from such fibers as hemp, ramie, and even nettle. Today, true grass cloth is relatively rare, but the appearance of grass cloth is copied in wallpaper and fabrics of man-made fibers.

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haircloth

A stiff, wiry fabric made from a combination of natural or man-made fibers with animal hair filling, usually mohair (goat) or horsehair. It is used in upholstery and as interfacing and stiffening because of its strength.

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knit terry cloth

Terry cloth is a soft, absorbent fabric with loops on one or both sides. When this fabric is knit rather than woven, it is called knit terry. Knit terry is especially popular for bathrobes and beach wear because of its absorbency. Stretch knit terry (usually made stretchable by the addition of a synthetic elastic fiber) is popular for baby clothes because of its absorbency and comfort.

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silence cloth

A cloth put on a dining table to protect it and (as the name suggests) to prevent the clatter of dishes against the table. A silence cloth is usually a napped, fairly heavy fabric. Silence cloths are placed beneath tablecloths and are also called silencers.

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tablecloth

Thetraditional table covering for protection and deco­ration. Tablecloths range from informal ones made, for example, of checked fabrics, to formal, such as double damask. Napkins are usu­ally rnatched to the tablecloth. See double damask and napkin.

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loden cloth

A thick, heavy, napped fleecy coating fabric woven of coarse grade wool in Austria and the German Tyrol. It is similar to duffel cloth if made of wool or the occasional man-made fibers. Since the wool has some grease, it is naturally water-repellent. lt is usually a light forest green color, called loden, from which it (gets its name. Loden cloth moves in and out of fashion everywhere except in those parts of Germany and Austria where loden jackets, suits, and coats are considered basic dress. Loden cloth is sometimes gray in color. See duffel cloth.

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momie cloth

A fabric made with a weave that produces a pebbled effect, similar to crepe.

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sailcloth

Originally, a firmly woven cotton canvas used for making sails. Today, sailcloth is a very heavy, strong, plain-weave fabric made of cotton, linen, jute, nylon, or palyester. It comes in many qualities and weights. In common usage, the terms duck, sailcloth, and canvas often are used interchangeably. Sailcloth can be used for sportswear, slipcovers and upholstery, and curtains and draperies. See canvas and duck.

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shade cloth

The narne for any fabric used to make window shades.

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silk broadcloth

A soft spun-silk fabric in plain weave, used for shirts, blouses, and sports dresses.

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glass cloth

A towel used to dry drinking glasses, glass plates, and silver. lt is made from linen. Glass towels are often checked red and white and rnay have the word "Glass;" woven into the fabric."

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terry cloth

A cotton or cotton and man-made fiber fabric with a looped pile on one or both sides. lt is made into towels for drying after a bath. It may also be used for dish towels.
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tracing cloth

A nonwoven, transparent fabric used for tracing designs and especially patterns. Since tracing cloth is fabric, it can be marked and altered more easily than paper used for the same purpose.

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union cloth

A traditional name for fabric made from two or more different fibers, such as a fabric woven with a wool worsted warp and a cotton filling. The term "union cloth" was used primarily when this fabric was used for underwear, perhaps because a union suit was another name for shoulder-to-ankle, one-piece underwear. See union suit.

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waffle cloth

A fabric with a characteristic honeycomb weave. When made in cotton it is called waffle pique. It is used for coatings, draperies, dresses, and toweling.

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asbestos

A mineral fiber that is nonmetallic. Its greatest virtue is that it is nonflammable. It is used in combination with other fibers for theater curtains and in industrial clothing where flameproofing is essential. Asbestos is often used to make ironing board covers and potholders..

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backed cloth

A double cloth that has two sets of fillings and one set of warps, or two sets of warps and one set of fillings. See double weave.

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bagheera

Name for an uncut pile velvet clothing fabric with a rough surface. Extraordinary restistant. Connected to: pile, velvet

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Barkcloth

Originally, the term referred to a fabric found throughout the South Pacific and is made from the inner bark of certain trees. The bark is beaten into a paper-like fabric, then dyed or otherwise colored. Tapa cloth is one of the best known types of true barkcloth. Barkcloth is a term that also refers to a fabric, often cotton or rayon, with a somewhat crepe-like feel that is designed to resemble true barkcloth. This fabric is used extensively for draperies, slipcovers, and other home furnishings. See crepe and tapa cloth

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Bedford cloth

Bedford cloth is a strong woven fabric with lengthwise ribs. Normally used for upholstery and riding breeches and may be made of any fiber.

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Bedford cord

Bedford cord is a durable cloth with lengthwise ribs made of cotton, wool, silk, rayon, or combination fibers. Mainly used for outer garments or Sportswear.

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beetling

A finish primarily applied to linen or cotton whereby the cloth is beaten with large wooden blocks in order to produce a hard, flat surface with a sheen. lt gives a linen-like appearance to cotton.

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bias

Bias is a fabric cut diagonally across the warp and filling yarns. A true bias is cut on a 45° angle from the lower left to the upper right of a cloth.

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billiard doth

Billiard cloth is the cloth used on billiard tables. It is always dyed green. This is traditionally a very fine twilled fabric consisting of quality wool. Nowadays also other fibers are used for billiard cloth.

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bleach

A chemical that removes color from an item. Fabrics are often bleached after manufacture and before dyeing to ensure the dyed colors are “true.” Household bleach is used to disinfect clothing and remove soil from whites and colorfast colors. Chlorine bleaches are the most common household bleaches, but are too strong for some colors and fabrics.

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bonded-face fabric

The side of a bonded fabric used as the face (right side) of the cloth in a garment or other end use.

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bonding

A process of joining two or more layers of cloth with a layer of adhesive, or pressing fibers into thin webs or mats held together by adhesive, plastic, or self-bonding that melts when heat is applied.Nonwoven fabrics are made in this way. The term occasionally is used as a synonym for laminating, but this is technically incorrect

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broadcloth

Although the term broadcloth originally meant any fabric made on a loom of a certain width, it now means a fine, tightly woven fabric with a faint rib. Originally, it was made of mercerized cotton, but today the term is used to describe several dissimilar fabrics made with different fibers, weaves, and finishes. (1) Originally, a silk shirting fabric so named because it was woven in widths exceeding the usual twenty-nine inches. (2) A plainweave, tightly woven, high-count cotton fabric, with fillingwise rib finer than poplin. Best grades are made of combed pima or Egyptian cotton, usually with high thread counts (136x60 or 144x76). The fabrics are usually mercerized, sanforized, and given a soft lustrous finish, and are used for women’s blouses, tailored summer dresses, and men’s shirts. (3) A closely woven, medium-weight wool cloth with a smooth nap, velvety feel, and lustrous appearance. Wool broadcloth can be made with a two-up-and-two-down twill weave or plain weave. In setting up a loom to make the fabric, the loom is threaded wide to allow for a large amount of shrinkage during the filling process. The fabric takes its name from this wide threading. High-quality wool broadcloth is fine enough for garments that are closely molded to the figure or draped. Its high-luster finish makes it an elegant cloth. Wool broadcloth is ten to sixteen ounces per yard and is now being made in chiffon weights. (4) A fabric made from silk or man-made filament fiber yarns and woven in a plain weave with a fine crosswise rib obtained by using a heavier filling than warp yarn.

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brocatelle

Brocatelle is a fabric similar to brocade but made of a Jacquard loom. It is used as drapery and upholstery fabric and made in double-cloth construction with a silk- or rayon-fibered face.

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calendering

Calendering is a term for the finishing process for fabrics that produces a shiny and smooth surface. The cloth is passed through recessed and heated cylinder rolls by running it through a friction or glazing calender.

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calico

A smooth-surfaced, plain weave cloth. Today, the term is almost always applied to fabric with bright, sharply contrasting, usually small-print designs. Calico is usually woven, although calico prints may appear on knits. Calico is a traditionally popular fabric for patchwork. It is also used for dresses, sportswear, and aprons.

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canvas

A heavy, strong, usually plain weave fabric that historically was made of flax, hemp, or cotton. Today, it is usually made of cotton, but some fabrics made of man-made fibers or blends are also called canvas. Canvas is, roughly speaking, heavier than duck or sailcloth although the three names are often used interchangeably. The unbleached fabric is used for coat fronts, lapels, and linings of men’s suits. Hair canvas for interlinings is made of goat’s hair and wool. See duck and sailcloth.

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cashmere

Cashmere is the fine and soft undercoat hair of the cashmere goat which exists in Iran, India, Tibet, Mongolia, China and Iraq. Cashmere is one of the luxury fibers and today is usually blended with normal sheep’s wool or man-made fibers to reduce the cost. Another reason for the widespread blending is the fact that it makes the finished fabric more durable for original cashmere fabrics are quite sensible. It is mainly used for clothing.

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chambray

(1) A plain-woven fabric with an almost square count (80x76), a colored warp, and a white filling, that gives a mottled, colored surface. The fabric is named for Cambrai, France, where it was first made for sunbonnets. Although chambray is traditionally woven, the look itself is so popular it is imitated in knitting. It is similar in appearance to denim but much lighter in weight. It is used for women’s and children’s summer dresses and men’s shirts. (2) A cotton print cloth made of yarn-dyed yarns that can also be woven in patterns and woven in stripes. (3) A similar but carded-yarn fabric used for work clothes and children’s play clothes. See denim.

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chamois

Soft, pliable leather from the skin of the chamois goat, although other animal skins may be substituted. It is used for gloves and as a cloth for washing autos. Chamois cloth is woven to imitate the leather, usually has a slightly napped surface, and is usually yellow, as is the goat skin. It is also used in clothing.

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damask

A glossy, heavy, firm-textured Jacquard weave fabric, similar to brocade, but lighter, with flat and reversible patterns. It is made of silk, linen, cotton, rayon or a combination of fibers in double or single damask. It is used for tablecloths, napkins, home furnishings, draperies and upholsteries, and occasionally clothing, such as afternoon and evening dresses.

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decorative fabrics

A term used to describe fabrics for upholstery, slipcovers, curtains, and draperies. These fabrics are usually of heavier weights than the fashion fabrics used in clothing. Also called decorator fabrics and home furnishing fabrics.

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double damask

A rich traditional tablecloth, made in a heavier weight than ordinary damask.

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double face

A double cloth which can be used on either side. Also used to describe any fabric with two right sides.

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duchesse satin

One of the heaviest and richest looking satins. It is important for such formal clothing as wedding gowns.

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duffel cloth

A thick, heavy, napped coating fabric, usually used for duffel coats, hooded coats with wooden buttons that fasten through rope or leather thongs. Duffel cloth is traditionally tan or green, but can be any color.

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fabric softeners

Chemical solutions added to the final rinse to improve the hand of terry cloths and infants’ fabrics.

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flax

Fibers of the flax plant that are spun into linen yarns and woven into linen cloth. The word linen is derived from “linum,” part of the scientific name for the flax plant. See linen.

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fluorescent fabric

A fabric that glows with a more vivid color than usual under daylight, headIights, and ultra-violet light. Fluorescent fabrics are important, especially in colors such as orange, where high visibility is essential for safety in hunting clothes, clothes for crossing guards, and outfits for school children. Occasionally, fluorescent fabrics become fashionable for other items of clothing.

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grass cloth

A plain-weave, loosely woven fabric made from such fibers as hemp, ramie, and even nettle. Today, true grass cloth is relatively rare, but the appearance of grass cloth is copied in wallpaper and fabrics of man-made fibers.

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haute couture

The business of designing, making, and selling high fashion, custom-made clothing.

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interlock

A fine gauge, compound knit fabric with a smooth surface on both front and back, composed of two separate 1 x 1 rib fabrics interknitted to form one cloth, made on an inter­lock machine. The fabric was traditionally used for underwear, but today is being used for apparel. Despite the name of the fabric, poorly made interlock develops runs at the edges and all interlock knits should be reinforced or finished in some way at these edges.

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jean

In theory, a sturdy, solid-colored or striped twill-weave cot­ton fabric, softer and finer than denim and drill. In practice, the term denim is almost always used for the fabric, whereas the term jeans is used for pants made of denim. Jean is used for sport blouses, work shirts, women’s and girl’s pants and shorts, and children’s overalls and playclothes.

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jersey

A single knit fabric with plain stitches on the right side and purl stitches on the back. A weft-knitted rayon, acetate, or two-bar tricot-knitted rayon or acetate used for slips, gowns, and blouses. Jersey is also made of wool, cotton, silk, nylon, or blends of the newer synthetics. As an elastic knitted wool fabric, usually in stockinette stitch, jersey was first made on the Island of Jersey off the English coast and used for fisherman’s clothing. [t is also used for blouses, dresses, and basque shirts. The word jersey is also occasionally used as a synonym for any knit. See knitting, single knit, and purl knit.

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khaki

A term used for both an earth color or olive green color (yellow-brown color with a greenish tint) and for fabrics made in these colors, whether of wool, cotton, linen, or man-made fibers. Khaki is a classic uniform color and material. It is also used for sportswear and leisure clothes.

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knit terry cloth

Terry cloth is a soft, absorbent fabric with loops on one or both sides. When this fabric is knit rather than woven, it is called knit terry. Knit terry is especially popular for bathrobes and beach wear because of its absorbency. Stretch knit terry (usually made stretchable by the addition of a synthetic elastic fiber) is popular for baby clothes because of its absorbency and comfort.

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lace

A decorated openwork fabric created by looping, interlacing, braid­ing, or twisting threads. [t is made (either on a background fabric of net or without a background fabric) with a design formed by a net work of threads made by hand or on special lace machines, with bobbins, needles, or hooks. The pattern in lace is usually open and most often floral in design. Machine-made lace is most commonly seen today and many patterns formerly only made by hand, are imi­tated by machine. hace is the traditional bridal fabric, but it is also used for other nonformal clothing such as sports clothes. The fol­lowing entries are some of the major types of lace.

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lappet

An ornamental embroidery effect woven into a cloth by a series of needles. The design, often in zigzag effect, is not clipped.

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leather

The hide of an animal with the fur removed_ lt has been used throughout history for clothing and other purposes. Today, man­made fabrics that imitate leather are widely available. Common leather names include alligator, buckskin, calfskin, chamois, cor­dovan, cowhide, crocodile, doeskin, grain leather, kid, lambskin, mo­rocco, nappa, patent, peccary, pigskin, pin seal, reptile, reversed leather, Russian, shearling, skiver, snakeskin, and suede.

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handkerchief linen

A fine, sheer linen used for handkerchiefs, dresses or blouses, or whenever a lightweight cloth is desired.

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linen tester

A magnifying glass for counting cloth, also called pick glass or pick counter.

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antimacassar

A piece of cloth originally pinned to the back of a chair to protect the upholstery from hair oil (macassar). Today, although antimacassars are still available, changes in hair grooming and the development of fairly easy-to-clean uphol­stery fabrics have made their purpose primarily decorative.

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napkin

A rectangular piece of fabric or paper used to wipe the mouth and hands in the course of eating. Napkins are often matched to the tablecloth or placernats.

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placemat

A piece of cloth or other material (often foam-backed plastic) placed on a table between the table and the place setting to protect the table and to decorate it during meals. Placemats are available in a variety of sizes, shapes, and colors.

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silence cloth

A cloth put on a dining table to protect it and (as the name suggests) to prevent the clatter of dishes against the table. A silence cloth is usually a napped, fairly heavy fabric. Silence cloths are placed beneath tablecloths and are also called silencers.

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silencer

Another name for silence cloth. See silence cloth and table pad.

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tablecloth

Thetraditional table covering for protection and deco­ration. Tablecloths range from informal ones made, for example, of checked fabrics, to formal, such as double damask. Napkins are usu­ally rnatched to the tablecloth. See double damask and napkin.

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lingerie crepe

Pormerly called French crepe because it was originally made in France. The creped surface was made by embossing (pressing cloth over a fleece blanket). Because it is no longer pressed, it is not a crepe and it is used for lingerie and spring and summer dresses.

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loden cloth

A thick, heavy, napped fleecy coating fabric woven of coarse grade wool in Austria and the German Tyrol. It is similar to duffel cloth if made of wool or the occasional man-made fibers. Since the wool has some grease, it is naturally water-repellent. lt is usually a light forest green color, called loden, from which it (gets its name. Loden cloth moves in and out of fashion everywhere except in those parts of Germany and Austria where loden jackets, suits, and coats are considered basic dress. Loden cloth is sometimes gray in color. See duffel cloth.

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longdoth

A fine, soft, cotton cloth woven of softly twisted yarns. It is simi­lar to nainsook but slightly heavier, with a duller surface. Longcloth is so called because it was one of the first fabrics to be woven in Iong rolls. lt is also a synonym for muslin sheeting af gaod quality. The fabric is used for underwear and linings. See nainsook and muslin sheeting.

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loom

A machine for weaving cloth. It is aperated either by hand or by machine.

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loom-figured fabrics

Fabrics that have the design or pattern woven or knitted in as opposed to those which, for instance, have patterns printed on finished cloth.

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melton

Melton, usually called melton cloth, is a thick, heavily felted or fulled wool fabric in a twill or satin weave, with clipped surface nap, felt-like in feeling, and lustrous, similar to a dull broad cloth. The close weave means that the fabric appears to be com­pletely smooth. Melton was originally made of all wool or cotton and wool, but today is made of other fibers. It is used extensively for coats and also for uniforms. See nap.

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merchandise beam

It is synonymous with cloth beam.

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monogram

Initials of a name combined in a single design and used on clothing, ornaments, stationery, and the like.

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ready-to-wear

A term used in the fashion industry. It was developed to distinguish between manufactured items of clothing and those made from fabrics sold by the yard to the consumer. The term is sometimes shortened to r-t-w. See pret ä porter.

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reversible fabric

A fabric that can be used on either side. Generally, the term reversible is applied to two quite different fabrics joined together by such methods as laminating or double cloth construction. Reversible fahrics frequentiy are used for coats, less frequently for other garments. See laminating and double cloth.

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rhinestone

A faceted pie of glass (the glass is cut with faces that reflect light). Rhinestones are used in costume jewelry or as decoration on clothing or trimming. Rhinestones are also ealled diamante,

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sailcloth

Originally, a firmly woven cotton canvas used for making sails. Today, sailcloth is a very heavy, strong, plain-weave fabric made of cotton, linen, jute, nylon, or palyester. It comes in many qualities and weights. In common usage, the terms duck, sailcloth, and canvas often are used interchangeably. Sailcloth can be used for sportswear, slipcovers and upholstery, and curtains and draperies. See canvas and duck.

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crepe-backed satin

Creped-backed satin can be used on either side. While the surface is satin, the back is crepe. It is mainly used for the production of clothing. Connected to: crepe and satin crepe.

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duchesse satin

One of the heaviest and richest looking satins. It is important for such formal clothing as wedding gowns.

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scallops

Decorative semicircular curves usually used as edge trimming. They are popular clothing accents and offen are used on cafe curtains. See curtains and draperies and cafe curtains.

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self-belt

A belt made of the same fabric as the clothing with which it is worn. It may simply be a sash or a stiff belt with a buckle.

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sequin

A shiny, usually metallic, decoration or spangle. Sequins are sewn to clothing, especially evening dresses because they shimmer and sparkle in the light. Sequins usually have a sin gle, central hole for fastening to the garment or fabric. Sequins are also known as paillettes. Fabric covered with sequins is available by the yard.

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shawl

A triangular or oblong piece of cloth worn around the shoulders.
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shirring

A method of gathering fabric to create decorative fullness. Shirring consists of three or more parallel rows of stitching, placed about 1/4'' to 1'' apart, and drawn up (gathered) together to form bands of controlled gathers. Shirring is used in clothing and in items of home furnishings.

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shirting

Any lightweight fabric appropriate for shirts or blouses. The term top-weight (its opposite is bottom-weight) is often om-weight) is often used for this type of fabric instead of the word shirting. Some crepes and satins, as well as voile and Oxford cloth, are examples of shirting fabrics although there are many others.

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silk

The product of the silk worm and the only natural filament fiber (it is produced in a long thread). Silk was the leading luxury fiber for thousands of years. There were many types of silk and many ways of making it into cloth. foday, man-made fibers have to a very large extent replaced silk, but the traditional names for certain silk fabrics are still used and include the following:

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singeing

Removing surface fibers and lint from a cloth with hot copper plates or gas flames.

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ski wear

Clothing suitable to wear while skiing, such as warm, waterproof pants, jackets, and so forth.

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spaghetti straps

Very narrow, tubular cloth straps.

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spandex

The generic name of man-made fibers derived from a chemical substance called segmented polyurethane (resin). This man-made elastic fiber has a good deal of stretch and recovery for its weight. Spandex is used extensively in foundation garments and is much more comfortable than rubber because it is lighter in weight. Spandex is also found in some fabrics where stretch is considered desirable, such as in ski clothes. See polyurethane.

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sportswear

Clothing worn for active or spectator sports or recreational activities.

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staple fabrics

Those cloths which, over a period of years, have a steady sale or demand. Such cloths as muslins, flannels, broadcloth, shanttung, and taffeta are staples that have to be kept in stock.

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stitchery

The contemporary approach to traditional embroidery in which the same basic stitches are used, but in a freer, less restricted manner to create their own form and shapes. The yarns used in stitchery go beyond traditional wool and silk embroidery floss. Anything can be used to make the stitches from ribbon and cord to narrow strips of fabric or even fishline. Stitchery may be used to decorate clothing, home furnishings items, and for wall hangings. Sec embroidery.

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structured apparel

Clothing designs that give a garment shape even when not being worn. For example, a jacket that has padding, lining, binding, and a fitted waist.

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stuff

Another name for fabric. Any braided, felted, woven, knitted, or nonwoven material, including cloth, hosiery, and lace. Stuff is also referred to as cloth, material, and goods.

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suede fabric

A woven or knitted fabric of cotton, man-made fibers, wool, or blends, finished to resemble suede leather. It is used in sport coats, gloves, linings, and cleaning cloths.

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paper taffeta

A lightweight, crisp taffeta used for evening clothes.

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tapa doth

A papery cloth made by pounding and flattening the inner bark of certain trees found in the Pacific Islands. It is often used in America for decorative wall hangings. See bark cloth.

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tarnish-resistant fabric

A fabric used for wrapping silver to keep it from becoming darkened by atmospheric pollution. The cloth itself is made to absorb sulfur from the atmosphere, a major cause of tarnish.

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thermal woven

A porous cloth so constructed that air warmed by the body is trapped between the yarns. First used in underwear, it is now used for blankets and the reverse sides of comforters.

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ticking

A broad term for extremely strong woven fabrics which are used as a covering for pillows, mattresses, and box springs, home-furnishings, and for work clothes and sports clothes. lt is a heavy, tightly woven carded cotton fabric usually in a pattern of alternately woven stripes in the warp, Jacquard or dobby designs, or printed patterns. lt is usually twill but may be sateen weave. When ticking is used in clothing, striped ticking with narrow woven stripes is usually most popular. Red and white, black and white, and navy and white are the most popular ticking color combinations.

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toile

The French word for cloth. Toile is also a woven fabric that has been printed, usually in one color only, with a scenic design. This is occasionally called turle de Jouy. lt is most commonly found in home furnishings fabrics. Toile is also used in the field of expensive designer clothing where the word is used to describe a fabric pattern for a garment.

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dish towel

One of the few textile products which is still made of linen (occasionally they are made of cotton or even paper). Dish towels are used for hand-drying dishes after washing. Many linen dish towels are made in Ireland and printed with colorful pictures. llish towels can also be made of terry cloth and huck toweling. See terry cloth and huck.

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velour

A knit or woven fabric with a thick, short pile. Every velour cloth has cut loops to produce the velour effect. [t also has a rich look, but is not as effective in drying as conventional terry cloth. lt may also be spelled velours.

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tracing cloth

A nonwoven, transparent fabric used for tracing designs and especially patterns. Since tracing cloth is fabric, it can be marked and altered more easily than paper used for the same purpose.

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trimming

Anything used to decorate clothing or home furnishings.

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festoon

A decorative cord accented by tassels. lt forms a decoration for the edge of such items as table cloths.

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frog

A decorative fastening for clothing consisting of twisted cord wound into a design that looks like three petals joined to a similar design on the opposite edge of an opening with a loop of the cord.

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welting

Welting is a decorative edging. It gives strength to the area in which it is sewn. Welting is made by covering cord with bias strips of matching or contrasting fabric. lt is a popular finish for seams on upholstery. Occasionally is used on clothing, too. Welting is the same as piping.
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tufted fabric

"A fabric ornamented with soft, fluffy, slackly twisted ply yarns (usually cotton). Most tufts are inserted by needles into a woven fabric, such as unbleached muslin, textured cotton, and rayon plain-weave cloth. When tufts are spaced (as coin dots), a bedspread is called candlewick
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unbleached muslin

A cotton plain-weave printcloth fabric in grey goods and lightweight sheetings, used for ironing board covers, dust covers, and dust cloths.

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union cloth

A traditional name for fabric made from two or more different fibers, such as a fabric woven with a wool worsted warp and a cotton filling. The term "union cloth" was used primarily when this fabric was used for underwear, perhaps because a union suit was another name for shoulder-to-ankle, one-piece underwear. See union suit.

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union dyeing

Dyeing different fibers in the same cloth in one shade. See dyeing.

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Velcro

A burr-like fastening device with one side made of a velvet-like material and the other of small stiff hooks. This fastening can be used for clothing and home furnishing items.
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velvet

Velvet is a fabric with a short and closely woven nap. The production of velvet varies between two methods. One uses a double-cloth construction in which two shifts of fabric are woven with long threads joining them together. After the double fabric is woven, the center threads are cut, producing two pieces of velvet. The second method of producing velvet uses wires. During the weaving the yarn is lifted over the wires to form the pile. After removing the wires the yarn is cut to form the velvet surface. While velvet was originally made of silk, today many other fibers are used to manufacure velvet (e.g. rayon or nylon).

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voile

A sheer, transparent, low-count, crisp or soft, lightweight, plain-weave muslin with a thready feel, made of highly twisted yarns. lt can be comprised of wool, cotton, silk, rayon, polyester, or other man-made fibers. Voile is especially popular when made of cotton or blends for summer wear and is often printed to match heavier fabrics. Voile is used for clothing, especially for blouses and summer dresses, and for curtains and similar items.

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whipcord

An extremely strong, twill-weave worsted fabric made in fairly heavy weights of cotton, wool worsted, and fabrics of man-made fibers and blends. It is similar to gabardine, but heavier and with a more pronounced diagonal rib on the right side. lt is so named because it simulates tlre lash of a whip. Cotton whipcotds are often four-harness warp-twill weaves. lt is used for draperies and upholstery, uniforms, riding clothes, and other wearing apparel where a strong fabric is required. See twill under entry for weaving.

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white-on-white

A fabric in any fiber mixture or blend that has a white woven-in design on a white background. Usually, it is a fabric with a white dobby or Jacquard design on a white ground, common in madras, broadcloth, or nylon. See madras.

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wool

The term used for the fleece of lambs and sheep, but also applies to similar fibers from such animals as the angora and cashmere goats, the llama, and other animals used for clothing. lt is un like carpet wool, which is much coarser and unsuitable for clothing. Wool refers to fleece wool used for the first time in the complete manufacture of a wool product. Wool differs from hair and fur in that it has a natural felting ability. See felt, woolen, and worsted.

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